Document Sample
					39, No. 1 4 7 , W

                            CROW BURIAL: THE PITCHFORK
                             ROCKSHELTER REEXAMINED
                                                            Laura L Scheiber

                         Art1&3s)%m ahe Pitch*     b i d (#PA421 of norhvesiwn Rjwning mnequivoca@ datc lo az.
                      1810,rather thanpwiollslypubtished tsliimatesof eitfrerpdohistaric. ear& historic. w ca.188Qlkis
                      new tjhnation is importPnt&plaposes of eliminating certain Iribalafiliatio~~d f i strengthening
LC Mmima Patt md      aisting hvpothesespertaining & llrc burial t a the individuals werepdab& j .
                                                                  ht                            ,
r C%zk Mcmortl L -

                                                                         by social upheaval or warfare. Gill ard Owsky
                                                                         (1 985) also changed the originalestimated date d
                           T k Pitchfork bwial(48PA42) f o the east-
                                                           rm            tbebndaltotk1880sAswillbedemonsbated,
                      a n f ~ o f t h : A b ~ a r ~ h M o ~ o f n o r ttkoriginalchteisthebetcerone.
                      wesfem Wyoming was recovered in 1973 by a            Despitetknrrmberofyearssinceilsnxov-
                      team from the University d Wyoming 'Ihis Bwm uy,anindepQhar\alysisdtbe~items
                      locatedtwo partiany mmnrnified mate si&tons      found with t burial has m e r been c o w e d .
                      in an isobkd mkshelter. As Mially nqorted by     Thisbears on the dkrconchpions aboottk date
                      Gl (1976), the buxial of protohistoric or early ofthcbmialtbatareinconchsiveardcontradic-
                      historic age was a primary surf" inbtrmert a  f tory. Tbe prtse:nt shady provides a more precise
                      twoindividualslyiogin~withcach~~                ChrO~~logicatpfacemenZ     discusses possible m l e
                                             ~ k
                      0 t o e , m a n a ~ ~m w ~ , m m ~ - w e s ~ t b r w g h w h i c h t h - w e ~ o b k d ,
                                                                       t                         e
                      dkctioa Rior disturbance m the center of tbe    a d arsessesth:t n i khtity of tbe skeletons
                     barialbaicausedtbelossafthepm~,kgs,and                CHRONOLOGICALINDICATORS
                      A,asperGill1976)andtbelossoftbearmiumof                         Ghsj Tmde Beads
                     the second (hdhidd B) (Ei 1). Individuat A            Tbehrgestnumberofartifactsfoundwithtbe
                     was approximately 2 to 35 years old wben be Pitchfork bnriat art ghss tradebeads. More lbana
                     diedIndividualBwas24to26yearsoldThe              th,usand smaIl, drawn embroidery beads on be
                     came of death a d d oot be d t r i e b r either
                                                   eemnd              dsssified as pony beads (Fi2). Four mainbead
                     person Electron microscopy d buman bead lie colors are njmxnkxt white (67%). tanpoise
                     dosgbeadhairscrandsofMdna1 AtedGiuand (21%), Eed with wie centers 0,and Hack
                     owsley (1985) to pastulatethat hrdinately high (4%). Tbe               O f OE d d t b k cmd OM
                     -IS       of nits may have been causedby changes bbgrem bead may -sent              color variation
                     inpersonalgmominghabitsortnrtrientdeficiency. within tbe bladr and turcpise. Munsell colordes-
                     l'heseflwbationsmayinturnbavebeencmed ignations arc whae (M 9.5). blue (1OB 4nO). red

                               Lmvs L mdk.Dcpsrbnent olhthopolqy. U.kedty d W p m h g , L u a d t , WY t f O n
                                                ?bb  ~~V d 39,No. 1+1.pp                 I994
(5R 3/10), black (N 1 . a darlE blue ( . P 2/8),
                                      75B                  parison with other site assemblages (Tables 1,2).
and b h green (5B 416) (Mumell 1966).                           Small drawn undecoratedbeads anbe effec-
     T w e a p o t handadled monocbrom neck-               tive chronological indicators. Generally thest
lace beads w m alsofound with tbeburial (Fig 3):          beads are smalIeraad lessvariable msize in m roe
 1 6 w i t h ~ A i n t b c a r e a d t b c f a c e a n d recePtsitesandexhibaawidavarktyofmb
 chest aad 5 w t I
                ih n -          B (abugh with the         (Armour 1977; Davis 1973; Kidd and Kidd 1m).
 lossoftkcraniumitispossiblttopostutatttk Largerponybeadsof3mmto5mmwert~ep~
 presenceofadditionalnecWacebeadsattktim iapopuIaxitybyderseedbeadsofOmmto2
 of b r a ) Eighteen of these larger beads an mm (Corn 1972; Hanson 1989; Spwguc 1985)
 wound while tbe other three are pmbably hollow           duriag tk middle oftbc nineteenthantmy. In tbe
 brOwn(KiddandKidd1970;Good l977).MunSen                  early Weenth century h e groups on t           k
 m k include t fonowing white (solid matrix:
                  k                                       noithenr Plains preferred tbe lar;$cr embroidery
N 9.0, ban& witbin bead: lOYR 9R), da& b h ~ beads @any beads). Tbesc wert t main ones       k
(7.5PB 3/10), blue green(2.5B 3/6), aad turquoise avaWIe until abut the middle o t c e W     f k
(10B 4/6) (MunseIl1966).                                  w o r e 1992; Hanson 1989; Schaeider lm).
     The outer diameters and ) m all unbro-
                                 e of                     TZle 'pony bead period" bas been defined as the
ken Pitchfodr beads (N = 1034) wen individually time from tbe h&mhctbn of embroidery beads
m a u e withdigital calipers. Irma(bole)diame- until t m& of the ninetenth ceobry, ar aP
  esrd                                                          ki
ter was measuredwith d calipers while look-
                           i                              p         m 1800 to ~ 1850 (Co~m 1972; Sc-
ing d k d y over t bead under a miamcope
                      k                                   1972).
These m a u e e t describe therangeinsize and
         esrmns                                                A majordifiicdty inestablishinga bead
the statistical variation of this collection in wm m b g ~       (basedon drawn beads) for thi northwest-
I N . 147,1934
 39, o                      r
                           mn L Scheiber                                                                            Pitchfork Rocksheher

