# Union By Rank Ackermannâ€™s Function Graph Algorithms by hmh17149

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```									Union By Rank
Ackermann’s Function
Graph Algorithms

Rajee S Ramanikanthan
Kavya Reddy Musani
Union by Rank
In Union, have parent of shallower tree point to other tree.

Maintain rank(x) as an upper bound on the depth of the
tree rooted at x.

Consider the following example

x
y

d       b
c       s

l       m
h

a
   Rank of x is 3, and rank of y is 2
   Union (x,y) results in with the rank of the resultant tree = greater
rank

x
y

d       b
c       s

l       m
h

a
   If the two trees are of same rank then the rank of the resultant
tree increases by one

x
y

d
c       s

l
h

•The resultant rank of the union is rank of x + 1.

x

d       y

l       c       s

h
Algorithm for Path Compression
   1st walk: Find the name of the set . Take a walk until we reach
the root.

   2nd walk: Retrace the path and join all the elements along the
path to the root using another pointer.

   This enables future finds to take shorter paths.
Path Compression
   Find the root(x) by
traversing parent pointers.
a
   Set each node traversed to
the resulting root(x)                 b       c

d       e       f

x
Path Compression
   For union by rank,

Best Case           1

Worst Case
Log n
Analysis
   Union by rank only
Q (m lgn) where m = # of operations
n = # MakeSet operations in m
   Path compression only
Q(n+ f lgn) f<n
f = # FindSet operations
n = # MakeSet operations
   There are always <= n-1 Unions
   Union by Rank and Path Compression
For n-1 union and m finds the running time is
(n + m * a (n))
a (n) is inverse of Ackermann's function
Amortised analysis for Path
Compression and Union by Rank
   Time for n-1 unions and n
finds
O(n log*n)

log*n is a slow growing function

n             log n        log * n
22           2             1
2^2^2        4             2
2^2^2^2      2^2^2         3
2^2^2^2^2    2^2^2^2       4
   This is a very fast growing function,even faster than exponential
.2
2..
n times

1    2        4

2    4        16

3    8        256
4    16       65536

5    32       4294967296
Ackermann's Function
   Ai (j) is Ackermann‟s function, it mimics a ladder function
for higher values of i
   Ai(j) = A i-1 A i-1 A i-1............ A i-1(j)
j+1 times

  Ai (j) = j+1 if i=0
= 2j+1 if i=1
=(j+1) 2j+1 -1
B(j)=Aj(j)
a(n)=Inverse of B
Comparisons of functions

F(n)=n

Log n

Log*n
4
(n)
Graph Algorithms
KONIGSBERG BRIDGES

A

B
C

The town of Konigsberg( now kalliningrad) lay on the banks and on two islands
of the Predal river. The city was connected by 7 bridges. The puzzle: whether
it was possible to start walking from anywhere in town and return to the
starting point by crossing all bridges exactly once.
GRAPHS
   A Graph G=(V,E) is a finite nonempty set V of objects
called vertices together with a set E of unordered pairs of
distinct vertices of G called edges.
   A directed graph(digraph) G=(V,E) is a finite nonempty
set V of vertices together with a set E of ordered pairs of
vertices of G called arcs. A directed graph is not a
symmetric matrix.
   Weighted Graph: A graph having a weight, or number,
associated with each edge.A weighted graph is usually
CONNECTIVITY PROBLEMS

BICONNECTIVITY PROBLEMS: In a biconnected graph if
a path fails , then we have another path. A biconnected
graph is a graph from which at least two nodes have to
be deleted to break it up into disconnected pieces.
REACHABILITY/COVERING PROBLEMS: Given a graph,
then we need to find the whether we can cover the
required path.
REPRESENTATION PROBLEM: Representing graphs in
computer.
GRAPH TERMINOLOGIES

M
D            A
N
E

O
B
C
P            Q

DIRECTED GRAPH
UNDIRECTED GRAPH
PATHS AND CYCLES

   A path from vertex v1 to vk is a sequence of vertices
v1,v2, …, vk that are connected by edges (v1,v2),
(v2,v3), …, (vk-1,vk).
   A path is simple if each vertex in it appears only once.
   Vertex u is said to be reachable from v if there is a path
from v to u.
   A circuit is a path whose first and last vertices are the
same.
   A simple circuit is a cycle if except for the first (and last)
vertex, no other vertex appears more than once.
   A Hamiltonian cycle of a graph G is a cycle that contains
all the vertices of G
GRAPH REPRESENTATIONS
   The adjacency matrix for a finite graph G on „n‟ vertices
is an n*n matrix where the nondiagonal entry a(i,j) is the
number of edges joining vertex i and vertex j, and the
diagonal entry a(i,i) is either twice the number of loops at
vertex i or just the number of loops. There exists a
unique adjacency matrix for each graph. If the graph is
undirected, the adjacency matrix is symmetric. For
dense graphs, that is graph with more edges, an
   An adjacency list is the representation of all edges or
arcs in a graph as a list. If a graph is undirected, every
entry is a set of two nodes containing the two ends of the
corresponding edge; if it is directed, every entry is a
tuple of two nodes, one denoting the source node and
the other denoting the destination node of the
corresponding arc. Adjacency lists are unordered. For a
representation of the graph occupies less space,
because it does not use any space to represent edges
which are not present.
GRAPH REPRESENTATIONS
DEPTH FIRST SEARCH

   DFS is an uninformed search that progresses by
expanding the first child node of the search tree that
appears and thus going deeper and deeper until a goal
state is found, or until it hits a node that has no children.
   Then the search backtracks and starts off on the next
node.
   In a non-recursive implementation, all freshly expanded
nodes are added to a stack for expansion.
   Time complexity is equal to the number of vertices plus
the number of edges in the graphs they traverse.
   When searching large graphs that can not be fully
contained in memory, DFS suffers from non-termination
when the length of a path in the search tree is infinite.
This can be solved by maintaining an increasing limit on
the depth of the tree, which is called iterative deepening
depth first search.
   BFS is an uninformed search method that aims to expand
and examine all nodes of a tree systematically in search of a
search of a solution. In other words, it exhaustively searches
the entire tree without considering the goal until it finds it. It
does not use a heuristic.
   All child nodes obtained by expanding a node are added to
a FIFO queue. In typical implementations, nodes that have
not yet been examined for their neighbors are placed in
some container called “open” and then once examined are
placed in the container “closed”.
   Time complexity is equal to the number of vertices plus the
number of edges in the graphs they traverse.
   BFS has space complexity linear in size of the tree/graph
searched as it needs to store all expanded nodes in
memory.
C   B
REFERENCES

   Dr.Kumar‟s notes
   Dr.Cook‟s notes
   Fall 2004 notes
   www.mathworld.com
   en.wikipedia.org

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