Separation Techniques Grade 10 Chemistry Chelstone High School. Munalula.C.M Separation Techniques - Deal with the separation of mixtures to enhance purity of substances Are important to because most substances are needed in their pure state. Some Types of Separation Techniques Filtration Chromatography Distillation Filtration This is a technique used to separate mixtures of an insoluble solid and a liquid. Examples of Mixtures You Can Separate Using Filtration Sand and water Broken glass and water Chalk suspensions and water Chromatography Is the separation technique used to separate soluble substances using a media and a solvent. It is mostly applied in identifying mixtures that are coloured or pigments. Types of Chromatography Radial chromatography Ascending chromatography Descending chromatography Radial Chromatography In this type of chromatography, as the pigment separates, the different colours move outwards. Radial Chromatogram Ascending Chromatography The solvent moves upwards on the separating media \ Descending Chromatography The solvent moves downwards on the separating media. Distillation This is the separation technique where two miscible liquids are separated. It is made possible due to the fact that each liquid has its unique boiling point. Types of Distillation Simple distillation Fractional distillation Simple Distillation This is a technique used to separate a mixture of a soluble substance and a solvent. E.g salt and water Fractional distillation This is the technique used to separate a mixture of two miscible liquids with different boiling points. E.g water and ethanol The boiling point for water is 100 while for ethanol it is 78. Fractional Distillation Demonstration Questions What is a mixture? Give three ways of separating a mixture. What kind of mixtures can you separate using the filtration method? Give an example of a mixture you can separate using the fractional distillation method. Answers It is a substance made up of two or more substances which are physically combined. Filtration, Chromatography and Distillation. Mixtures of an insoluble substance and a liquid. Ethanol and water.
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