                                                                  F i 2 Small drawn glrst beads.

                            P   i 3. Luge gbss beads: wound beads uppa mw. middle row. and I o w a right; blown besds kweikfl d otnter.
blishinga bead ~hfa-
S) for t northwe*-
 PLAINS ANTHROPOLOGIST                                                               o
                                                                            V d 39, N . 147,1994

                                                Table2 L t r f f s b e a d r , ~ ~
                m   M e a StdDev. Mm     Mu     VviaMc               M e a S d e . Mi
                                                                            tDv           Mu
  O u l e r W   996 3.10   0.29   212    4.08   - D m           21   8-12    1.15 6.32    10.35
  kma~i-        907 1.01   0.20   0.62   197    h -             21   214     03 1.u       zn
                923 243    a2
                            4     1.38   3.82   Lenga           21   7.43    0.69 5.46    tn
  l ~ e a s u r e m o b ? o ~ l ~ m i .          Mea~tonearertl~millimda.

   ern Plains is tk lack of standardization of tems trade beads date wti tbe interva of appmxi-
  from sites whichhave been well dated (Bass d al           mateIy 1800-1840.

                                                                - -
   1971; D'Amato ad D'Amato 1!l72; HenQon
   1941; Scbneider 1972; Woodward 1970). Al-                    Six dent* shells (Dentaliapretiom)werc
  h u g n marrp histo*            contain gtass trade fad With the pitchfort burial @j1& 4). These
  beadSsummariesoftbese~mblag~iopubkB sma&
  ed reports are ofknlimitedto gross size categories
                                                        ww                 &&apd         s m w m pdabb
                                                                   with              and hair pipes to       a
  and carmd be used m a chronological assessment
  ( a set a 1 1971; Krause 1972; Miner 1960, Mur-
    Bs                                                          Dentalia originate on the southwestem coast
  ray 1 M ; Orchard 1975; Smith 1953,1960; Smitb            ofV-WerIsland        intbem*estempartof
  and Ludwickson 1981). Despite in-depthclassif- united States TheNooh b               w~                from
  cations ofbeads in general (Kaddks 1985; Kidd
  adKidd 1970)           of beads from s w sites
                                                           oBbore beds and traded *
                                                           @rucker 1951, 1955). D e a
                                                                                           for       mate*
  W o r e 1992; Ross 1990), many sources do                trade item in the m - p w s-       y      ad
  provide tbe information needed for useful com-           traded ma            the                premd
 parisom of bead size in                      ad'aced      times for use as ornaments and necklaces
                                                           (Blakeslec 1975; Drucker 1%$ W o 1980).
       Dating          are curre- be- dlned at m t e firr                     -
                                                                              1 also         d e d albugh
 the University of Wyoming based on differences
 of one one-hundredthd a millimeter in size rather with native
                                                                        of trade by Emcorn
                                                                       pPh is e i h       mW1l
 than s w l e size categories ( & h a w and R e b culated(Smith 1953,196(),1972). Th sixdentalia
                                                                                                   or wt cal-
  1992; Reber aod Scbeik 1993). The PitcKork                     PitcKo* help demo-            that trade was
 bead assemblage hasbeen importantbecauseof its
 large sample .size and our ability to date the assern- ming
                                                                      ween~ l in s
                                                                                p P ~     wel
                                                                                  groupsto west.
 blage context with other artifacts
      'Ibe data from tbe Pitchforkburial beads indi-
 cate the fobwing: (1) a Limited assortmeat of                 Gin andowsky (1985)used tbepresence of

