Urban Air Toxics by fuw70346

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 51

									Urban Air Toxics
The UAT Monitoring Network




       Urban Sites         Rural Site
  Asheville                 Candor
  Charlotte
  Winston-Salem
  Raleigh
  Research Triangle Park
  Wilmington
Monitoring Sites
Site History
                                           Year     Monitoring      Total
         Monitoring Site
                                          Started   Capabilities   Samples

   Asheville                               2002        VOCs          149


   Charlotte Garinger                      2002        VOCs          172


   Winston-Salem Hattie Avenue             2002        VOCs          158

                                                       VOCs          84
   Rearch Triangle Park                    2004
                                                     Carbonyls       36

                                                       VOCs          46
   Raleigh Millbrook                       2004
                                                      SVOCs          21

   Wilmington Battleship                   2004        VOCs          46

                                                       VOCs          150
   Candor                                  2002      Carbonyls        56
                                                      SVOCs           21
   Total Samples Completed through 2005
Monitoring Site Information
            Monitoring                                                                 Air Monitoring
                                       Address             Location       Elevation                       AQS No.
               Site                                                                     Capabilities

Asheville                       340 Victoria Road         N 35º 34' 20"               VOCs, Carbonyls,
                                                                           2114 ft                       37-021-0035
A-B Tech Community College      Asheville, NC             W 82º 33' 31"               Met

Durham                          EPA Campus                N 35º 53' 34"               VOCs, Carbonyls,
                                                                           279 ft                        37-063-0014
RTP                             RTP, NC                   W 78º 52' 36"               Met

Winston-Salem                   Hattie Avenue             N 36º 6' 39"
                                                                           929 ft     VOCs, Met          37-067-0022
Hattie Avenue                   Winston-Salem, NC         W80º 13' 37"

Charlotte                       Garinger High School      N 35º 14' 24"
                                                                           755 ft     VOCs, Met          37-119-0041
Garinger High School            Charlotte, NC             W 80º 47' 08"

                                112 Perry Drive           N 35º 15' 45"               VOCs, Carbonyls,
Candor                                                                     576 ft                        37-123-0001
                                Candor, NC                W 79º 50' 9"                SVOCs, Met

Wilmington                      Battleship Drive          N34º 14' 08"                VOCs, Carbonyls,
                                                                            3 ft                         37-129-0010
Battleship USS North Carolina   Wilmington, NC            W77º 57' 21"                Met

Raleigh                         Millbrook Middle School   N 35º 51' 22"               VOCs, Carbonyls,
                                                                           302 ft                        37-183-0014
Millbrook Middle School         Raleigh, NC               W 78º 34' 27"               SVOCs, Met



 The Following Sites are Operated by:
                 The Asheville Site: The Western NC Regional Air Quality Agency
                 The Charlotte Site: The Mecklenburg County, Land Use and Environmental Services Agency
                 The Winston-Salem Site: The Forsyth County Environmental Affairs Department
Asheville Site
Charlotte Garinger Site
Winston-Salem Hattie Avenue Site
Research Triangle Park
Raleigh Millbrook Site
Wilmington Battleship Site
Candor Site
Monitoring Methods
EPA Toxic Organic (TO) Methods
  Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
                        EPA Method TO-15   (69 Analytes)
        Sample collected into pressurized SUMMA canister
        GC/MS with cryogenic preconcentration


  Carbonyls (aldehydes/ketones)
                        EPA Method TO-11a (12 Analytes)
        Sample collected on a DNPH coated silica cartridge
        HPLC/UV of DNPH Derivatives

  Semi Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs)
                        EPA Method TO-13a (33 Analytes)
        Sample collected on a polyurethane foam cartridge
        GC/MS of concentrated extract

  DNPH = Dinitrophenylhydrozene
Limits of Detection
  VOCs TO-15
        Lower Quantitation Level = 0.2 ppb

        Method Detection Level = 0.1 ppb


  Carbonyls TO-11a
        Method Detection Levels:
               Formaldehyde/Acetaldehyde = 10 ppt
               Other aldehyde/ketones = 5 ppt


  SVOCs TO-13a
        Lower Quantitation Level = 10 pg/m3
        Method Detection Level = 20 pg/m3
Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons are derived mostly from petroleum sources
and are the major components of fossil fuels, and petroleum
products as well as plastics, waxes and oils.
In urban environments, hydrocarbons (along with nitrogen
oxides (NOx) and sunlight) contribute to ozone production.


      •Benzene                 •Ethylbenzene
      •1,3-Butadiene           •Styrene
      •Toluene                 •Xylenes
Halogenated VOCs
Volatile organic compounds that contain halogens such as
chlorine, bromine, fluorine.
        Industrial solvent.
        Persistent in the atmosphere.
        Resist photochemical breakdown.
        Chronic health effects.
        Contribute to ozone formation.

