English Language Arts - Grade Four by nzu52594

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									                      English Language Arts – Grade Four


Strand III: Language Conventions, Voice, and Communication

MCF Later Elementary Benchmark 1.2
Read with developing fluency a variety of texts, such as short stories, novels, poetry,
textbooks, menus, periodicals, and reference materials.

Grade Level Benchmark 1.2
Read with developing fluency a variety of texts, such as short stories, novels, poetry,
textbooks, menus, periodicals, and reference materials.



                                 Analysis of Benchmark



Key Concepts
   • Fluency is the ability to read smoothly with appropriate expression and
      understanding.
   • Reading fluently is a skill that requires frequent practice with a variety of texts
      such as short stories, novels, poetry, textbooks, periodicals, and reference
      materials.
   • Fluency is acquired through modeling and speaking as well as reading.


Evidence of Achievement
  Michigan Curriculum Framework – Grade Level Content Expectations
   • Read a variety of texts with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression.

 Classroom Assessment
  • “Reader’s Theater”

Instructional Activities
   • Teacher will model the development of a tall tale or other piece of literature into a
       Reader’s Theater.

   •   Teacher will instruct students on the importance of practice, including fluent
       reading, oral presentation, voice intonation and visual representation of a reader’s
       theater.




                                Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                     958
   •   Students will develop a Reader’s Theater as an entire class and perform.

   •   Students will break into small groups for a final Reader’s Theater performance.

Resources
      Teacher
            Books:
               • From Phonics to Fluency: Effective Teaching of Decoding and
                   eading Fluency in the Elementary School by Timothy V. Rasinski,
                   Nancy D. Padak (Paperback)
               • Building Fluency: Lessons and Strategies for Reading Success
                   by Wiley Blevins, Judy Lynch (Paperback - January 2002)
            Videos:

              Websites:
                • Fluency: A Review of Developmental and Remedial Practices
                    http://http://ciera.org/library/reports/inquiry-2/2-008/2-008.html
                • Reference Materials
                    http://school.discovery.com/schrockguide/referenc.html

              Others: (Field trips, speakers, MI CLiMB examples)




       Student:
              Books:

              Videos:

              Websites:

              Other:




                               Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                  959
                                    Assessment


Title of task: Reader’s Theatre                      Grade: Four

Strand/Content Standard/Benchmarks: III. 1.2, 1.4, 6.1
                          See Integrated Assessments

                                          Assessment Task
You will orally read a piece of literature fluently.



                                  Scoring Guide Criteria

       •   Accuracy
       •   Appropriate rate
       •   Expression


     Beginning                Developing               Achieving               Exceeding

                                               Student fluently reads a
                                               given piece of literature.
                                               Teacher notes accuracy,
                                               reading rate, and quality of
                                               expression.




                               Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                              960
                      English Language Arts – Grade Four


Strand III: Language Conventions, Voice, and Communication

MCF Later Elementary Benchmark 1.4
Employ multiple strategies to recognize words as they construct meaning, including the
use of phonics, syllabication, spelling patterns, and context clues.

Grade Level Benchmark 1.4
Use word recognition strategies to recognize words as they construct meaning, including
the use of phonics, syllabication, spelling patterns and context clues.

                                 Analysis of Benchmark



Key Concepts
   • There are various ways to recognize words.
   • Words can be recognized through phonics, such as learning the phonetic rules and
      generalizations to unlock words.
   • Words can be recognized by understanding the syllabication rules and patterns for
      language.
   • Words can be recognized by understanding the spelling rules and generalizations.
   • Words can be recognized by using context clues and visual cueing systems
      (graphs, pictures, photographs, tables, captions, headings, bold words, etc.).

Evidence of Achievement
 MCF – Grade Level Content Expectations
   • Explain how to use word structure, sentence structure, and prediction to aid in
      decoding words.
   • Recognize words in context using structural analysis (the study of syllables,
      prefixes, suffixes, roots, and origins) and syntactic analysis (regular/irregular
      verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and subject/verb agreement, etc.).

