Erik Joling Microscale chemistry in the Netherlands by zrn20302

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									       Erik Joling

Microscale chemistry
 in the Netherlands



 UNIVERSITEIT VAN AMSTERDAM
     Faculty of Science
              Four points of view
• Industry and government (I)
• Teachers in secondary education (T)
• University (U)




• Pupils (P)
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              Where are the Netherlands?




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              What are the Netherlands?
• A small country between England (overseas),
  Germany and Belgium
• 9220 km (5730 miles) from Mexico City
• 15,750,000 people
• World’s largest port: Rotterdam
• Home of Shell, Akzo-Nobel, Unilever, DSM

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              What is produced in the
                  Netherlands?
• Windmills (a few)
• Wooden shoes (some more)
• Flowers (lots)

• Peanut butter (World’s #2)

• Chemicals (tons)
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              Chemical industry (I)
•   Largest branch of industry
•   60% bulk / 40% fine
•   15% of industrial production
•   20% of industrial export
•   10% of employment



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              Chemical industry (I)
• Twice as much academics as in other branches

• Achilles heel: number of chemists educated




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                  Interest in chemistry
                  Final exams 1999 (I)

                  VBO      MAVO             HAVO     VWO

      Dutch       31,061   51,790           52,257   34,275
                  100%     100%             100%     100%

      Chemistry   1035     17,128           13,871   13,609
                  3.3%     33.1%            26.5%    39.7%



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                Interest in chemistry
                Final exams 1999 (I)

                VBO     MAVO             HAVO     VWO

      Spanish   2       358              669      471
                <0.1%   0.7%             1.3%     1.4%

      Physics   9754    19,342           14,329   16,003
                31.4%   37.3%            27.4%    46.7%



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              Interest in chemistry
         First-year students in 1999 (I)

• University                  537 (≈2%)
• Higher Laboratory Education 472
• Higher Vocational Education 214




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          Consequences for secondary
            chemistry education (I)
• Chemical industry and government are willing
  to spend money!

• Schools adopted by companies
• Projects are initiated and supported

• AXIS-project to promote science and
  technology
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          Change of doctrine in upper-
            secondary education (T)
‘Studiehuis’ ≈ study-home

• independent learning
• streams
• projects

introduced summer 1998 and 1999

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          Consequences for secondary
            chemical education (T)
• Need for a real-life approach

• Need for example projects

• Need for a student oriented lab



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              Late eighties (U)
Universiteit van Amsterdam:
Desire for a microscale laboratory in second year

Mayo, Pike & Trumper
Microscale Organic Laboratory
• very interesting
• too expensive
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              Method and kit (U)
Williamson
‘Macroscale and microscale organic experiments’

• economical




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Introduction into the curriculum (U)
Williamson visited Europe
• instruction for PhD students

summer 1989
• half of the second year organic lab miniaturised
winter 1990
• conversion complete
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                Results (U)
Reduction of

• waste
• chemicals
• cost of breakage to 15%



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              Further steps (U)
summer 1997
• second year inorganic lab miniaturised

Szafran, Pike, and Singh
‘Microscale inorganic chemistry’



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          Consequences for secondary
            chemical education (U)
Lecturer was member section chemical education
  of the Royal Netherlands Chemical Society

• promoted microscale chemistry
• initiated a project



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      Project Microscale experiments
Universiteit van Amsterdam &
Chemistry Communication Center Foundation
November 1996 - December 1999

•   glassware
•   low-cost heating device
•   manuals
•   training
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              Glassware




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              Low-cost heating device




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                  Manuals
Adaptation of existing experiments

Teachers manual and students manual
are loose-leaf:
• flexible
• rearrangeable
• supplements
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                  Training
Over 330 schools (> 50%)
600 teachers

One afternoon training
• on-site
• at the University

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                Future plans
• more experiments
• projects including a teacher-training
• coupling with computer (Coach 5)
• PhD-research project:
     another road to organic chemistry
• Axis-project:
     Industry on microscale
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              Industry on microscale
• 3-year project
• teachers and industrial chemists work together
  to make:
• teaching materials related to real contexts
• blueprint for school-company co-operation



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   Other microscale initiatives (U&I)



Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam &
Chemistry Communication Center Foundation

• Chemistry in droplets

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      Other microscale initiatives (T)
Frans Killian (teaching assistant) &
Aonne Kerkstra (teacher):

Miniaturisation of their own school laboratory
• 96-well microplates
• micro titrations
• µ-GLC
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   (P) Why microscale experiments?
Michael Schallies (Heidelberg, Germany):

    “We must focus on the 95% pupils that do not
           choose to become a chemist”

  “Their chemistry in school is the only change in
   their lives to explore nature by experimenting”
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                      Contact me

              micro@chem.uva.nl

              www.chem.uva.nl/chemeduc/microschaal

              …/MicroQuim2000


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