   •Carbon Tetrachloride           •Vinyl Chloride
   •Tetrachloroethylene            •Freons
Polar Compounds
  Polar compounds are oxygenated compounds
  such as ethers, ketones, and alcohols.
  Many of these compounds are used as gasoline
  additives so that emissions may be characteristic
  of those from mobile sources.

             •MTBE           •MEK

             •MIBK           •Ethanol
Carbonyl Compounds
Organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen and at least one carbon-oxygen double bond.

  Factors that effect may airborne concentrations:
  1. Combustion sources, motor vehicles, industrial processes and
     some natural sources that emit compounds directly into the air.
  2. Photochemical reactions that form carbonyl compounds in the air,
     typically from airborne hydrocarbons.
  3. Photochemical reactions that consume carbonyls from the air,
     generally by photolysis or by reaction with hydroxyl radicals.



      •Formaldehyde                 •Acetaldehyde
Semivolatiles (SVOC)
Semivolatile: A substance that evaporates slowly at standard
temperature and pressure (20°C & 1 atm).



  •Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
  •Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
  •Polychlorinated Pesticides
HAPs, TAPs, and Core Compounds

  HAP: Hazardous Air Pollutant (EPA)
  TAP: Toxic Air Pollutant (NCDAQ)
  Core Compound: A HAP or TAP that presents
   a high health risk due to long term exposure
   (i.e. 70 years) in an urban environment.
   Typically a carcinogen or chronic toxicant.
Risk Assessment
 URE: The Unit Risk Estimate is the upper-bound excess
 lifetime cancer risk estimated to result from continuous
 exposure to an agent at a concentration of 1 µg/m3 in air.


 RfC: Reference Concentration (non-cancer) is an estimate
 of a concentration in air to which a human population
 might be exposed that is likely to be without appreciable
 risks of deleterious effects during a lifetime (assumed to
 be 70 years).


 Source: EPA
UAT Monitoring Results
UAT Core Compounds
                         with detectable results
   •Acetaldehyde
   •Benzene
   •1,3-Butadiene
   •Carbon Tetrachloride
   •Formaldehyde
   •Methylene Chloride
   •Trichloroethylene
UAT Core Compounds
                          that were not detected

   •Chloroform
   •1,3-Dichloropropene (cis & trans)
   •Ethylene Dibromide
   •Ethylene Dichloride
   •Propylene Dichloride
   •Tetrachloroethylene
   •1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
   •Vinyl Chloride
HAPs and TAPs
                   with detectable results

  •Benzyl Chloride              •Propionaldehyde
  •Carbon Disulfide             •Styrene
  •Ethyl Acetate                •Toluene
  •Ethylbenzene                 • Xylenes
  •Freons 11, 12, & 113
  •Hexane
HAPs and TAPs
                 that were not detected
   •Bromoform              •MIBK
   •Chlorobenzene          •MTBE
   •p-Dichlorobenzene      •Vinylidene Chloride
   •Ethlylidene Chloride   •Vinyl Acetate
   •Methyl Bromide         •Vinyl Trichloride
   •Methyl Chloroform
Other Compounds of Interest
                    with detectable results

   •Acetone           •p-Ethyltoluene
   •Benzaldehyde      •Heptane
   •Butyraldehyde     •Isopropanol
   •Cyclohexane       •Methyl Ethyl Ketone
   •Ethanol
Other Compounds of Interest
                          that were not detected

•Crotonaldehyde                  •Hexaldehyde
•Cyclohexane                     •Isovaleraldehyde
•Dibromochloromethane            •Methyl Butyl Ketone
•Dichloroethenes (cis & trans)   •Valeraldehyde
•Dichlorobenzenes                •Tetrahydrofuran
•2,5-Dimethylbenzaldehyde        •Tolualdehydes
•Freon 114
UAT Core Compounds:
                                       Average of All Years

                 1.400




                 1.200




                 1.000
  Conc. (ppbv)




                 0.800




                 0.600




                 0.400




                 0.200
                 MDL

                 0.000
                         Benzene   Carbon tetrachloride   1,3-Butadiene        Acetaldehyde        Trichloroethylene    Methylene chloride   Formaldehyde

                                                  Asheville   Garinger    Hattie Ave   Millbrook   RTP   Battleship    Candor
   Benzene: Raw Data
                      2.0


                      1.8


                      1.6


                      1.4
Concentration (ppb)




                      1.2


                      1.0


                      0.8


                      0.6


                      0.4


                      0.2


                      0.0
                       7/1/2003   10/1/2003   1/1/2004    4/1/2004   7/1/2004   10/1/2004   1/1/2005     4/1/2005      7/1/2005    10/1/2005
                                              Asheville   Garinger   Winston Salem    RTP    Millbrook    Wilmington      Candor
   Benzene: 3-Month Averages
                      •1.0