 Classroom Assessment
  • “Reader’s Theater”

Instructional Activities
   • Teacher models, using phonics, syllabication, spelling patterns and context clues
       to recognize words.




                                Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
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   •   Do mini-lessons on syllables, prefixes, suffixes, roots through your literary
       textbook. Use those lessons to build spelling lists.

   •   Students practice using strategies during guided reading.

Resources
      Teacher
            Books:
               • Effective Reading Strategies: Teaching Children Who Find
                   Reading Difficult (2nd Edition) by Timothy V. Rasinski, Nancy
                   Padak
               • Improving Comprehension With Think-Aloud Strategies
                   by Jeffrey D. Wilhelm, Judy Lynch

              Videos:

              Websites:
                • Teaching Word-Identification Skills and Strategies
                    http://http://eduplace.com/rdg/res/teach/
                • Spelling ideas
                    http://http://theteacherscorner.net/reading/spelling/index.htm
                • Vocabulary ideas
                    http://http://theteacherscorner.net/reading/vocabulary/index.htm
                • Phonics http://http://webenglishteacher.com/phonics.html

              Others: (Field trips, speakers, MI CLiMB examples)




       Student:
              Books:
                 • Reader’s Handbook – Great Source Education Group

              Videos:

              Websites:

              Other:




                                Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                       962
                                          Assessment


Title of task: Reader’s Theatre                         Grade: Four

Strand/Content Standard/Benchmarks: III. 1.2, 1.4, 6.1
                         See Integrated Assessments

                                           Assessment Task
You will be asked to select five words from your reading and explain how a person could figure out
what the word is- if it was an unknown word to them.



                                     Scoring Guide Criteria

       •   Identification of strategies



     Beginning                Developing                 Achieving                Exceeding

                                                 Explanation correctly
                                                 identifies the word
                                                 recognition strategies that
                                                 apply ( phonics, structural
                                                 analysis, context…).




                                 Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                963
                      English Language Arts – Grade Four


Strand III: Language Conventions, Voice, and Communication

MCF Later Elementary Benchmark 4.1
Describe language patterns used in their spoken, written, and visual communication
contexts, such as school, neighborhood, sports, children’s periodicals, and hobbies.

Grade Level Benchmark 4.1
Describe spoken, written, and visual language patterns used in formal or informal
settings.

                                 Analysis of Benchmark



Key Concepts
   • There are many different uses of language depending upon the situation, whether
      it is formal or informal.
   • Some of these examples include language use at school, home, in the
      neighborhood, sports, children’s periodicals, and hobbies.
   • There are appropriate uses for different situations.


Evidence of Achievement
 MCF – Grade Level Content Expectations
   • Adjust use of language to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences
      and for difference purposes; e.g., community building, appreciation/invitations,
      cross-curricular discussions.

 Classroom Assessment
  • “Venn Diagram”

Instructional Activities
   • Brainstorm different uses of language, i.e. School-neighborhood, sports,
       children’s periodicals, hobbies, community building, math class, letters, etc.

   •   Discuss why people talk/write differently in certain situations.




                                Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
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   •   Present a formal conversation and an informal conversation.

   •   Compare and contrast the two.

Resources
      Teacher
            Books: Why We Must Run with Scissors by Barry Lane

              Videos:

              Websites:

              Others: (Field trips, speakers, MI CLiMB examples)




       Student:
              Books:

              Videos:

              Websites:

              Other:




                              Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                     965
                                             Assessment


Title of task: Venn Diagram                        Grade: Four

Strand/Content Standard/Benchmarks: III. 4.1, 4.2, 4.5


                                       Assessment Task
You will be asked to analyze two different language situations (formal vs. informal) and to describe
the difference between the two in a Venn Diagram.



                                    Scoring Guide Criteria

       •   Recognition
       •   Venn Diagram


     Beginning                Developing                   Achieving                 Exceeding

                                                  Recognition of the qualities
                                                  of a formal conversation vs.
                                                  an informal conversation.