all three recorded measurements, (4) irregular
shapes wt uneven and often nonspherically SBOedbone
         bleS ggaificanlly         larger
caIly less variable bead size than found in lata
                                                           " ~ ~ b n e ~ s c g " b ~ ~ f b c ~ ~ ~
ter (pony beds), (3) a wide raage of variation in estimated date of t Pitchforkburial fiom tbe md
                                                           1800s to sometime during tbe 1880s These
                                                                                       pmp* designated as
                                                          hair pipes, a common item traded in tbe Plaim
                                                          (Fig 4)-

nineteenth century burials (Sprague 1984;                                   k
                                                               Moreover, t hair pipes recovered h m tbe
Scheiba aod Reher 1992). aod (6) large mom-                                 were manufachmdfrombOm
chrome neddaot beads with none of the py           l-     as originally as&      but of sben This assessmeot
chrome bodies a n 1 sitg a e r the middle
                          -                               isbased bothuponmicro=pic w s i s andvisual
of the nineteed c e q                 1973). O v e a
this evidence suggests that the Pitchfork gIass
                                                          eXaInidon          lrbair~~pe~
                                                          centric ringsas wen as a peady flnish

  liaptiosum) were
 d        4). 'I'hse
            po a b
 air pipes to make a

  mutbwestem coast
 hestern part of the
 Ifor otber materials
 Na were a principal
 au system and were      P i 4 . Sdtctedrtifutrh~PahfdbrPhl:rtitchodcbthingmdc.~vedw~bowl~Iodi~B;~irBcL
  dming prehistoric
1 and necklaces
   6                                                   *
                         f b h i i A @om Gill 1976-Fi
                              d m
%5; W o 1980).
I ~ dentalia although
Lmericanscompared            From approximately 1780 to 1880 haif pipes    ard phxmnt of hair pipes also fit wen with tbe
mknown or not cd-       were made fiom the lip of West Man conch           cadier pattern of fcw mrmbers and use as part of a
72). The six dentalia   shells imported to New York. At fitst tbey were    single-strand DecMace(Bass et at. 1971). although
tmtetbttradewas         nsed mostly a ear pendants, bair ornaments, and
                                     s                                     the questionof aperson's status contributingto the
8 in northern    o
                W-      necklaxs. The demand for tbe bair pipes on the     rmmber of bair pipes awned bas not been a -     i
totbewest.               UpperMissouridmmaticanyimeasedastbecen- dressedandmayrelatetobowmanyarr:foundin
                         brry progressed. OriginaIly used as hair deoora- abmial
                        tions, they became increasingly utilized in                 Trade Coat and Brnss Wlttons
Rsedtbeprese~l~eof      elaboratebreastplatesandrrecklaces.Tkimeas-
:       tbe previous    ingnumberofbairpipesusedbyiodividualscain-
                                                                                I n c h d d A was f o d wearing a red coat
: bmial f o the mid
         rm             cided wt a change in the material used b make with woven-
                                ih                                                              trim.This coat was first b
le 1880s. These so-
                        tbe i e sduring tbe late nineteenthcentury. After terpreted as possibly being ofBritish or Canadian
>e pe  designated as    1880 sbeflhairpipeswere replacedby cheaperand     miIitag origin (Gill 1976). Subsequent invest@
raded in the Plains     less breakable hair pipes commerciallymadefrom tion of tbe coat itself does not substantiate this
                        the lower leg bones of d e . By 1889 sben hair    tadKr interpretation Clothing and coats N +   S-
recovered from the      pipes were no longer made (Ewers1957; Walters bling military dress were frequently traded to tbe
dachuedhmbone           1989).                                            Indians and were often a sign of -ge.      oua
en.Thisassessment            The same &acts used in 1985 to date tbe ant colors included blue, yellow, and d with
:anatysisandvisual      burial to post-1880 may now be used to dale it to m e m c woven bands @mwn 1971). During the
hibitelongatedcon-      pre-1880, not considering continued usage of old  eady 1830s, wbile tcdveling on tbe Missouri in
yhkh                    shell bair pipes wen after that date. Tbe amount  Marxian tenitory, Maximilian (1906:342) mted a
  WM                e
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            W ~ * ' ~ = P ~ J r n e .~=fi)ImP!=pcre~VoNa!d        m
            P-WuIPwpcrepadL.alAar~PForIs                       ? m p o s q ~ m d t n a s = ~ m s ~
            F W V d ? m " W W ~ ~ l r r p n q ? m J o J- ~ c ) w J ~ J J ~ ~ ~ ' I P ~ Q ~ M , ,
                                                         g ~
            ~ ~ . a f e m ~ l ~ a o . L - P l - = ~ n a a@~lsapXamsm~¶~OJnasa~owol
            - ! ~ ~ ~ s a t e p ~ ~ p c r e ' u a r I ~ ~ ~ m
                                                    pasn=srapeq?m=q=                   . *ww
            ~   ~      ~     =     =   w   !   w   ~       o ~ v
                                                       l papr-ople'm-pw       z ~ w ~ o             1   3
                           wwaswga                                      l              S
                                                                              s laplra~ U A
                                                    p a r y o ~ o m e n~assarp,
anti?       W61'LPI:       '6€ P   A                                 L S I ~ O d O ~ S N f V ? d
  icators bave b#n
   ln='hs caiteria
  ed Intbecasesd
   k % a e
  k W d t
  P be Qcumented,
  prolonged usas.
 .?itcModc artifads
 d of tbe eady to
 tmy (Fig 5, Table                            8          K:         U          3A         38          4A         6A
 t i burial is 1800
  hs                                                                  Criteria
 Jrin& pop*ty,
 Eartywithinthis                                        Before Burlal            Dating Bracket
 : most accept-