                      •0.8




                      •0.6
Concentration (ppb)




                      •0.4




                      •0.2


                      MDL
                      URE
                      •0.0
                        •7/1/03   •10/1/03   •1/1/04      •4/1/04       •7/1/04      •10/1/04      •1/1/05       •4/1/05       •7/1/05     •10/1/05

                                                       •Asheville   •Garinger     •Winston Salem   •RTP      •Millbrook    •Wilmington   •Candor




                      15 Point Rolling Averages
Benzene: 2004 National Program
   Toluene: Raw Data
                      •3.5




                      •3.0




                      •2.5




                      •2.0
Concentration (ppb)




                      •1.5




                      •1.0




                      •0.5




                      •0.0
                        •7/1/03   •10/1/03   •1/1/04    •4/1/04      •7/1/04    •10/1/04    •1/1/05      •4/1/05       •7/1/05    •10/1/05

                                                       •Asheville   •Garinger   •Winston Salem    •RTP    •Millbrook    •Wilmington    •Candor
Toluene: 3-Month Averages
                        •1.4




                        •1.2




                        •1.0




                        •0.8
Concentration (ppb)




                        •0.6




                        •0.4




                        •0.2
                        MDL


                        •0.0
                         •7/1/2003   •10/1/2003   •1/1/2004   •4/1/2004    •7/1/2004   •10/1/2004   •1/1/2005   •4/1/2005   •7/1/2005   •10/1/2005

                                         •Asheville     •Garinger         •Winston Salem      •RTP       •Millbrook     •Wilmington      •Candor

                      15 Point Rolling Average
Hexane: 3-Month Averages
                       •0.45



                       •0.40



                       •0.35



                       •0.30
Concentration (ppb)




                       •0.25



                       •0.20



                       •0.15



                       •0.10


                               MDL
                       •0.05



                       •0.00
                          •7/1/04    •10/1/04            •1/1/05                •4/1/05            •7/1/05                 •10/1/05

                                     •Asheville   •Garinger        •Winston Salem     •RTP   •Millbrook      •Wilmington      •Candor



                      15 Point Rolling Averages
   Freon 12: 3-Month Averages
                       •1.0




                       •0.8




                       •0.6
Concentration (ppb)




                       •0.4




                       •0.2


                       MDL


                       •0.0
                        •1/1/2004   •4/1/2004   •7/1/2004           •10/1/2004       •1/1/2005        •4/1/2005                •7/1/2005        •10/1/2005

                                                            •Asheville   •Garinger   •Winston-Salem   •RTP        •Millbrook      •Wilmington   •Candor




                      15 Point Rolling Averages
Carbon Tetrachloride 3-Month Averages
                      •0.4




                      •0.3
Concentration (ppb)




                      •0.2




                      •0.1
                      MDL




                      URE
                      •0.0
                        •1/1/04   •4/1/04   •7/1/04            •10/1/04          •1/1/05         •4/1/05                •7/1/05          •10/1/05

                                                      •Asheville    •Garinger   •Winston Salem   •RTP      •Millbrook     •Wilmington   •Candor




   15 Point Rolling Averages
Carbon Tetrachloride: 2004 National Program
   Formaldehyde: Raw Data
                      10.0



                       9.0



                       8.0



                       7.0
Concentration (ppb)




                       6.0



                       5.0



                       4.0



                       3.0



                       2.0



                       1.0



                       0.0
                       7/1/2004   10/1/2004   1/1/2005    4/1/2005         7/1/2005   10/1/2005