                                                  Venn diagram completed
                                                  correctly.




                               Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                  966
                      English Language Arts – Grade Four


Strand III: Language Conventions, Voice, and Communication

MCF Later Elementary Benchmark 4.2
Describe how features of English, such as language patterns and spelling, vary over time
and from place to place and how they affect meaning in formal and informal situations.
An example is exploring regional language variations in the United States.

Grade Level Benchmark 4.2
Describe how the English language varies and adjusts over time and from place to place.
Recognize how this affects meaning in formal and informal situations.



                                 Analysis of Benchmark



Key Concepts
   • Language is a living system that continually changes and evolves through time.
   • Language differences are often dependant upon location and culture of a given
      area.
   • Different situation may call for formal or informal usage.
   • Language and spelling patterns can vary by region, culture, and time period.

Evidence of Achievement
 MCF – Grade Level Content Expectations
   • Recognize words in context using structural analysis (the study of syllables,
      prefixes, suffixes, roots and origins) and syntactic analysis (regular/irregular
      verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and subject/verb agreement, etc.).
   • Spell words in context using multiple strategies and resources; e.g., spelling
      patterns, word lists, dictionaries, spell check.

 Classroom Assessment
  • “Venn Diagram” - See III. 4.1

Instructional Activities
   • Discuss with students how different parts of the United States uses different
       vocabulary words to refer to the same item such as Pop vs. Soda, You all vs.
       Y’all.




                                Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                    967
   •   Use various types of literature dialogue to give examples of regional dialect and
       slang.

   •   Students will research various literature pieces and search for examples of
       language patterns for their region in their research project.

Resources
      Teacher
            Books:
               • Multicultural Literature for Children and Young Adults:
                   Reflections on Critical Issues (Contributions to the Study of World
                   Literature) by Mingshui Cai
               • Teaching Reading With Multicultural Books Kids Love
                   by Carol J. Fuhler, Nancy Gray (Illustrator)

              Videos:

              Websites:
                • Multicultural Children’s Literature in the Elementary Classroom
                    http://http://ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed423552.html
                • Cultural Diversity Through Children’s Literature
                    http://http://multiculturalchildrenslit.com/

              Others: (Field trips, speakers, MI CLiMB examples)




       Student:
              Books:

              Videos:

              Websites:

              Other:




                               Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                     968
                      English Language Arts – Grade Four


Strand III: Language Conventions, Voice, and Communication

MCF Later Elementary Benchmark 4.3
Begin to recognize how words and phrases relate to their origin. Examples include
surnames and names of bodies of water or landmarks.

Grade Level Benchmark 4.3
Begin to recognize how words and phrases relate to their origin, such as Native
American words and Michigan landmarks.

                                 Analysis of Benchmark



Key Concepts
   • The English language is made up of words with many different origins.
   • These words can be explained using their place of origin, for example
      “Kindergarten” is German and means “child garden”.
   • Words have been formed from many different language origins such as dead
      languages, technology, affixes, etc.
   • Language varies depending upon location and culture of a given area.
   • Phrases such as idioms, clichés, epigrams, and similes can add color and voice to
      writing.

Evidence of Achievement
 MCF – Grade Level Content Expectations
   • Recognize words in context using structural analysis (the study of syllables,
      prefixes, suffixes, roots and origins) and syntactic analysis. (regular/irregular
      verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and subject/verb agreement, etc.)

 Classroom Assessment
  • “Michigan Match Up”

Instructional Activities
   • Study word origins of Michigan cities and rivers (Saginaw, Shiawassee,
       Tecumseh, Charlevoix, Detroit, Raisin River, etc.).




                                Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                    969
   •   Through various classroom readings, Teacher will select and discuss
       identification of vocabulary, the origin of words and the development of word
       usage such as slang, words from other countries, and dialect.

