Classical Studies Newsletter, Summer 2004 - Volume XI by zrn20302


									2                          Classical Studies Newsletter, Summer 2004 - Volume XI

                         Ciao Amici!
                        Ciao Amici!
                       Ricardus amicis studiorum                 to hear Bruce Frier lecture on Piranesi!) and on Classics
                       antiquitatis S.D.                         in Nineteenth-Century Britain. We thank Meilee Bridges for
                             Fear not: I shall not continue in   her wonderful work for CFC. There were workshops on
                        Latin, much though I would love to.      translation and the annual Translation Contest. This time,
                        Winter 2004 saw major changes in         following an inquiry from an architect, I put up a case of
                        the staffing of the Department. For      wine for a Latin epigram; the winning entry, submitted
                        23 years, the front office has been      anonymously by Ruth Scodel, will be engraved around a
                        guided by the calmness and sagacity      stone fountain in the middle of the new maze in Matthaei
                        of Patricia Berwald, who will be         Botanical Gardens:
                        known to nearly all of you. Pat’s               formam fine carentem, animo totam capiendam
                        retirement left a large gap,                       errans ut spectes, mente veni placida
 Professor of Classical
                        augmented by the departure of Anne
   Studies and Chair                                                  In March it was our turn to host the Mid-Western
    Richard Janko       Shore. However, we were fortunate
                                                                 Consortium on Ancient Religions. Dirk Obbink took the
                        to be able to appoint Gregory Yantz
                                                                 occasion to present a new elegiac poem by Archilochus (c.
to succeed Pat. Greg assumed his new mantle with rapidity        650 B.C.E.) that he has found; it narrates the story of
and poise and helped us find other staff, notably Sean           Telephus. Traianos Gagos presented a Michigan papyrus
Norton, who is now serving the Program in Modern Greek.          that has on it a prayer from the Roman Imperial cult. The
For their help during the transition I thank Marybeth Davis,
                                                                 work several of us do on the Herculaneum papyri appeared
Nancy Bates and Carollyn Dickerson.
                                                                 in the PBS documentary Out of the Ashes; filmed before I
     On the faculty side, we regretted the passing of Louise     became Chair, it gave me a unique opportunity to observe
Youtie, long the guardian of our papyri. We were delighted       how much hair I have lost since then. The Pack Lecturer
that Derek Collins and Arthur Verhoogt were promoted to          was Dorothy Thompson; she revealed what census returns
Associate Professor. This consolidates the Department’s          from Roman Egypt (once mistaken for lists of sheep!) tell
high standing internationally in ancient religion, early Greek   us about ancient demography.
poetry and papyrology. The $8M gift for a new wing to the
                                                                      In May the University hosted the Association of Ancient
Kelsey Museum of Classical Archaeology expands our               Historians’ Annual Meeting. I thank Sara Forsdyke in
range in another direction. My assessment of our standing        particular for her energy in organizing this meeting, and to
seems to be supported by our success in attracting               the Else Fund for supporting it.
graduate student applicants. A number of students won
outside funding to study in the Mediterranean in the                  This fall we welcome Assistant Professor Farouk
summer or for next academic year. Our outgoing Ph.D.             Grewing from the University of Cologne, who brings
students have continued success in finding posts in the          strength in Latin literature of the Imperial period, and Alex
field. One of last years’ IPCAA Ph.D.s, Jeremy Hartnett,         Pappas, who replaces Sharon Herbert while she is on
won the Rackham Distinguished Dissertation Award for             leave. We are offering several new courses, notably in the
his dissertation Streets, Street Architecture, and Social        history of the Greek and Latin languages. We look forward
Presentation in Roman Italy.                                     to the Platsis Symposium on Crete, ancient and modern
                                                                 bridge between cultures; to a conference on Roman dining,
     In April Jackie Williams was proud to count a record        organized by Sue Alcock, to honor the late John D’Arms; to
133 undergraduate majors and minors in our Programs, up          the Jerome Lectures by John Pinto; to the Else Lecture by
from 113 last year, and from a mere 42 in 1999. Our junior       Margalit Finkelberg; to the conference ‘Empire and
Rob Stephan has made a splash with his discoveries about
                                                                 Narrative: The Western Tradition, 2,500 B.C.E. – 2004
the house and archive of the Roman soldier Tiberianus at
                                                                 C.E.’ in December; and, further ahead, to the extended visit
Karanis in Egypt. The Knudsvig Symposium put on a
                                                                 of André Laks.
summer event for Latin high-school teachers. We are
offering intensive courses in classical Greek as well as              If you are nearby, please do come to any or all of these
Latin over the summer, and plan to continue this in future.      events. In closing, I must thank those of you who give
                                                                 financial support to the Department. Your response helps
    The semester had a plethora of events. Dan
                                                                 us to help our students, graduate and undergraduate, with
Georgakas of Queens College, City University of New York
                                                                 their needs for travel, study and research.
gave the Pallas Lecture on “The Now and Future Greek
America: Strategies for Survival”. There were lectures by            To end in Roman epistolary style, S.V.B.E.E.V.
Charles Martindale and John Miles Foley. Contexts for
Classics ran conferences on African-American Classicists,
on the ‘Romantic Classical’ (what an unexpected delight
                          Classical Studies Newsletter, Summer 2004 - Volume XI                                            3

                                                          Houses and Streets in Roman Italy
                                                                     Str        Roman Italy
              By Prof. Jeremy Hartnett
                       Oberlin College