                                                         Candor      RTP
Formaldehyde: 2004 National Program




      Candor                RTP
Semivolatiles

                                   Naphthalene


         14.0

         12.0

         10.0
                MDL
          8.0
 pg/m3




          6.0

          4.0

          2.0

          0.0
                      1st Qtr   2nd Qtr                    3rd Qtr   4th Qtr


                                          Candor   Millbrook
Semivolatiles

                                  Phenanthrene


         18.0

         16.0

         14.0

         12.0
 pg/m3




         10.0
                MDL
          8.0

          6.0

          4.0

          2.0

          0.0
                      1st Qtr   2nd Qtr                    3rd Qtr   4th Qtr


                                          Candor   Millbrook
     VOC Annual Summaries: Asheville
Asheville                          2002                        2003                        2004                       2005
                            29 Total Samples            24 Total Samples            47 Total Samples           49 Total Samples
                          Mean      Std     Percent   Mean      Std     Percent   Mean      Std    Percent   Mean      Std    Percent
        Chemical
                          (ppbv)    Dev     Detects   (ppbv)    Dev     Detects   (ppbv)    Dev    Detects   (ppbv)    Dev    Detects
Freon 12                  0.620    0.233      100%    0.532    0.102      100%    0.627    0.118      89%    0.568    0.104   98%
Methyl chloride                Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed          0.373    0.324   59%
1,3-Butadiene                  Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed           0.226    0.235      44%    0.099    0.324    8%
Chloroethane                   Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed          0.318    0.327   47%
Ethanol                        Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed          8.057    7.703   73%
Freon 11                  0.243    0.101      97%     0.228    0.029      100%    0.269    0.078      91%    0.635    2.793   92%
Acetone                        Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed          3.210    2.072   90%
Isopropyl Alcohol              Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed          0.091    0.169    8%
Methylene chloride        0.086    0.040      59%     0.157    0.076      79%     0.129    0.097      72%    0.109    0.073   57%
Freon 113                 0.052    0.005      21%     0.055    0.011      29%     0.082    0.031      74%    0.080    0.033   63%
Carbon Disulfide               Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed           0.272    0.368      83%    0.063    0.040   18%
Methyl Ethyl Ketone            Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed          0.155    0.311   12%
Hexane                         Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed           0.139    0.111      83%    0.169    0.150   76%
Ethyl Acetate                  Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed          0.159    0.273   27%
Benzene                   0.301    0.239      97%     0.395    0.192      100%    0.335    0.142      100%   0.359    0.189   100%
Carbon tetrachloride      0.086    0.033      76%     0.080    0.010      96%     0.098    0.042      74%    0.098    0.076   88%
Trichloroethylene         0.050     -----      nd     0.050     -----      nd     0.069    0.060      47%    0.094    0.049   65%
Heptane                        Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed           0.093    0.125      33%    0.055    0.019   10%
Toluene                   0.690    0.406      100%    0.647    0.490      100%    0.620    0.356      100%   0.672    0.502   100%
Ethylbenzene              0.131    0.081      79%     0.119    0.085      96%     0.124    0.113      81%    0.145    0.172   55%
m- & p-Xylene             0.440    0.299      97%     0.408    0.327      83%     0.314    0.243      87%    0.215    0.241   76%
Styrene                        Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed          0.112    0.092   41%
o-Xylene                  0.181    0.114      97%     0.154    0.111      92%     0.126    0.097      77%    0.085    0.081   41%
1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene        Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed           0.068    0.022      56%    0.084    0.071   37%
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene         Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed          0.052    0.012    8%
1,2,4-Trimethyl-benzene        Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed          0.145    0.192   65%
Benzyl chloride                Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed          0.081    0.109    8%
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene         Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed                Not Analyzed          0.073    0.114    4%
      • Percent Detect: Percent of total samples with detected values.
      • nd: Not detected in any of the samples.
      VOC Annual Summaries: Charlotte
Garinger                             2002                          2003                          2004                        2005              Ga
                            26 Total Samples              39 Total Samples              56 Total Samples              51 Total Samples
                          Mean         Std    Percent   Mean         Std    Percent   Mean         Std    Percent   Mean      Std    Percent
        Chemical
                          (ppbv)       Dev    Detects   (ppbv)       Dev    Detects   (ppbv)       Dev    Detects   (ppbv)    Dev    Detects
Freon 12                  0.564       0.193   100%      0.622       0.241   100%      0.637       0.163       89%   0.635    0.385    100%
Methyl chloride                    Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed         0.325    0.295    57%
1,3-Butadiene                      Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed         0.156       0.167       39%   0.070    0.081    10%
Chloroethane                       Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed         0.284    0.305    43%
Ethanol                            Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed         1.774    2.494    45%
Freon 11                  0.243       0.092       92%   0.253       0.046   100%      0.321       0.462       82%   0.400    0.750    100%
Acetone                            Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed         3.819    2.156    98%
Isopropyl Alcohol                  Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed         0.066    0.073     6%
Methylene chloride        0.139       0.074       73%   0.177       0.087       69%   0.210       0.436       64%   0.155    0.132    71%
Freon 113                 0.057       0.011       35%   0.065       0.023       49%   0.082       0.035       55%   0.093    0.080    76%
Carbon Disulfide                   Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed         0.099       0.060       71%   0.079    0.086   2800%
Methyl Ethyl Ketone                Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed         0.157    0.235    20%
Hexane                             Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed         0.260       0.219       89%   0.239    0.219    73%
Ethyl Acetate                      Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed         0.098    0.129    16%
Benzene                   0.201       0.143       81%   0.384       0.148   100%      0.387       0.272       80%   0.413    0.250    100%
Carbon tetrachloride      0.086       0.032       69%   0.089       0.017   95%       0.106       0.052       66%   0.110    0.106    75%
Trichloroethylene         0.051       0.004        4%   0.051       0.003    5%       0.056       0.021       11%   0.072    0.044    26%
Heptane                            Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed         0.061       0.040       25%   0.080    0.113    14%
Toluene                   0.754       0.465   100%      0.706       0.436   100%      0.774       0.498       84%   0.726    0.611    100%
Ethylbenzene              0.139       0.075   85%       0.127       0.068   97%       0.126       0.106       57%   0.158    0.187    57%
m- & p-Xylene             0.443       0.274   100%      0.446       0.263   97%       0.409       0.362       73%   0.294    0.375    71%
Styrene                            Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed         0.167    0.117    61%
o-Xylene                  0.173       0.101   100%      0.174       0.103       95%   0.161       0.140       73%   0.123    0.138    45%
1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene            Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed         0.092       0.048       50%   0.116    0.107    49%
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene             Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed         0.082    0.085    27%
1,2,4-Trimethyl-benzene            Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed         0.178    0.167    61%
Benzyl chloride                    Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed         0.100    0.128    14%
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene             Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed                  Not Analyzed         0.064    0.099     2%
       • Percent Detect: Percent of total samples with detected values.
       • nd: Not detected in any of the samples.
     VOC Annual Summaries: Winston-Salem
Hattie Avenue                        2002                           2003                           2004                        2005
                            24 Total Samples               30 Total Samples               55 Total Samples              49 Total Samples
                          Mean         Std     Percent   Mean         Std     Percent   Mean         Std    Percent   Mean      Std    Percent
        Chemical
                          (ppbv)       Dev     Detects   (ppbv)       Dev     Detects   (ppbv)       Dev    Detects   (ppbv)    Dev    Detects
Freon 12                  0.643       0.251    100%      0.672       0.330    100%      0.693       0.232       89%   0.722    0.552   98%
Methyl chloride                    Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed         0.474    0.412   59%
1,3-Butadiene                      Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.231       0.347       45%   0.052    0.011    2%
Chloroethane                       Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed         0.386    0.428   45%
Ethanol                            Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed         1.876    3.117   37%
Freon 11                  0.255       0.144    100%      0.251       0.037    100%      0.260       0.089       93%   0.274    0.216   98%
Acetone                            Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed         5.312    3.364   94%
Isopropyl Alcohol                  Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed         0.336    0.976   18%
Methylene chloride        0.104       0.073       50%    0.188       0.060       67%    0.134       0.105       67%   0.158    0.224   55%
Freon 113                 0.053       0.008       17%    0.060       0.019       27%    0.079       0.035       61%   0.097    0.100   61%
Carbon Disulfide                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.095       0.084       42%   0.074    0.085   12%
Methyl Ethyl Ketone                Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed         0.132    0.228   14%
Hexane                             Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.234       0.160       87%   0.214    0.397   63%
Ethyl Acetate                      Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed         0.123    0.177   25%
Benzene                   0.174       0.101       75%    0.358       0.160    100%      0.354       0.156       98%   0.442    0.462   100%
Carbon tetrachloride      0.079       0.025       67%    0.086       0.015    97%       0.103       0.046       72%   0.130    0.167   65%
Trichloroethylene         0.050        -----       nd    0.050        -----    nd       0.060       0.024       28%   0.060    0.028   16%
Heptane                            Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.054       0.013       13%   0.101    0.314    8%
Toluene                   0.563       0.273    100%      0.700       0.506    100%      0.745       0.441       98%   0.610    0.441   100%
Ethylbenzene              0.100       0.062    71%       0.144       0.117    90%       0.144       0.117       65%   0.128    0.140   43%
m- & p-Xylene             0.297       0.152    96%       0.412       0.258    100%      0.354       0.276       87%   0.189    0.223   55%
Styrene                            Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed         0.090    0.087   20%
o-Xylene                  0.119       0.060       88%    0.161       0.096       97%    0.172       0.138       70%   0.081    0.074   27%
1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene            Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.080       0.039       48%   0.078    0.053   29%
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene             Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed         0.054    0.014   10%
1,2,4-Trimethyl-benzene            Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed         0.125    0.116   45%
Benzyl chloride                    Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed         0.076    0.090   10%
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene             Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed         0.066    0.109    2%
       • nd: Not detected in any of the samples
       • Percent Detect: Percent of total samples with detected values.
     VOC Annual Summaries: Raleigh
Millbrook                          2002                       2003                         2004                        2005
                                                                                  25 Total Samples              21 Total Samples
                           Mean     Std    Percent   Mean      Std    Percent   Mean         Std    Percent   Mean      Std     Percent
        Chemical
                          (ppbv)    Dev    Detects   (ppbv)    Dev    Detects   (ppbv)       Dev    Detects   (ppbv)    Dev     Detects