Resources
      Teacher
            Books: Dictionary of Word Origins by John Ayto

              Videos:

              Websites:
                • Changing Language, Beowulf to Buzzwords
                    Students read and listen to sample texts from Old, Middle, and
                    Modern English. Activities guide students to an understanding of
                    changes in English. This site, sponsored by the British Library, has
                    two levels. Be sure to click on the "Teachers Information" link.
                    http://http://bl.uk/services/learning/curriculum/projects/changelang
                    /main.htm
                • The Evolution of Languages - A beautiful site exploring
                    etymology, regional dialects, cognates.
                    http://http://exploratorium.edu/exploring/language/

              Others: (Field trips, speakers, MI CLiMB examples)




       Student:
              Books:

              Videos:

              Websites:

              Other:




                               Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                 970
                                             Assessment


Title of task: Michigan Match Up                            Grade: Four

Strand/Content Standard/Benchmarks: III. 4.3



                                       Assessment Task
You will match Michigan cities and river names with their origins (language).



                                   Scoring Guide Criteria

       •   Identification of word origin (language)



     Beginning              Developing                  Achieving                Exceeding

                                               Student is able to match 90%
                                               of the words to their original
                                               language.




                               Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                971
                     English Language Arts – Grade Four


Strand III: Language Conventions, Voice, and Communication

MCF Later Elementary Benchmark 4.4
Explore how words normally considered synonyms can carry different connotations when
used in a variety of spoken and written texts.

Grade Level Benchmark 4.4
Explore how synonyms can convey different meaning in certain situations.

                                Analysis of Benchmark



Key Concepts
   • Meaning can be affected through word choice and meaning.
   • Denotation is the dictionary definition of a word.
   • Connotation is the implied meaning of a word through context.
   • Synonyms may have different meanings or connotations.
   • Word choices are more appropriate in some situations than others.

Evidence of Achievement
 MCF – Grade Level Content Expectations
   • Determine the meaning of words and phrases (similes, metaphors, words with
      multiples meanings, and content area vocabulary) in context using strategies and
      resources (context clues, concept mapping, semantic feature analysis, dictionary,
      and thesaurus).

 Classroom Assessment
  • “What’s the Meaning of This?”

Instructional Activities
   • Take a poem with general descriptive words (big, small, etc.) and generate new
       synonyms that could replace the words in the poem. Then rewrite the poem using
       the new vocabulary.

   •   Do a thesaurus searches for common words and their synonyms (said, big, tall,
       etc.). Make a list to keep in a writing folder.




                               Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                 972
   •   Use a synonym pair and generate two sentences that have different connotations.
       This can be done independently or in small groups.

   •   Share and discuss all responses.

Resources
      Teacher
            Books:
               • Merriam Webster's Dictionary of Synonyms by Merriam-Webster

              Videos:

              Websites:
                • Roget’s Thesaurus http://http://bartleby.com/62/
                • Word Study Skills – synonyms
                    http://http://manatee.k12.fl.us/sites/elementary/palmasola/synonym
                    s.htm

              Others: (Field trips, speakers, MI CLiMB examples)




       Student:
              Books:
                 • The American Heritage Student Thesaurus by Paul Hellweg

              Videos:

              Websites:

              Other:




                               Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                973
                                           Assessment


Title of task: What’s the Meaning of This?                  Grade: Four

Strand/Content Standard/Benchmarks: III. 4.4


                                     Assessment Task
Given a pair of synonyms, you will write sentences using each synonym in ways that show how
different they can be.



                                  Scoring Guide Criteria

       •   Number of sentences
       •   Degree of difference



     Beginning             Developing                Achieving                 Exceeding

                                             Number of sentences with
                                             different meanings for
                                             synonym pairs.

                                             Degree of difference
                                             shown in the sentences.
                                             How different are they ?




                              Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                              974
                     English Language Arts – Grade Four


Strand III: Language Conventions, Voice, and Communication

MCF Later Elementary Benchmark 4.5
Recognize and use language appropriate for varied contexts and purposes. Examples
include community building, mathematics class, team sports, friendly and formal letters
or invitations, requests for information, interviews with adults, and significant
discussions.