  men could aIso
 period, However,                                                          nic aEf%ties. T r e primary measmments f h m
 : 1880sweaing a                                                          tbe PitcKorlEIndividual A we= compared to tbose
 m and styIisb in
  l                                                                       from th: eigbt known populations (Table 4. Tbe
 Sea by Edgar a
  . .          d                                                          r s l s adequately x$xkd Bki&f"t, Shoshoni,
 mhdwls died                                                              Apac4 tnd Arikara, displaying greater than95%
po Butte is p s i -                                                       diff-bepweentbe-                 dtbegroup
mt the battle oc-                                                         (average zscaregreatertban 18) Tbe Pitchfork
q which would                                                             mate is m o likely Sioux, Crow, Hidah, a
ork burial (Bob                                                           Cbeyenoa By adding six additional measure-
.1992),although                                                           ~tbe~o~~seemsdosesttoCIbFP-
r signsof skeletal                                                      Hidatsa (74% varianoe) (avemge z-score= 0 6 ) .5
                                                                        (T'able 5).
                       Cheyenne. AWough some of these people ctkl mt          A simple 8rapbicaI comparison af sCandard
                       lraoessarifyocmpymrthwesternWyomingdurhg cranial M c e s also demonstrates these trends.
 ss                    the nineteenth cenhuy, they were hxporated to This hhm'que emphasizes proportions, mt just
 11 and Owsley        belpvalidatetbes&dy:ie.,theApacheshoddmt          rawdataThercfore,itmaybeabettermethod
adividualsburied      show dhities with th:Pitchfork individuals.       since proportions art more c m l x genetically
Ieither Crow or            Population mearts for these groups h e pn- than size fsctors within a popuIation (George Gill,
ted cranium and       viously been wrqared to indivicbmlMontana and personal oommunicatioq 1W),             although more
                      Wyoming protohistoric aod historic s e e a specI- & f i i t to cvaluafe ~uantitatively. population
                                                           kltl                                             Th:
pmtitative corn-      m n t be@ determine popuMonal &hities
                        es o                                            averages ipchwle Writ Sioux, Crow,Sbosboni
1 conchsiom of        (Gill 1990a, 1990b;Weathemon 1 9 ) B calcu-
                                                         90. y          and Hdta (Hdkka 1927)as wl as a mndif-
                                                                              ias                         el
ological cranial      lating zscores (or sQndard scores) between the ferentiafed sample from the hte prehistoric ard
Jghtpopulzdio~        eigbP populations listed above and an M v i M in  historic Hd in Wjoming and Montana (Gill
mn in Hrdlicka        questio~, may compare Ute nnb-nwn bdivi&
                                OE                                       91.
BhckfW, Crow,         ual with tbe group avenge (Hinklt d aL 1988;           C d d , upper facial, d, dital indi-
  Apache, and         Witte 1 8 ) Lowerz-scoresMcateposnble cth oes were compared to the Pitchfork Individual A
Pn        ~ & l m ~ p p e ~ a P n o q s o r I s I r R m -lm-J-IrRlo-=all
w                                                         s =lW&d
          ~ ~ 9 ~ e q ~ ~ o 1 o ! q ~ p r e poa1 e w ~ w n!            ~ f i
         ?tma@     P moIS ?m e S w 8 1 ~ M M I                    P
                                                                  I !
                                                             n! m a fiW W W as013                 ?
Eta3S                                                    ~    ~      1 ? P
         ! C Z ~ I I P Y O ) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~I o ~R3 P W d ~ 0 [ 1 f i ~ ~ ~ 3 3 ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~
         I s r ~ 0 ~ ~ 9 y e n w ? m o f n ! m @ !( 6 % ~ ( 1 6 6 1 1 l l f ) ) ~ ~ o ~ a o l ~ ~ ~
         -aa-Prn!slm'LreaWl~                            P ~ J W P ~ ~ ~ F ~ ~ P ~ ~ W W Y
         smsad uolle~ndod         l a)                                                 s
                            %m rr(l '(ZE61 - o h ? J C ' l W t o ) ~ l r I l m ~ W Wb l a p a q
         'mr *o? f8s61-3 ) o = c  o n rt                  =       !
                                                        ' q lm u ?f*       ln
                                                                          ew lm s a r s
                                                              r r
         w * ~ ' ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ! c t ~ a l s a ~ l r ~ l ~ =atts e         m '(8 a ! q
                                                                           !w            le~s w
         =!x~~~m?m~-*lsomall                           msWwaq=wir!~prre~W~-
                                                       s p I
         ~Sm~sorlS~WP~ar3rrptpno)y l ~ J ~ ? r ~ ! ¶ ~ * ~ p t r a r q f i o ~ s
                                                        ~ p     3l ~
         ~ l e p l ~ l l n a m ( n ? ~ ~ ) n ~ a aar e ~ m ~ o m q ! d w n % ~ 6 1 3 1 ~ ~
         WQIVO'31!d ltlr P holsm qarll aI WOWJ aar3 l m P m4qa                              eF
                                                                              'es]eP!H lm m V
         ~       ~      P       P      I        ~      '       ~        !W     ~        d       a      ~
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                           ma L Sceeiber                                                                                                                           Pitchfork Rockshelter