Freon 12                                                                        0.598       0.202       84%   0.592    0.121    100%
Methyl chloride                                                                          Not Analyzed         0.454    0.324     76%
1,3-Butadiene              Site not in operation      Site not in operation     0.100       0.110       40%   0.247    0.766     19%
Chloroethane                                                                             Not Analyzed         0.357    0.330     67%
Ethanol                                                                                  Not Analyzed         1.398    2.215     52%
Freon 11                                                                        0.232       0.122       92%   0.216    0.078    100%
Acetone                                                                                  Not Analyzed         2.697    1.782     90%
Isopropyl Alcohol                                                                        Not Analyzed         0.065    0.049     10%
Methylene chloride                                                              0.137       0.125       80%   0.097    0.080     52%
Freon 113                                                                       0.093       0.045       88%   0.068    0.040     90%
Carbon Disulfide                                                                0.108       0.129       52%   0.050     -----     nd
Methyl Ethyl Ketone                                                                      Not Analyzed         0.050    0.001     10%
Hexane                                                                          0.213       0.245       64%   0.224    0.229     67%
Ethyl Acetate                                                                            Not Analyzed         0.067    0.064     10%
Benzene                                                                         0.301       0.222    92%      0.404    0.275    100%
Carbon tetrachloride                                                            0.131       0.122    80%      0.081    0.047     95%
Trichloroethylene                                                               0.050       0.001    4%       0.050    0.009     5%
Heptane                    Site not in operation      Site not in operation     0.054       0.018    8%       0.056    0.033     19%
Toluene                                                                         0.536       0.460   100%      0.568    0.564    100%
Ethylbenzene                                                                    0.079       0.070    28%      0.088    0.081     48%
m- & p-Xylene                                                                   0.203       0.270    56%      0.255    0.324     57%
Styrene                                                                                  Not Analyzed         0.103     -----    38%
o-Xylene                                                                        0.090       0.092       32%   0.102    0.108     48%
1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene                                                         0.074       0.061       24%   0.081    0.071     38%
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene                                                                   Not Analyzed         0.057    0.063     29%
1,2,4-Trimethyl-benzene                                                                  Not Analyzed         0.138    0.159     38%
Benzyl chloride                                                                          Not Analyzed         0.050     -----     nd
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene                                                                   Not Analyzed         0.050     -----     nd