    Inside a Roman house, one’s place in the social                  that physical border, or architectural interface: the
hierarchy should have been clear. As has been ably                   house facade. Previously, in our approach to the
demonstrated, an orchestration of decoration,                        Roman city and its spaces, this boundary has been
architecture, and social ritual spotlighted the house’s              rigid and conceptually impermeable: we’ve seen
chief resident. For visitors, the nature and degree of               things as very clearly ‘in’ or ‘out,’ as either
access they enjoyed to this person signaled their                    pertaining to the interior world of the house or the
standing. Just allowed to meet in the atrium for the                 public world outside. Were things really this clear-
salutatio? This was business. An invitation to dinner in             cut? Surely, the contrast between the inside and
the triclinium? You’re getting somewhere. A private                  outside was significant to Romans: a cocoon of
discussion in a cubiculum? Priceless. Flippancy aside,               ritual observances, after all, was wrapped around
my point is that Roman domestic space was                            the crossing of this important threshold. But our
controllable: it allowed choreographed distinctions                  dichotomy between ‘the in’ and ‘the out’ misses
between social ranks.                                                                        something crucial, I believe,
     When we move outside                                                                    for it doesn’t take into
the house and into the                                                                       account the interaction
street, we enter a space                                                                     between these two realms.
where an entirely different                                                                  That’s why house facades
atmosphere reigned. Noisy,                                                                   are interesting to study, for
smelly, crowded, and                                                                         they are the ever-visible
generally chaotic –                                                                          entrée of owner-centric
Juvenal’s third satire might                                                                 domestic space into the
come to mind – streets                                                                       socially-contested space
facilitated spontaneous,                                                                     outside, in the street. In this
face-to-face contact across                                                                  paper, using facade
the full spectrum of Roman                                                                   architecture as a lens of
society. For the Romans,                                                                     inquiry, I intend to investigate
notorious for their obsession                                                                the house-street relationship
                                  Figure 1. The Casa dei Diadumeni at Pompeii rises above
with status and markers of it, the street on a temple-like platform.                         and to see how houses,
this interaction was not                                                                     through this boundary, do
passive; they assessed each other in the street and                  have an impact on, and respond to, the
tried to put their own best face forward. The street, as             streetscape, its competitions, performances, and
opposed to the house, threatened social boundaries: it               dynamics.
did not exclude any segments of society or categorize                  Cicero, in his De Domo Sua, describes the
them. In theory, all could appear as they wished. Thus,            destruction of his house at the hands of his political
self-presentation: essentially, the performance of status          enemy Clodius. Swelling to a final emotional
– through actions, dress, exterior house decorations –             crescendo, Cicero pleads that, without his house,
was critical.                                                      he is deprived of his ornamenta dignitatis, his
    Yet the two starkly different realms of house and              external trappings of standing. The orator’s appeal
street were immediately adjacent. Only a wall of                   underlines the fundamental (and well-known)
masonry stood between them. My paper focuses on
                                                                                                         (continued on p.4)
4                        Classical Studies Newsletter, Summer 2004 - Volume XI
(continued from p.3)
Roman assumption that a man’s house and his social              rebuilt its southern half after the earthquake of 62 AD,
standing were intimately linked. It is further telling          he or she constructed a new and elegant entrance,
that, throughout the De Domo, Cicero repeatedly                 framed by engaged columns and lifted atop a high
refers to his house’s visibility: it can be seen from the       sidewalk. The interesting part of this entrance, though,
most famous and busiest districts of the city. For him,         is its placement at the focal point of what was – if the
this is a double-edged sword. While intact, his house           depths of its wheel-ruts provide any clue – one of
had broadcast his status to the city; once destroyed, it        Pompeii’s most-traveled streets. All moving along this
showed his diminished standing. It is clear that                thoroughfare stared directly at this facade, in essence
houses were viewed as extensions of their owner, a              extending the impact of the house and, by connection,
physical representation, on some level, of that                 its owner over the street’s length. That this
individual’s characteristics.                                   phenomenon is repeated roughly a dozen times at the
                                                                visible portions of Pompeii is a testament to its power.
     When we move to the space of the street, we
have to take account of this close connection                        Such obvious attempts to appropriate streetspace
between an owner, a house, and its visibility. A                were paralleled by a subtler, yet more eloquent, use
Roman streetgoer would not consider facades merely              of the architectonic language of facades. The Casa
to be containing the street’s space, but would see              del Fauno at Pompeii (figs. 3-5) provides a strong
them as reflections of house owners’ status and                 case study for facade forms, what they intended to
attributes, akin to other performances in the street’s          communicate, and how they set about doing it.
hustle-bustle. That house facades sought to exercise            Although truly extraordinary for its size and luxury,
symbolic control over the street’s chaotic and socially         this house provides appropriate fodder for this
up-for-grabs environment, should come, then, as no              qualitative discussion since its architectural features
surprise. The Casa dei Diadoumeni at Pompeii (fig.              and goals are repeated at many other houses in
1), for example, towered over the street on a high              Pompeii and Herculaneum.
podium (not unlike a temple’s), raising itself above the            The Casa del Fauno (fig. 3) occupies one whole
level of its neighboring houses. This unique house              insula of the urban fabric and therefore had four
drew attention by its imposing presence, and sought             exposed walls. The south wall (fig. 4), facing the
symbolic dominance over the social interaction in the           most traveled of the four streets, receives the lion’s
street below.                                                   share of the exterior decoration. Constructed of
     Another Pompeian house pushes this a step further          ashlar blocks of Nocerian tufa, the facade as it survives
(fig. 2). When the owner of this anonymous house                to us consists of a series of towering piers about seven

                                                   Figure 2. (left) The
                                                   entrance to a
                                                   nameless house at
                                                   Pompeii stands at
                                                   the end of a well-
                                                   traveled street,
                                                   commanding the
                                                   attention of all who
                                                   move toward it.