                                     Crmlal lndex
                                               ..................      ............................................................................................................................
                                               ..................                                                                 ...................................................................
                                               ..................                                                                ....................................................................
                                               ..................                                 .................. ~
                                                                                                                                 ...................            ......................................
                                               ......,...,.......                                                               ...................             ...................73,7..

                                               ..................                                                                ..................             ..................             ........

                                                                                                                                                         I                              I

                      I            Wpming/Montafu Crow                               8i0ux                      Pil~hWk                        8Whonl                           bUd8t08
                                                                                    Male Samples
                                                                                              Cranial Index

                                   Upper Faclal lndex
                                67 1                                                                                                     I

 Gill and Owsky

ng ethnic a£6nity
a1 and momgIy
Pitchfork Raoch
)mention that tbe                     Pitchfork             Hldalra                 Crow                          81wx                       8hvahonWyoml~/Mont~
 ~ b o n i were
            s                                                                     Male Samples
IC Greybull River
Ekin, along with
                                                                                    Upper Fackl lndex
58; Lowie 1909,
h t k n pressures
heyenne increas-                                                    F w 7. Upper Facial Iadex cwprrbasr
I rdter about tbe
  (Grimell 1923;          seemm&~toberehtedtoth:Crow.                                                  (Lowie 1924282; Morris 1897:103-104; Smith
rt and Cheyenne                A o Edctor to examine is tbe nst of a
                                 aW                                                                    1974:150-151; Yarrow 1881:127-128). During
gical traits elimi-       mck&elterforburiai.Utesand Sbosbonisdidbury                                  tbe late         century many Plains groups
t, tbe individuals        tbeir &ad in ~ockshelters crevices histodcally
                                                  and                                                  including tbe Chow typicaIlyjhd theirdead on
     PLAINSANTBROPOLOGIST                                                                                                                                             o
                                                                                                                                                              V d 39,N . 147,l9g4

             Nasal Index                                                                                                                                                                            dead in
                                                                                                                                                                                                    c m
             I   63.6
                 I............................................................................................................... -..........................................

                       I                                                                                                                                                                            w e
                                                                                                                                                                                                    m w , il

                                                                                                              48.1 48                                                                               (1 935 8
                                                                                           .................. m................
                                                                                                                      ......................................                                        shelters
                                                                                                                                                                                                    C o rn
II               Crow WyominglMonlan. Hldatna                                                                Slwx                        Sbhoni                          Pllohfork                 cloth..a
                                                                            Male Samples
                                                                                        Nasal lndex
                                                                                                                                                                                                   *      1
                                                                                                                                                                                                   though 1
                                                             F                              ~                            t                            N                             ~         ~    merq tb
                                                                                                                                                                                                   a pm
             Orbital Index                                                                                                                                                                         m      b
                 --    6
                                                                                                                                                                                                   the m0.d
                                                                                                                                                                                                   the color
                                                                                       5 .................................................................................................

                                                                                                                                                                                             I I

                                                                                       I 1.................. B7.7....................................................................
                                                                                                                                                                                                   with whi
                                                                                                                                                                                                   white m
                                                                                                Pitchfork Rockshelter

                &dincavesandmtherocls.Hesssignstbis                   colors of tk be& from t F'itchfork burial are
                  &mge to about 1825 during    tbe time of Red        tbougbtoneitbersupport~lor&tribalalZini-
                Feather a tbe Temple, a leader of tbe Ibhntah         ties.
                Crow. Ron (1979:105) comborates that Red
              5 Feather was influenlid from 1825 to 1836.Others