      • nd: Not detected in any of the samples
      • Percent Detect: Percent of total samples with detected values.
      VOC Annual Summaries: RTP
RTP                                 2002                       2003                         2004                         2005
                                                                                   32 Total Samples               52 Total Samples
                           Mean      Std    Percent   Mean      Std    Percent   Mean         Std     Percent   Mean      Std     Percent
        Chemical
                           (ppbv)    Dev    Detects   (ppbv)    Dev    Detects   (ppbv)       Dev     Detects   (ppbv)    Dev     Detects

Freon 12                                                                         0.571       0.121       81%    0.573    0.143    100%
Methyl chloride                                                                           Not Analyzed          0.270    0.296     48%
1,3-Butadiene               Site not in operation      Site not in operation     0.072       0.044       22%    0.050     -----     nd
Chloroethane                                                                              Not Analyzed          0.218    0.279     38%
Ethanol                                                                                   Not Analyzed          2.322    10.658    19%
Freon 11                                                                         0.300       0.333       94%    4.300    28.556    98%
Acetone                                                                                   Not Analyzed          3.249    2.839     96%
Isopropyl Alcohol                                                                         Not Analyzed          0.050     -----     nd
Methylene chloride                                                               0.802       2.444       91%    0.119    0.084     67%
Freon 113                                                                        0.091       0.036       72%    0.075    0.039     87%
Carbon Disulfide                                                                 0.343       1.276       56%    0.075    0.095     29%
Methyl Ethyl Ketone                                                                       Not Analyzed          0.065    0.079     6%
Hexane                                                                           0.462       1.723       56%    0.085    0.087     56%
Ethyl Acetate                                                                             Not Analyzed          0.052    0.012     2%
Benzene                                                                          0.262       0.151    100%      0.225    0.121    100%
Carbon tetrachloride                                                             0.104       0.042     75%      0.090    0.080     94%
Trichloroethylene                                                                0.053       0.010     9%       0.056    0.027     15%
Heptane                     Site not in operation      Site not in operation     0.050        -----     nd      0.050    0.005     6%
Toluene                                                                          0.331       0.271     94%      0.246    0.271     98%
Ethylbenzene                                                                     0.064       0.036     25%      0.075    0.067     42%
m- & p-Xylene                                                                    0.138       0.166     44%      0.071    0.078     17%
Styrene                                                                                   Not Analyzed          0.143    0.137     44%
o-Xylene                                                                         0.073       0.059       25%    0.053    0.022     13%
1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene                                                          0.065       0.051       16%    0.054    0.020     17%
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene                                                                    Not Analyzed          0.048    0.014     12%
1,2,4-Trimethyl-benzene                                                                   Not Analyzed          0.067    0.049     21%
Benzyl chloride                                                                           Not Analyzed          0.071    0.089     6%
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene                                                                    Not Analyzed          0.050     -----     nd