                                                   Figure 3. (right)
                                                   The Casa del Fauno
                                                   at Pompeii proudly
                                                   boasts that it occu-
                                                   pies one entire city
                                                   block. NB: Numbers
                                                   indicate the point of
                                                   view for figures 4, 6,
                                                   7, and 8.

                                                                                                      (continued on p.5)
                            Classical Studies Newsletter, Summer 2004 - Volume XI                                                    5
(continued from p.4)

                                                                   Figure 5. This reconstruction of the original facade of the Casa del
                                                                   Fauno shows how the entire city block was linked together in an
                                                                   ordered ensemble.

Figure 4. The main southern face of the Casa del Fauno presents
an organized front to the street.

meters high, which border six apertures onto the street. On every pier, there was a pilaster with a small capital.
Originally, the pilasters were placed at the outside corners on the end piers, on the inside corners of the aperture to
the main doorway, and at the center of all other piers (fig. 5). Together, these elements unite the facade (in fact,
the whole width of the insula) through their identical appearance and rhythmic arrangement: the outer pilasters
frame the composition, the inner ones repeat at regular intervals except around the door.
     In the first place, this coherence marks out the house from the rest of the streetscape. It reminds us of the
difference between the goals of domestic architecture inside and out. If the interior is primarily concerned with
differentiating public and private spaces within the house and signaling where visitors may go, the exterior
seeks to rival other houses on the street and in the city. We should also consider the unified nature of the
facade, I think, in juxtaposition to the chaos that could engulf the street. The harmony of this order offers a
counterpoint to the cacophony it faces, as though owners sought to show that all of their affairs were in order.
    When we move to the sides of the Casa del Fauno (fig. 6),
we see one notable architectural feature. Aside from the
extreme SW corner, no doorways pierce the sides – quite a
rare occurrence – but we instead see ledges starting at the
top of the lowest course of ashlars on the front and running
the entire length of the house’s sides. They showed to the
passerby that this house was indeed substantial: it occupied
the length, in addition to the width, of the insula. Clearly, the
owner of this house wanted to emphasize that he wielded the
power and wealth to achieve these truly unique extents.
     Returning to the house’s facade, it is clear that not all
the Casa del Fauno’s apertures onto the street were equal.
Rather, the main doorway leading to the fauces and the
atrium receives special attention (fig. 7). It is visually
distinguished by an architrave, elaborate pilaster capitals, a
special tessellated greeting in the sidewalk, and a finely-
paved recessed vestibulum. Though the techniques of doing
                                                                   Figure 6. The western side of the Casa del Fauno shows the
so vary, there is a broad concern across houses to draw            house’s depth through its lack of doorways and continuous
attention to the main door, often by physically making it higher ledge.
than the rest. At the quite different facade of Herculaneum’s
Casa del Tramezzo di Legno, for example, the main door, framed by a ridge of plaster and crowned by an
architrave, soars to a greater height than the shopfront incorporated into the house’s face.