Grade Level Benchmark 4.5
Recognize and use language appropriate for varied contexts and purposes. Examples
include community building, math class, invitations, requests for information and
discussions.

                                Analysis of Benchmark



Key Concepts
   • There are many uses of language depending upon context and purpose.
   • Story discussions, casual conversations, playground games, thank you letters, and
      daily conversations are some uses.

Evidence of Achievement
 MCF – Grade Level Content Expectations
   • Adjust use of language to communicate effectively with a variety o audiences and
      for difference purposes; e.g., community building, appreciation/invitations, cross-
      curricular discussions.

 Classroom Assessment
  • “Venn Diagram” - See III. 4.1

Instructional Activities
   • Teacher instructs on the conventions and components of a friendly letter.

   •   Use conventions/components taught to write daily letters between two students in
       a letter writing journal. Teacher can daily check student’s use of those
       components.




                               Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                  975
   •   Use e-mail forms on the computer to discuss the informality of e-mail
       (comparing it to the form/components of a friendly letter).

   •   Teach/practice how to write complete and specific questions.

   •   Teach/practice how to state a personal opinion.

Resources
      Teacher
            Books:
               • Author’s Talk by Leonard S. Marcus
               • My Grandma, My Pen Pal by Jan Dale Koutsky

              Videos:

              Websites:

              Others: (Field trips, speakers, MI CLiMB examples)




       Student:
              Books:
                 • Plantzilla by Jersin Nolan
                 • Love, Ruby Lavender by Deborah Wiles

              Videos:

              Websites:

              Other:




                               Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                               976
                     English Language Arts – Grade Four


Strand III: Language Conventions, Voice, and Communication

MCF Later Elementary Benchmark 6.1
Practice using elements of effective communication to enhance their relationships in their
school and communities. Examples include enunciation of terms, use of humor, and use
of emphasis.

Grade Level Benchmark 6.1
Practice using elements of effective communication to enhance their relationships in their
school and communities. Examples include enunciation of terms, use of humor, and use
of emphasis.

                                Analysis of Benchmark



Key Concepts
   • Effective communication includes eye contact and appropriate body language,
      including facial expressions and gestures.
   • Pronunciation and enunciation can help or hurt communication.
   • Voice qualities such as volume, pitch, rate, and tone impact communication.
   • Effective communication can enhance their relationships in school and
      communities.

Evidence of Achievement
 MCF – Grade Level Content Expectations
   • Read a variety of texts with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression.
   • Adjust use of language to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences
      and for difference purposes; e.g., community building, appreciation/invitations,
      cross-curricular discussions.

 Classroom Assessment
  • “Reader’s Theater”

Instructional Activities
   • Share standards of effective communication. Teacher should model effective and
       in-effective communication types. Discuss and describe how these elements
       enhance communication.




                                Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                  977
   •   Have students volunteer to demonstrate effective and in-effective elements of
       communication: eye contact, appropriate body language, pronunciation,
       enunciation, appropriate volume, moderate pitch, and appropriate rate.

   •   Provide opportunities for students to speak in front of the class. Examples: share
       writings, oral reports.

   •   Periodically evaluate students’ oral presentation skills.

   •   Practice reading dialect for humor.

   •   Have students act out a humorous situation from a tall tale.

Resources
      Teacher
            Books:
               • Reason to Write: Help Your Child Succeed in School and in Life
                   Through Better Reasoning and Clear Communication by Douglas
                   B. Reeves
               • Response Journals: Inviting Students to Think and Write About
                   Literature (Teaching Strategies) by Julie Wollman-Bonilla
            Videos:

              Websites:

              Others: (Field trips, speakers, MI CLiMB examples)




       Student:
              Books:

              Videos:

              Websites:

              Other:



                                Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                  978
                                            Assessment


Title of task: Reader’s Theatre                                 Grade: Four

Strand/Content Standard/Benchmarks: III. 1.2, 1.4, 6.1
                          See Integrated Assessments

                                      Assessment Task
During your Reader’s Theatre presentation you will demonstrate effective communication skills.