      • nd: Not detected in any of the samples
      • Percent Detect: Percent of total samples with detected values.
      VOC Annual Summaries: Wilmington
BATTLESHIP                          2002                       2003                         2004                        2005
                                                                                    4 Total Samples              42 Total Samples
                           Mean      Std    Percent   Mean      Std    Percent   Mean         Std    Percent   Mean      Std     Percent
        Chemical
                           (ppbv)    Dev    Detects   (ppbv)    Dev    Detects   (ppbv)       Dev    Detects   (ppbv)    Dev     Detects

Freon 12                                                                         0.582       0.059   100%      0.569    0.090    100%
Methyl chloride                                                                           Not Analyzed         0.388    0.338     60%
1,3-Butadiene               Site not in operation      Site not in operation     1.142       1.945       50%   0.069    0.065     12%
Chloroethane                                                                              Not Analyzed         0.318    0.350     45%
Ethanol                                                                                   Not Analyzed         4.727    6.372     50%
Freon 11                                                                         0.253       0.072   100%      0.417    0.831     95%
Acetone                                                                                   Not Analyzed         3.668    3.398     90%
Isopropyl Alcohol                                                                         Not Analyzed         0.126    0.489     2%
Methylene chloride                                                               0.108       0.084       50%   0.110    0.070     71%
Freon 113                                                                        0.071       0.041       50%   0.082    0.036     90%
Carbon Disulfide                                                                 0.051       0.002       25%   0.176    0.375     69%
Methyl Ethyl Ketone                                                                       Not Analyzed         0.111    0.201     12%
Hexane                                                                           0.384       0.440   100%      0.129    0.190     50%
Ethyl Acetate                                                                             Not Analyzed         0.108    0.166     14%
Benzene                                                                          0.434       0.273   100%      0.240    0.115    100%
Carbon tetrachloride                                                             0.068       0.031    50%      0.089    0.044     93%
Trichloroethylene                                                                0.125       0.091    50%      0.140    0.107     71%
Heptane                     Site not in operation      Site not in operation     0.100       0.099    25%      0.052    0.021     7%
Toluene                                                                          0.719       0.663   100%      0.328    0.329    100%
Ethylbenzene                                                                     0.107       0.067    50%      0.125    0.199     43%
m- & p-Xylene                                                                    1.201       0.884   100%      0.289    0.687     55%
Styrene                                                                                   Not Analyzed         0.158    0.134     48%
o-Xylene                                                                         0.166       0.134       50%   0.056    0.045     26%
1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene                                                          0.070       0.034       25%   0.060    0.038     21%
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene                                                                    Not Analyzed         0.052    0.021     14%
1,2,4-Trimethyl-benzene                                                                   Not Analyzed         0.082    0.111     21%
Benzyl chloride                                                                           Not Analyzed         0.079    0.105     7%
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene                                                                    Not Analyzed         0.050     -----     nd

      • nd: Not detected in any of the samples
      • Percent Detect: Percent of total samples with detected values.
     VOC Annual Summaries: Candor
Candor                               2002                           2003                           2004                         2005
                             19 Total Samples              19 Total Samples               58 Total Samples               54 Total Samples
                           Mean        Std     Percent   Mean         Std     Percent   Mean         Std     Percent   Mean      Std     Percent
        Chemical
                          (ppbv)       Dev     Detects   (ppbv)       Dev     Detects   (ppbv)       Dev     Detects   (ppbv)    Dev     Detects