                                                                                                               (continued on p.6)
6                          Classical Studies Newsletter, Summer 2004 - Volume XI
(continued from p.5)
     This widespread practice of highlighting the main          blank wall may not carry special meaning, Roman
door served, I believe, as an architectural shorthand for       eyes, trained by experience, would probably make the
the presence of an atrium complex                               intuitive connection. However, the lone architectural
inside the house. The fauces-                                                        feature along the sides – a plaster
atrium-tablinum matrix, as an                                                        pilaster that curiously corresponded
architectural feature socially                                                       to the peristyle’s southern extreme
connected with the reception of                                                      – held no structural significance.
clientes, enjoyed important                                                          Was it meant to show a passer-by
associations with status. Thus, if a                                                 where the peristyle began?
house’s doors were closed, street-                                                         A final remark on facade
facing architecture would alert                                                      architecture. Roman houses have
streetgoers to the presence of these                                                 often been considered inward-
interior rooms, and thus carry a                                                     looking, and to some extent with
message about the house’s                                                            good reason. Keeping a house
resident. When a house’s doors                                                       physically closed-off from the street
were open, it would have been even                                                   and the city had the practical
clearer to a passerby that this                                                      motive of protecting the house from
important room configuration was                                                     the street’s very real dangers. And
present. Indeed, exterior decoration                                                 this closing off also served as a
likely aided in alerting streetgoers                                                 means of symbolically protecting
to, and aligning them with, the                                                      the virtue of the family and
house’s main visual axis. Thus even                                                  household inside, shielding them
someone not entering would soak in                                                   from pollution and violation, moral or
a view through the house and be                                                      corporal. Facade architecture,
able to discern not just these                                                       then, had the advantage of not
elements, but likely others as well.    Figure 7. The main entryway to the Casa del
                                          Fauno is visually distinguished from other potentially compromising the purity
     At some later point in the Casa openings onto the street by its architecture, of the household, while
del Fauno’s history, a second             decoration, and fine materials.                simultaneously making interior
atrium was added to the house. As                                                        markers of social standing a part of
I mentioned before, there had been center pilasters on              the street’s contestations and negotiations of status.
the piers of the facade’s eastern half. When a fauces                     The house, then, through its architectural forms or
was added in the second aperture from the east, these               position within the streetscape, could have an impact
pilasters were carved away. Newly-cut stone narrowed                on the street. But we should be careful before we
the doorway and formed the pilasters framing the                    assume that communication only emanated from
entrance. While the motivation for adding a second                  buildings into the street. At a fullery in Pompeii (fig. 9),
atrium is not altogether clear to us, it is noteworthy that         the owner sought to tap into powerful national symbols.
the same architectonic vocabulary was employed for                  Painted figures of Aeneas and Romulus flanked the
this new atrium. The owner clearly wanted to make it                doorway. One
visible on the exterior too, but without undercutting the           visitor to this
visual supremacy of the original doorway or the unity               building,
that governed the entire facade.                                    apparently
     The exterior articulation of interior architecture was       inspired by the
not limited to what have been called the public areas of          sight of the two
the house, but it also encompassed the architecture of            heroes, entered
private entertainment – an alternative, and increasingly          and left a
important, strategy for the presentation of the master to         response on a
the public during the early empire. Returning to the              wall inside.
sides of the Casa del Fauno (fig. 8), in addition to the          Adapting the
long ledges, there was also a tall, blank, windowless             national epic for
wall running for some length, most of which is                    local
preserved. Such a large stretch of wall, devoid of                circumstances,
                                                                                          Figure 8. Near the rear of the eastern side
windows, would signal to passers-by the presence of               the graffito read: “I   of the Casa del Fauno, a tall, windowless wall
an interior light source. In a house like this one, that          sing of fullers and
would likely mean – and in the case of the Casa del
Fauno did in fact reflect – a peristyle. Although to us, a                                                     (continued on p.7)
                          Classical Studies Newsletter, Summer 2004 - Volume XI                                                     7

    in the
                            TROY          By Prof. Ruth Scodel
       Nothing is easier than to bash films set in the ancient world for their changes and mistakes, but it is
  worth thinking about how and why Wolfgang Petersen’s Troy distorts the Iliad. The film is an uneasy
  mixture of summer blockbuster and serious movie, but its thoughtful side is reminiscent of late Euripides in
  its realistic view of Homeric splendor. The premise of the film is that Agamemnon has achieved effective
  supremacy over most of the Greek world by military force and intimidation. Now he wants Troy. Helen is an
  excuse. In Homer, the Trojans have a genuine hope of ending the war by returning Helen; Homer’s
  Agamemnon fantasizes how, if Menelaus is killed, the Greeks will return home humiliated. In David
  Benioff’s screenplay, it is very clear that only if Troy submits to becoming part of Agamemnon’s empire will
  Agamemnon accept terms.
      The film presents a relentlessly unheroic world. The characters talk about the gods, but no gods
  intervene, for this film takes place in a world where only power finally counts. The film gives Hector’s
  mistakes to other characters, so that he can unambiguously represent patriotic and familial virtue.
      This is not to say that this is a great or profound movie. The dialogue is, at best, banal. Some parts are
  too long, others perfunctory. An Achilles who is not supremely articulate is hard to sell. To make him more
  sympathetic the movie sentimentalizes his attachment to Briseis, and Brad Pitt uses his own movie-star
  glamour to convey his longing for glory—Peter O’Toole similarly evokes his heroic roles.
      Some critics have complained that people will think this is Homer. Maybe, and that would be too bad.
  But the film is a profound tribute to Homer, not as a specific, difficult, and complex text, but as the canonical
  beginning of Western literature. At least the heroic tradition is still worth deconstructing.

(continued from p.6)
screech owls, not of arms and the man.” Thus the outside
makes its way inside.
     This final example underscores how two of the most
basic domains of the Roman city, the interior and
exterior, were not as separate as we have made them in
our thinking and our scholarship. Instead, the tension
inherent in this boundary invites us to reconsider the
experience of walking through Roman urban space. To
a Roman, a wall isn’t just a wall, but was connected to,
and could tell you something about, a person or a group
of people. In some cases, such as electoral graffiti, a
wall quite literally carried messages. But the
architecture itself made statements as well, seeking to
exercise symbolic control over streetgoers or, by giving         Figure 9. At this fullery in Pompeii, exterior paintings of Aeneas and
decorative hints and thus granting viewers a type of             Romulus were satirized by a graffito scratched in the plaster of the
architectural x-ray vision, to turn the building inside-out...   entryway.
for those who might also be peering outside in.