              . bave reported further burial pmtices smong tbe                      Tbetwomain~hgoalsaddressedintbis
              -    CroTv,iocludingburialinalodgeoroax5onaIly                   malysisaretoestimatetbedateandthetni
                   i the ground (BushneI11927;
                    n                            Morgan 1959:171;              H t of tbe PiEcMoork burial (48PA42). The Sac
                   Yarrow 1 8 : 5 ) Morgan (1959) i Lorpie
                             8113.                      d                      probably ltpresentsa Crow interment, based on its
                   (1935:68)aIso mention tbe importance of mck-                W o n md            derived frombiological compari-
                   sklters as primary intenmot bcatiom for tie                 sons, moltuaypfa&es, and d a c t analysis Tbe
                   ~ a s w e n ~ ~ ~ ~ r i e s c v e n                         a f men were probably b\tried during the euiy
                                                                               two t e r
                   scaffolding "'ibqr remove or take tbem h m tie                        a
                                                                               1800s,c ,1810.
                   d o h l t e tbem up m a M e f in scarfet
                             i                        ht                            Tbe~~~~andutiIhtionoftrading~-
                  doh..and arouod thisa lodge &n andthencany
                                                  i,                          works have also been suggested by this m         h
                  t k m on horseback for humbeds of miles to tbe              Prelhhuy results support avenues westward
                  mountains,where tbey place tkm in clefts of the             h the Msor River as well as eastward fkom
                  locks, or m craices..." (Morgan 1959171). Al-               tbe Pacific Northwest Coast Beads, clothing and
                  though the PitcMork burial was a primary inter-                                  ee
                                                                              decorativeitems w r cominginto Wyoming fkom
                ~ o e * t b e s e u p l i f t a d m o ~ u s a ~ e a s w e r e E u r o a r n e h trading posts, probably along tk
                w n t l y important               resting p
                                                          -.       -,         Missouri River. Ahhough some oftbe first trade
                expediency as a motivating factor sbould h            be beads may have come north from tbe Spanish
                werlooked On tk mrhwestern Plains, for ib                     Southwestvia tbe Sboshoni ( W i i h u tad Ewers
                stance,burial on a rock ledge along a high ridge is           1 5 ) tk presence of other item such as brass
               the most common type of burial (il 1991:437; buttons md sben hair pipes iodicates grater ties
               Yarrow 1881:127).                                              to the British, Fh-, and American fix trade in
                    Another item which should be sddressed is the east. Tbe cmws possessed reciprocal trading
               tbe colorofthe smallergIass beads. Blue and white ties withboth Hidaka and MaodanvFllagesduring
               beads compose 88% of the assemblage,8% are lied                historic limes (Mackenzie 1%0:349; hkchihn
               with white centers, and 4% are black Blue atrl                 1 0 : 5 ) Dtntafia &ens were traveling cast
               whaeweretbetwoprfmarycolorsrrsedbytbe                         fromth:PacificpmbablyviathePbteau 1856       In
               P k Iadians, foIIowed t ksferurtentsbybI&
                                              o                              Denig (1953)npoRed that the Cmw commonly
               green,I , and ydow (Davis 1973;DeVore 1992; traded b California sea shells Ibe Crow fit-
                       &                                                               r
               Jablow 1956:44;Orchard 1975:95;Powen 1 5 )         9 3 . quedytmdedwithPiateaupeopksachastbe
              Especiallybefore tk 1860soldy a W e d mtrrber Nez Percc and Fhtbead (Blakesk 197931                          ).
              of colors were avaihble, including b h , white,                      Somc of tbepeeviousir&rpretationswmxrn-
              black, Ftd.and amber. Not surprisingly consider-               ing the Pitchfork burial were based largely upon a
              ingtbe time of tbebwial, four oftbese colorsw r      e e strspected date md tbe results of electron micros-
              found in tbe Pitchfork rockshelter. It was not until copy,which levealedbead lice i n f ' o n A well-
              the advent of smaller seed beads later in the nine-           regarded attempt was made 0 lelate pathology t     o
              teenth c e q tbat wider ranges of colors were                 mrtrition and s o d conditions. The high mt counts
              common (Wildschut ad Ewers 1959:45; W o - could have been causedby long-termdisruption in
              ward 1 7 : 7 .
                      903)                                                  social patterns andlor poor nutrition Theii pres-
                   Assignments of bead color to tribal groups is eracestinsnggestssomedisturbarceinthecdtd
              often based on these hter sites mVore 1992) system and possiible absence &om th:main group
Solding was   which contain assemblages with a wider variety o        f for a o a year, althoughnotas early Reservation
Crow. antis   colors. Tbe fewer the availabIe bead colors fkom runaways a previously nYp0th:sized (Gin and
*ppon         which to choose, tbe less likely tnial differences Owdey 18) Tht importance of raiding and
bmied their   canbeascerbined@avis 19733l).Tkrefore,,tbe warfare for achieving slatus is well documented
                                                                                                                                    Pitchfork Roddeber

                                                                                                    1970  ACb&f&SyrtnaforGlasrBtrdrfafbc
                                                                                                         rr# d Ffla kcb.edo&. k C h d i m ) His-
                                                                                                               Hfrrqy 1:4549.