Freon 12                  0.480       0.116    100%      0.568       0.138    100%      0.613       0.106       90%    0.551    0.138     98%
Methyl chloride                    Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.370    0.334     60%
1,3-Butadiene                      Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.051       0.004       4%     0.051    0.010     2%
Chloroethane                       Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.345    0.350     52%
Ethanol                            Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.360    1.245     17%
Freon 11                  0.218       0.112       95%    0.262       0.040    100%      0.270       0.091       97%    0.445    1.569     96%
Acetone                            Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          2.815    1.742     92%
Isopropyl Alcohol                  Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.050     -----     nd
Methylene chloride        0.099       0.075       58%    0.187       0.012       32%    0.108       0.093       48%    0.092    0.064     69%
Freon 113                 0.055        -----       nd    0.072       0.022       63%    0.077       0.033       52%    0.066    0.041     87%
Carbon Disulfide                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.084       0.095       46%    0.065    0.049     25%
Methyl Ethyl Ketone                Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.075    0.120     6%
Hexane                             Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.078       0.070       21%    0.077    0.078     35%
Ethyl Acetate                      Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.053    0.026     4%
Benzene                   0.107       0.065       63%    0.186       0.213    100%      0.149       0.062       88%    0.179    0.085    100%
Carbon tetrachloride      0.068       0.025       42%    0.094       0.017    100%      0.104       0.038       83%    0.101    0.122     94%
Trichloroethylene         0.050        -----       nd    0.050        -----    nd       0.051       0.004       2%     0.056    0.031     8%
Heptane                            Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.050        -----       nd    0.050    0.007     4%
Toluene                   0.109       0.061       68%    0.134       0.033    100%      0.128       0.066       83%    0.127    0.136     75%
Ethylbenzene              0.051       0.002       21%    0.050       0.001     5%       0.056       0.019       17%    0.062    0.050     31%
m- & p-Xylene             0.074       0.034       37%    0.076       0.019    100%      0.077       0.039       38%    0.065    0.072     15%
Styrene                            Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.065    0.053     10%
o-Xylene                  0.053       0.010       21%    0.050       0.002       5%     0.053       0.007       19%    0.053    0.019     10%
1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene            Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.054       0.009       14%    0.053    0.022     2%
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene             Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.052    0.012     2%
1,2,4-Trimethyl-benzene            Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.056    0.027     8%
Benzyl chloride                    Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.083    0.117     8%
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene             Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed                   Not Analyzed          0.062    0.088     2%
      • nd: Not detected in any of the samples
      • Percent Detect: Percent of total samples with detected values.
 Carbonyl Annual Summaries: Candor/RTP
CANDOR                               2003                      2004                      2005                     All Years
                                   8 Samples                24 Samples                26 Samples                58 Samples
                           Ave      #Detect    freq   Ave     #Detect    freq   Ave     #Detect    freq   Ave     #Detect     freq
2,5-Dimethylbenzaldehyde    nd        1        13%     nd       1        4%      nd       0        0%      nd        2        3%
Acetaldehyde               0.874      8       100%    0.579     23       96%    0.433     24       92%    0.586      58       100%
Acetone                    0.742      8       100%    0.693     24      100%    0.396     24       92%    0.567      56       97%
Benzaldehyde               0.022      8       100%    0.021     24      100%    0.012     18       69%    0.017      50       86%
Butyraldehyde              0.195      8       100%    0.073     24      100%    0.042     21       81%    0.076      53       91%
Crotonaldehyde             0.060      6        75%    0.136     24      100%    0.126     19       73%    0.121      49       84%
Formaldehyde               1.671      8       100%    1.457     24      100%    0.930     24       92%    1.302      58       100%
Hexaldehyde                0.044      8       100%    0.029     24      100%    0.015     21       81%    0.025      53       91%
Isovaleraldehyde           0.014      4        50%    0.011     13       54%    0.007     9        35%    0.010      26       45%
Propionaldehyde            0.101      7        88%    0.088     24      100%    0.057     21       81%    0.076      52       90%
Tolualdehydes              0.041      8       100%    0.023     24      100%    0.013     25       96%    0.021      57       98%
Valeraldehyde              0.045      8       100%    0.026     24      100%    0.020     19       73%    0.026      51       88%


RTP                                  2003                      2004                      2005                     All Years
                                                            12 Samples                28 Samples                40 Samples
                           Ave      #Detect    freq   Ave     #Detect    freq   Ave     #Detect    freq   Ave     #Detect     freq
2,5-Dimethylbenzaldehyde                               nd       0        0%      nd       0        0%      nd        0        0%
Acetaldehyde                                          0.473     12      100%    0.683     24       86%    0.620      40       100%
Acetone                                               0.549     12      100%    0.648     24       86%    0.619      40       100%
Benzaldehyde                                          0.016     12      100%    0.015     22       79%    0.015      34       85%
Butyraldehyde                                         0.046     12      100%    0.046     22       79%    0.046      34       85%
Crotonaldehyde                                        0.044     11       92%    0.083     21       75%    0.071      35       88%
Formaldehyde                                          0.970     12      100%    1.205     24       86%    1.135      40       100%
Hexaldehyde                                           0.006     7        58%    0.007     17       61%    0.007      24       60%
Isovaleraldehyde                                      0.006     3        25%    0.004     3        11%    0.004      6        15%
Propionaldehyde                                       0.040     11       92%    0.106     22       79%    0.086      37       93%
Tolualdehydes                                         0.005     5        42%    0.007     15       54%    0.007      24       60%
Valeraldehyde                                         0.009     9        75%    0.014     19       68%    0.013      32       80%

								
To top