 About the author: Jeremy Hartnett received his Ph.D. from the Interdepartmental Program in Classical Art and
 Archaeology in 2003 for a dissertation supervised by Susan Alcock and entitled “Streets, Street Architecture, and Social
 Presentation in Roman Italy.” For this work, he was named one of eight winners of the Distinguished Dissertation
 Award by the Rackham School of Graduate Studies. During the 2003-4 academic year, he held the position of
 Michigan-Oberlin Partnership Postdoctoral Fellow and Visiting Assistant Professor of Classics at Oberlin College.
 Next year, he will start a tenure-track job in the Classics Department at Wabash College.
8                        Classical Studies Newsletter, Summer 2004 - Volume XI

                                                            “A survey of SAT
                                                            results revealed
                                                            that students who
                                                            took Latin scored,
            By Prof. David Potter                           on average, 150
     Even without Mel Gibson’s Passion (whose Latin is      points above the
not of the Classical period anyway), Latin is enjoying a    national verbal
resurgence these days, largely because people have
discovered very real benefits that have a direct impact
on their lives. One of the most obvious of these is as a
discipline that greatly enhances skill in handling the      Romance languages (i.e. languages descended from
English language: Latin has a demonstrable impact on        Latin); roughly 80% of the vocabulary in French and
students’ abilities in many other academic areas, and       Spanish, and 60% of the vocabulary of the English
on SAT scores. According to the most recent survey          language (including 90% of words of two or more
(1997) students who studied Latin improved significantly    syllables) it is easy to see how the study of Latin can
in terms of their ability to solve math problems,           have a positive impact in these areas. Furthermore,
vocabulary skills, and reading ability. A survey of sixth   since Latin is not a spoken language, and the stress of
grade students in Indianapolis showed that those who        instruction is on the close study of grammatical
studied Latin for 30 minutes every day for five months      structures and problems, it is also easy to see how Latin
advanced nine months in math problem-solving and            can have a very positive impact on math-problem solving
showed significant improvement in six other areas (eight    and other analytical processes.
months in world knowledge, one year in reading, thirteen
                                                                 In recent years there has been a significant increase
months in language, four months in spelling, five months
                                                            in the proportion of Middle School students taking Latin,
in science and seven months in social studies). A survey
                                                            and a dramatic increase in participation by High School
of fourth through sixth graders in Philadelphia who had
                                                            students in activities such as the National Latin Exam
received 15-20 minutes of daily Latin instruction showed
                                                            (roughly 20 percent between 1994 and 1997).
that their performance was one year higher on the
vocabulary subtest on the Iowa Tests. A study of students        The immediate benefits that accrue from the study of
in Washington D.C. who had previously been excluded         Latin are supplemented by long range benefits of even
from foreign language classes because of sub-standard       greater value. Readers of Latin are able to encounter
reading skills showed that after they had studied Latin,    fundamental works in the Western tradition in the original
their reading skills were five months ahead of those who    and come to a greater understanding of the timeless ideas
had not studied a foreign language and four months          about love, death, loyalty, pleasure, pain, duty and
ahead of those who studied French and Spanish. A            defiance. Also, as the resurgence of classical themes in
survey of SAT results from 1988-1995 revealed that          the popular media suggest, there is an ever greater
students who took Latin scored, on average, 150 points      fascination with a period in the history of the ancient
above the national verbal score, 30 points ahead of         world—with movies on Troy, Alexander the Great and
those who studied French or German, 70 points ahead         Hannibal all in the works, we are invited, once again, to
of those who studied Spanish and 25 points ahead of         think about people and times that offer a unique perspective
those who studied Hebrew. This differential is likely to    on our times.
become even more pronounced as the PSAT’s and
SAT’s are going to a new format in which about one
third of the score comes from a section called “writing,”    During the academic year of Fall 2003 -
with a heavy focus on basic grammar.                         Winter 2004, the Department of Classical
     The impact of Latin on overall student performance      Studies enrolled an amazing 495 students in
is significant, and in a school with a high percentage of    its elementary Latin classes, an increase from
students for whom English is a second language at            386 students only five years ago.
home, it can have an especially strong impact. Students
who are drilled in Latin grammar and vocabulary gain a
vastly enhanced sense of the structures of English
grammar, and of English vocabulary. As there are some                          CLASSICSonline
750 million people in the world today who speak                      
                         Classical Studies Newsletter, Summer 2004 - Volume XI                                        9

     The Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, directly across State
Street from the Department’s home in Angell Hall, has long been a
place where students of Classics have been given hands-on
experience with the Graeco-Roman artifacts brought back from
Michigan’s excavations around the Mediterranean and Middle East.
The Museum’s connection with the Department of Classical Studies
goes back to its very beginning when Francis W. Kelsey, then
Chairman of the Department, began the collections that form the
heart of the Kelsey’s holdings to this day. The Kelsey Museum
houses over 100,000 artifacts, including Egyptian, Near Eastern,
Greek, Roman, Coptic and Islamic materials ranging in date from
3000 BCE to 1400 CE. The majority of these come from Kelsey
excavations in Egypt and Iraq before WWII. Our materials from the
excavation of Karanis, a small Egyptian farming village of Graeco-
Roman date, are unmatched by any collection outside of Egypt
itself. The Museum continues to mount programs of excavation,
survey, collection research, and exhibits in which Department
faculty and students, as well as many from History of Art, Near
Eastern Studies, Anthropology and History, take an active part.
     Over the past 30 years the programs of the Kelsey Museum
have grown dramatically. This has taken place in tandem with the
growth of the Graduate Program in Classical Art and Archaeology,
jointly sponsored by the Departments of History of Art and Classical
Studies, which is housed in the Kelsey. With the University’s support a first-class staff of faculty curators has
been gathered to work on, teach from and display the priceless artifacts in our collections. With this staff, these
collections and a burgeoning group of students eager to work with the Museum’s materials we have unparalleled
opportunities to mount exhibits that bring together in dynamic ways the research of the curators and the
enthusiasm of the students.
    What has been holding back this talented group of people is lack of space, both for display and study. The
Kelsey currently has only 1,900 sq. ft of exhibit space, and less than one percent of the Museum’s collections are
                                                          on display. The building was originally designed in 1889 as
                                                          an assembly place for the Student Christian Association
                                                          and, although a charming example of the Richardsonian
                                                          Romanesque architecture, is sadly inadequate as a
                                                          museum, both in terms of space and climate control. The
                                                          space problems effect much more than the actual
                                                          displays. Eight academic curators, 12 fulltime museum
                                                          professionals and staff, 20+ graduate students, the
                                                          archives of 10 Museum sponsored excavations and
                                                          100,000+ artifacts are crammed into every nook and
                                                          cranny that can be made usable, from basement to
                                                          unheated attic.