                                     19%     hd$s dtbe Cqm, Wp&ng Fum~ic         Cma
                                             O S a O f f i i R e p x t ~ f a ~ W y ~Ktrase.RiddA.
                                             StrieCrimeL.bartory,Ckyme. Wyoming. Q   1972    l%nwSitgfi+aanHiMc
                                             file st the University of Wyoming Hurmn        Mara ckuumim-y. University aiK.mrs Ad&-
                                             -logicrlm-                                     aLiolqNunber3.                                                   I

 dam for Diagnc&                                                                                              n l - b1 0 0
 b Bud Types. In. Hir-
 ~      N             ~       k        -                                                               1935   lh Cnrv W o n r Fprp md R i n e w New
 saKR.Fl&&pp.                                                                                                 Yak
                                                                                                   hm .
                                                                                                  - . C
                                                                                                       1967   l%n Colleaor'r Encyckpxffu4Bntmu- O w n
                                                                                                              RMkbar, New Y a k
                                                                                                      1960    'Lbe W i o r n i hbiam:   A N&    d FOW

                          I       ~ll,OoorgeBird
                                   Wl3    ~ChtyenneMans:IkclrHldoryondWqyr4
                                             Li/, V o b
                                                               Yak ZAivcrsify hry New                   . .
                                                                                                      1h      'LtrvekinIbc~oFNorthAmaicrkW
                                                                                                              Wesfem  ~~     17181816 edited by R.0.
                                                                                                              pany, Ckvelmd Originany pirblished by Acker-
4llwim-d                                                                                                      aa nrad Company. h c b n , 1843.
-Hill Book Canpany,
                                                                                                  LCilkr, W F.
                                                                                                      1960        xatol
                                                                                                              lk.E c n i c d Investigation& t LOOkDLlf
                                                                                                              Tg    Post I1 (Sik39LM57) m lbt FcR RmdaN

                                  Hi*,          ,
                                          D e b E William W     i .adStephen Q kn                par 1249-82 o&ted by Frauk Roberts.Bureau d
                                     1988                                                        ~
                                             A p p l i e d B a t i ~ f r ~ a ~ h ~ ~ ~ d S e m , A x w i m Etbmlogy, Bulletin 174 S t d k m i a n
                                  -Ua                                                             Ya=Y,J==
                                    1927    Cdalogne d H -             a Zktited Suau
                                                                       i                           1896                       ,kligiolr d Ibs SiDtlr Old-
                                                                                                           lk.~ b o s t ) a o e
 A*                                                                                    4h
                                            National Idusarm Cdfectioar. f i o c d h g ~ t                 beak of 1894 Fc&emthRnmccll Repat
dy. A n f J m p o ~ c d                     United SMer Natiaral Mwewn 69(5). &nit&                        ~ ~ l o ~ S e a e t m y ~ t h e S n t i r h
'AmcricatlEthadogy.                         s am hstituioa
                                             oi                                                                 INb'nrW 18-92-93. h 2   t
                                  hbtow. kSepb                                                    Y              ~              ~          H
n n
                                   1955                           J n
                                            The w n n + ft P ~ ~I d au          ~~                    1959    lUI&Javnolr            b~ i es d
                                                                                                                        185962. l b T c nv rQ
                                            17551840.MoooMollogfrphr db am^^^
                                                                      tc                                      )dicbi~~AmArbcc.
                                            F a 1 Society, Number 19. U. q d n Pub-
                                            hsber, New Yak

  PLAJNS ANTHROPOLOGIST                                                                  Vd. 39, N a 147,1994
  Mark, Robat C                                                  IrpdReinbdd-.WY&
     1897  W y ~ I a d i a r : A B r # f ~ C o m ~ W
  S a b M
           t   i   a     w     c   f    h     ~     ~      ~ Ednahidqy4kW*Uta.Mustmad
                                                      H 1974     ~    ,    ~   ~
           I,byRobatCMark.pp91-1#'IboWycmkg                     New Mexico Rar.
                                                        1 3     Tndo Bea& 6om Fat Barn014 NS.
   1966   Miur#11Boa)4CdaCdaMscbdb~dPb                          Tean-d           6:41-5s.
          lomeby Divisioq Kollmogen C q m d h , N e a
          avgbNsaY&                                     1%0     FCd       n (3mln8 .
                                                                i n I b t ~ ~ A r u , ~ ~ R n
                                                                                             H t id g Par(
                                                                                              ka b
                                                                                                                                e       ~
  Mun):RobatA                                                           P-    18:83-16% edited by Fra&
   1961   GbTndeBea&dFmtLvamicl7nWyarri~
         Atck&@a 12(3)cU-19.
                                                                R o b a b ~ c f ~ ~ , W l f l e t i n
                                                                176. fbifhxh t d u b a .