                                                                                                  (continued on p.13)
10                         Classical Studies Newsletter, Summer 2004 - Volume XI

By Robert Stephan, Classical Studies Undergraduate
     Remember in Raiders of the Lost Ark, when Indy                help of Professor Sue Alcock and the Kelsey Museum
was running from the boulder after grabbing (for his               registrars Robin Meador-Woodruff and Sebastian
museum, of course) the golden idol? Or, have you ever              Encina, I began researching what was found alongside
seen one of the “In Search Of” programs on the History             the texts. To everyone’s surprise, the original
Channel; perhaps the one about the archaeologist who               excavation records revealed that not only were over one
unearthed what is thought to be Homer’s once-mythical              hundred artifacts found with the archive, but that there
city of Troy? Well, after witnessing enough of these               were actually sixteen papyri that were never translated!
scenarios in movies, on television, and in books, I                Later that week, Professor Verhoogt and I delved into
decided that learning about history would not be                   the Papyrology Collection and found that the University
enough; I wanted to be on the front lines discovering              of Michigan still had the ancient texts. As words came
things myself.                                                     to life for the first time in almost 2000 years, I knew I
     For an intimidated freshman in a university with              had discovered what could only be described as the
over 30,000 students, tracking down lost cities or the             Holy Grail…of papyrus.
Ark of the Covenant seemed a little daunting, maybe                         As if this was not enough, there was still one
even bordering on unrealistic.                                                                surprise left: that I would get the
Thus, I resigned myself to the                                                                chance to share this find with the
classroom and learning about                                                                  entire country. The publicity
the past (history classes), how                                                               began with a simple article in The
to read the past (classical                                                                   Michigan Daily, yet quickly
languages), and even how to                                                                   escalated from there. Next I was
discover the past (archaeology                                                                given the opportunity to share this
classes). Little did I know that                                                              with my hometown in The
less than three years into my                                                                 Cincinnati Enquirer. Apparently,
studies, the University of                                                                    someone in Washington, D.C.
Michigan’s unparalleled                                                                       was reading the Enquirer that day,
resources and unbelievable                                                                    and about a week later I received
faculty would pave the way for a         Figure 1. Sample of artifacts discovered alongside   a call to do an interview for
discovery that would make my             the papyri                                           National Public Radio. In the
dreams come true.                                                                             midst of being overwhelmingly
     In the fall of my junior year, I began researching an             nervous and unbearably excited, I was allowed to tell
archive of papyri (a set of papyri coming from a single                the story of this discovery from coast to coast.
context) under the guidance of Professor Arthur                         After tuning in to hear myself talk (which was really
Verhoogt. This group of texts, which was translated                quite odd), I knew that some combination of luck, hard
and published by Michigan professors in the early                  work, and most of all the help of dedicated faculty and
1950s, was one of the most important sources on what               staff from the Department of Classical Studies, the
life was like for Roman soldiers stationed in Egypt.               Papyrology Collection, and the Kelsey Museum of
While the archive has already been extensively studied,            Archaeology, had finally given me the chance to play
I was taking a new perspective on it by incorporating              the lead role in a real life archaeological adventure.
associated artifacts into its interpretation. With the
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Classical Studies Newsletter, Summer 2004 - Volume XI                       11

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      WHERE ARE YOU NOW?
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                                                                                                                                                                                                        what you have been doing since you left the University as an undergraduate or graduate
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12                      Classical Studies Newsletter, Summer 2004 - Volume XI

Return Address:
__________________________________                                              Stamp
__________________________________                                               Here

                                     MAIL TO:
                                     THE DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICAL STUDIES
                                     THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
                                     2160 ANGELL HALL
                                     435 S. STATE ST.
                                     ANN ARBOR, MI 48109-1003
                         Classical Studies Newsletter, Summer 2004 - Volume XI                                 13
(continued from p.9)
     It has been recognized for a long time that the current building does
not serve well as a museum. In 1930, while still unpacking the collections
in the newly assigned space, then Director J. G. Winter wrote University
President Alexander Ruthven with the plea “ We need permanent quarters
urgently and soon. I do hope something can be done soon to give us a
home”. As usual finances were the main problem. Winter wrote a second
letter to the president on the same day stating, “I have been turning over
in my mind every possible way in which we could possibly raise the
money for a new building”. And thus things stood for 75 years. Truly
Herculean efforts were made by all subsequent directors to provide better
space for the collections and the Museum building underwent a number of
renovations and improvements, but the lack of space remained an
intractable fact of life for the Kelsey staff and collections.
    Now, thanks to an $8,000,000 gift from longtime friends Ed and Mary
Meader of Kalamazoo we are at long last able to expand the Museum.
Although we are just now at the beginning of our programming study, we
are confident that this gift will enable us to build an 8,000-10,000 sq. ft.
addition. We envision at least half of the footage will be used for
exhibits—effectively tripling our current public display space.
    This gift puts us well on the way toward realizing our dream of state of the art display space for the unique
collections of the Kelsey Museum. It does not, however, provide funds for the increased staff that will be
needed to design and maintain the greatly enlarged exhibit functions and properly conserve the larger number
of objects to be put on display. We have just received a challenge grant from the National Endowment for the
Humanities that will match 4:1 funds we are able to raise to endow new conservation and exhibit design
positions. We are now embarking on a campaign to raise $2,000,000 over the next four years for these
    University-based archaeological museums such as the Kelsey are much more than storehouses and display
cases of antiquity. If properly supported they can be vibrant centers of on-going research and teaching as well
as sites for dissemination of the results of scholarly research to the general public. The Kelsey Museum has a
proud history as just such a center in the 75 years since its founding. With these new developments it will be
able to do even more for future generations of students of the classical world.
                                                     Visit the Kelsey online at:

  2003-2004 Donations to the Department of Classical Studies
 Susan Alcock                             Sharon Guyton                            Mr. and Mrs. George Platsis
 Netta Berlin                             Martha L. Hammel                         David Potter
 Patricia A. Berwald                      Meredith C. Hoppin                       Jacqueline DeCroo and
 Sylvia G. Brown                          Cynthia and William King                    Robert Rabel
 Beau Case                                Ludwig and Margret Koenen                Donald L. Riddering
 Catherine Caudell                        Mr. and Mrs. Aldis Lapins                Betty W. Robinett
 Rebecca E. Crown                         Gloria and Howard Lazar                  Milton and Ann Ross
 William Dickerman                        Donald Mackay                            Ruth Scodel
 Naomi Norman and T. Keith Dix            Susan Dunbar Martin                      Margaret L. Thompson
 George L. Farmakis                       David and Meredith Martinez              Mr. and Mrs. Brooks Wheeler
 Kaywin Feldman                           Mr. and Mrs. Ronald McCreight            Gus Wilhelmy
 William Finch                            Alvin B. Michaels                        Barbara Buckman Williams
 The Foundation for Modern                James and Alda Muyskens                  Daniel D. Wilson
    Greek Studies                         Rick and Evangeline Newton               Katherine McCreight Young
 Bruce Frier                              Steven Ostrow and Ann Koloski-Ostrow     John D. Ziegelman
 Craighton E. Goeppele                    Maryline Parca
 Marilyn Scott and Robert Grosse          Martha J. Payne                              Thank you for
 Anne H. Groton                           Gary Pence                                   your support!
14                             Classical Studies Newsletter, Summer 2004 - Volume XI

Greek and Latin Literature                                                  *Lauren Talalay
                                                                            Aegean prehistory, Gender, Neolithic figurines
Chair, Richard Janko
Homer, Oral poetry, Ancient literary criticism, Comedy, Greek religion,     Greek and Roman History and Historiography
Linear B
Benjamin Acosta-Hughes                                                      *Beate D. Dignas
Hellenistic literature, Archaic Greek lyric, Augustan poetry, Greco-        Greek religion and epigraphy, Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor,
Egyptian                                                                    Sanctuaries
*D. R. Shackleton Bailey                                                    Sara L. Forsdyke
Textual criticism, History and prosopography of the late Roman              Social history and law, Greek political thought and ideology
Republic                                                                    Bruce W. Frier
H.D. Cameron                                                                Roman law, Roman social and economic history, Architecture,
Greek drama, Linguistics, Greek orators, Plautus                            Numismatics
Anne Carson                                                                 *Rachana Kamtekar
Ancient Greek literature, Poetry, Critical theory, Translation              Ancient philosophy, History of ethics, Political philosophy
Beau David Case                                                             David S. Potter
Field Librarian, Bibliography and research methodology, Library             Greek and Roman Asia Minor, Epigraphy, Roman public
science                                                                     entertainment
Derek B. Collins                                                            *Raymond Van Dam
Archaic Greek poetry, History of the classical tradition, Religion, Magic   Later Roman empire, Religion and society, the Greek East under
Benjamin W. Fortson IV                                                      Roman rule
Early Greek and Latin, Indo-European linguistics, Metrics, Roman
comedy                                                                      Papyrology
K.A. Garbrah
Greek and Latin language, Comparative philology, Epigraphy, Early           Traianos Gagos
Latin tragedy                                                               Papyrology, Cultural history of Graeco-Roman and late antique
Farouk Grewing                                                              Egypt
Roman poetry, Epigram, Ancient grammatical theory, Literary criticism,      Dirk Obbink
Neo-Latin                                                                   Literary papyrology, Lost books, Hellenistic philosophy, Poetae docti,
*David Halperin                                                             Literacy
Plato, Hellenistic poetry, theory of genres, history and theory of          Arthur Verhoogt
sexuality                                                                   Cultural history of Greek and Roman Egypt, Fayum villages,
Donka Markus                                                                Onomastics
Oral performance of literature in Rome, Latin pedagogy, Reading
                                                                            Modern Greek
James I. Porter
Philosophy, Literary criticism and aesthetics, History of the classical
                                                                            Vassilios Lambropoulos
                                                                            The ancients and the moderns, Ethics and politics, Literature,
*Johanna H. Prins
                                                                            Cultural studies
Nineteenth-century poetry, History and theory of lyric, Translation of
                                                                            *Artemis Leontis
                                                                            Comparative and Modern Greek literature, Diaspora studies
Sara L. Rappe
Classical and Hellenistic philosophy, Neo-Platonism
Joseph D. Reed                                                              Associated Faculty
Augustan poetry, Hellenistic poetry, Adonis cult
Deborah Pennell Ross                                                        Elaine K. Gazda
Latin pedagogy, Latin linguistics, Latin literature                         Professor of Classical Art and Archaeology, Department of History
Ruth Scodel                                                                 of Art
Homer, tragedy, Greek literary criticism, Ancient narrative                 Janet E. Richards
Gina Soter                                                                  Assistant Professor of Egyptology, Department of Near Eastern
Greek and Roman theater, Religion, Women and gender, Pedagogy               Studies
*J. B. White                                                                Margaret Cool Root
Greek literature, Law and rhetoric                                          Professor of Classical and Near Eastern Art and Archaeology
                                                                            Arlene W. Saxonhouse
Archaeology and Material Culture                                            Professor of Political Science and Women’s Studies
                                                                            Thelma K. Thomas
                                                                            Associate Professor of History of Art
Susan E. Alcock
                                                                            Terry G. Wilfong
Hellenistic and Roman East, Landscape and survey archaeology,
                                                                            Associate Professor of Egyptology
John F. Cherry
                                                                            *Adjunct Faculty
Aegean and Mediterranean prehistory, Field survey, Island
archaeology, Theory
Sharon C. Herbert
Greek archaeology, Vase painting, Hellenistic Near East
Lisa Nevett
Archaeology and iconography of domestic space in the ancient Greek                      
                       Classical Studies Newsletter, Summer 2004 - Volume XI                               15
The Context for Classics translation contest, first place           The Department of
winner in the undergraduate category                                 Classical Studies

Horace: Ode 4.7
   ace Ode 4.                                                    Richard Janko

translation by Erin Morris                                       ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
                                                                 Greg Yantz
                                                                 Key Administrator
Earth goes like a pinwheel                                       Michelle Biggs
snow flies off                                                   Elementary Latin Administrator
and green jumps onto the                                         Sean Norton
fields and trees,                                                Program Assistant for Modern
fat and thrashing rivers                                         Greek and Classical Studies
suck in and ride low                                             Susan Sanders
in their grooves,                                                Graduate Program Administrator
undying bodies of grace                                          Joanna Semanske
and nymphs now bend                                              Great Books Program
themselves to dancing                                            Administrator
sweating                                                         Debra Walls
                                                                 Secretary to the Chair
pocking the warm ground
with their gold heels.                                           Jacqueline Williams
                                                                 Undergraduate Program
What immortality?
From the sea hot winds                                           NEWSLETTER EDITOR
take the teeth right out of winter’s                             Jacqueline Williams
summer grinds spring petals                                      CONTACT INFORMATION
to reeking smears,                                               Department of Classical Studies
Fall spills her green apples everywhere                          2160 Angell Hall
with a shock and winter                                          435 S. State St.
comes over her like wolves.                                      Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1003
                                                                 Phone: (734) 764-0360
                                                                 Fax: (734) 763-4959
The moon can lose and repair itself,
but I fall hard into the ground
by heroes’ bones,                                                WEBSITE
I am dust and shadow.                                  
Who cares if God sits there with
strings for humans,                                              Regents of the University
                                                                 David A. Brandon, Ann Arbor
braiding and cutting some in inches,                             Laurence B. Deitch, Bingham Farms
in miles –                                                       Olivia P. Maynard, Goodrich
me and my precious things disintegrate,                          Rebecca McGowan, Ann Arbor
                                                                 Andrea Fischer Newman, Ann Arbor
heirs are left to their own bare hands.                          Andrew C. Richner, Detroit
                                                                 S. Martin Taylor, Grosse Pointe Farms
                                                                 Katherine E. White, Ann Arbor
Torquatus, you think your race, your                             Mary Sue Coleman, President, ex officio
tongue, your godliness will be suture
for your heap at Minos’s feet?
The belly of earth is ink black
and tight as a fist.
God does not bring back
his sheep or heroes.
                                     The University of Michigan
     THE DEPARTMENT of                                                               ORGANIZATION
     CLASSICAL STUDIES                                                                US POSTAGE
     2160 Angell Hall                                                                     PAID
     435 S. State St.                                                                ANN ARBOR, MI
     Ann Arbor, MI                                                                    PERMIT #144

   Address Service Requested

Upcoming Lectures and Events                     Sunday, October 3, 2004
                                                 3rd Annual Platsis Symposium
Friday, September 17, 2004                       On the Greek Legacy , including musical concert
John H. D’Arms Symposium                         3:00 p.m. – 10:00 p.m., Michigan League
Making a Meal out of a Victory?
The Culinary Delights of a Roman Triumph         October 20-29, 2004
4:00 p.m., Rackham Building                      Jerome Lectures
                                                 John Pinto
Thursday, September 30, 2004                     Architects and Antiquity in Eighteenth-Century Rome
Else Lecture
Margalit Finkelberg                              For more information CLASSICS       online
Aristotle and Episodic Tragedy                   on these and other
                                                 lectures, visit us at:
4:00 p.m., Michigan League

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