                                                               1 m        L i k W m m d Y ~ d F a t ~ G p . ,
    nd        LettB cm ZJo d tb Univadty of Wyolllirp Fb                  ~   R     ~   ,   N    d    ~   N     ~   p   .       r
             m         a        a          ~   ~       ~       .          Sezvia.4lathplogialPlpcn2
                                                              1981 F a f M d~ A r c ~ c f 5 s V ~ p r M h
             ~ m r M @ & 28551-5U.                                 xrrtlr l k d - Pdcf1812-1813. T b M Ik.
                                                                   kob A r c h a c o ~socidy* S p e d Mlidm
 Orchard,WiElisDIC                                                 NIlnkr 7.
  197s    BerdtcmdBedwc?k~kA~Inmmq2ad
           d d i a . M " - , , d m c ~ ~ & y e SpraguqRrn
           FomMq,New Yo&                        L984  GtPrT'~kANine~CBlbryUf8
                                                               hkdeast Ul& edited k Richard E
                                                     BmIP1alfia*                   g
  1953    A S t m l y d ~ ~ c f h N a l b ~          dLmdM.nrg~~~dtldtmlResouoaSaia
          m=1*-4rkscknr~y~+(a                                h
                                                     N u ~ n 166
          Nar S7. S t P d
                                                198S G3mTn&BackA~~H&ku&d
 Reba,ChrrkrA,xIdhLScheiba                           Arc-       lgOtF1OS.

                'Aaalyskd      - -       Hk
                    ~ ~ w c f*hr a
                           s                    ~             1932       Pikm a t U w Miairnippi 1SOS1806 A b
            d l ~ b g yK
                       ,     m Cay,K
                                   -                                                           W
                                                                         Qxdm CadtheRngbA~nerhm d 21-10.
                                                      Vo- Fred W .
   1979     ha               ~ s ~ d - ~ c p ~ i r i - 1961    W d k e n d t b o k ~ d h ~ c d -
          fiOP LL: W y y c f InIemmlam d P&im
                    caa                                        h r a I a : ~ ~ i r C ~                                      ~       ,
         Montana Indimrr, e d i i by Leslie R hvk. pp          Euc3ylInHona~~PdaM~sdited
         S l O a M o n t a n a S l a t c U n i ~ , Pi
                                                   ~,          by W.KOoodcaolylSpp483-509.
                                                      W ~ A I n m l m
                                                       1989    l7n~4NaffwArnoriocrBemcl)roAdMyJbi
  1990   TraaSBeadshHW1l3ayckmpzmyFat                          & m i n h m i c t m I n r f l a A r ~ ~ ~
         Vancanma (1829-1-         V w , W&bia&                s.PFrurifoa

                                                      Wedmmm, Ridr
Sdkibc&LaumL                                           1990    z-.caCmdInferezcu.Appepdi.Taoi~
  1993   Univady a€ W        w A m SMetrl I -   n              mdfkFlyhgFkaBsriPSkeklqby~
         loq Project Inventor). of Sfrc1d.l Remaim.            W.Gill~cpalprepdfa~~ofLmd
        m i n g D e p m e n t d ~ r d t b s ~
                                                               Managema&,       Moa(a0.. (h fib d
                                                               Univmity d Wyoming Humr (~ttob*
        oft& Wyoming SMs A r c h a b o ~
Scfieiber,LaumL, adCharles A R c b a                        W U d d , W&tu,andJobPCEwers
  1992                       dRotohiEtoric/Erty              1959             Illdm              A     md H b
            bric T d B e d m Wy o -
                                 m '  Papa prrsented                     McdSr~dj.(XmtriifiumtbU~d
            . t t b c 3 0 c h W ~ A n ~ ~ C o a l ~ -                    h ~ m r i c o h b i a %ye~-Vd
                                                                                               q           16-
            cecq h 4NebrPsh                                              New Yadr
SchneiiRicbmlC                                              w m s w S.
 1 m    04fb c f * N O r p k A m I , + -       Va            1989               Jrd      HdS              W*

,Na 147,1994            1aer8L.Sceeiber                                                             Pkhf01%RochbeIter

vYak                             -=-s                                          +ihlllehiioark:Abhp&gyatkGrsrrl
                                                                               P ~ ~ ~ W . R . W o o d a d M ~ , p p
                        Woodwrrd.~                                                         d
                                                                               W-l09.&iva&y -     ?mu, b l p
~              M    ~    1 m d l k W n d 0 1 1 4 c k r P b M WaLanlac
pa                             hcn.h a d a m , C l t f i Rmkd 1 7 .
                                                               99       Yaoa.HC
                                                                         lml   APulba-b*woflbe-
                          96    ~   ~   ~    ~   ~   ~                   ~     m y c k oA ~ m srd & ~ A m a i c m M l l t l . ~ a
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                                                                               ~   ~    o   n   m   a   I   b   j   r   P   b   O   ,   ~   .
rlocicTmdiagPort        W o o 4 W . ~
klrdak&uln                90
                         16   Pkinm?McihtbidoricmdhdobirtoricIda-
d i e d by FrmL

'atLkthot4 Gar-
r 2.

r 4an U m l F i -
pcehl Pllbkdon

pp. 6 - 0 lbcau


,laB-lm Aku
ws 21-24

rd A
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36ap d M y *
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om <Idcobgicd

mw'w and His-
ndatb,   V d 16.