                                   Scoring Guide Criteria

       •   Eye contact
       •   Volume
       •   Pitch
       •   Body language
       •   Enunciation


     Beginning             Developing                 Achieving                   Exceeding

                                            Theatre performance
                                            demonstrates effective
                                            communication skills, as
                                            recorded on a teacher checklist
                                            which contains the criteria
                                            listed above.




                               Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                979
                     English Language Arts – Grade Four


Strand III: Language Conventions, Voice, and Communication

MCF Later Elementary Benchmark 6.2
Explain the importance of developing confidence and a unique presence or voice in their
own oral and written communication.

Grade Level Benchmark 6.2
Identify the importance of confidence and voice or personal style in oral and written
communication.

                                Analysis of Benchmark



Key Concepts
   • Every communicator has a distinct personal voice or style.
   • It is important to develop and expand this voice or style as a communicator.
   • Personal voice or style will impact communication.


Evidence of Achievement
 MCF – Grade Level Content Expectations
   • Adjust use of language to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences
      and for difference purposes; e.g., community building, appreciation/invitations,
      cross-curricular discussions.
   • Exhibit individual style and voice to enhance the written message; e.g., in
      narrative text: strong verbs, figurative language, and sensory images; and in
      expository text: precision, established importance, and transitions.

 Classroom Assessment
  • “Author’s Style”

Instructional Activities
   • Students will observe and document conversations taking place at home, school,
       and in their community for a variety of purposes paying attention to voice and
       style.

   •   Students begin to include voice and style in their conversations and writing.




                                Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                   980
   •   Teacher will discuss speaker presence and voice and how it effects
       communication.

   •   Students analyze their own writing to identify personal style or voice

Resources
      Teacher
            Books:
               • The Morning Meeting Book (Strategies for Teachers Series, 1)
                   by Roxann Kriete, Lynn Bechtel
               • Oral Language Resource Book Education Department of Western
                   Australia
               • Oral Language for Today's Classroom by Claire Staab
               • Help Is on the Way for Oral Reports (Skills on Studying)
                   by Marilyn Berry, Bartholomew

              Videos

              Websites:
                • Oral Presentation Rubric
                    http://memorial.sdcs.k12.ca.us/LESSONS/WWII/WWIIunit/oralpr
                    esentation.html

              Others: (Field trips, speakers, MI CLiMB examples)




       Student:
              Books:
                 • Writer’s Express – Write Source Education Group

              Videos:

              Websites:

              Other:




                               Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                981
                                             Assessment


Title of task: Author’s Style                                 Grade: Four

Strand/Content Standard/Benchmarks: III. 6.2, 6.3
                          See Integrated Assessments

                                       Assessment Task
You will write an informational piece that explains your personal style in writing and oral
presentations. Is your style like any well known author, speaker? Have you tried to imitate them?
What makes your style unique?




                                    Scoring Guide Criteria

       •   Content and Ideas
       •   Organization
       •   Conventions


     Beginning                 Developing                  Achieving                 Exceeding

                                                  Explanation thoroughly
                                                  addresses the task questions.
                                                  The answers are thoughtful
                                                  and thought provoking.

                                                  The explanation is organized
                                                  to inform and persuade.

                                                  The language is well
                                                  controlled. Lapses do not
                                                  interfere with meaning.




                                Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                  982
                      English Language Arts – Grade Four


Strand III: Language Conventions, Voice, and Communication

MCF Later Elementary Benchmark 6.3
Identify the style and characteristics of individual authors, speakers, and illustrators and
how they shape text and influence their audiences’ expectations.

Grade Level Benchmark 6.3
Identify the style and characteristics of individual authors, speakers, and illustrators and
how they shape text.

                                  Analysis of Benchmark



Key Concepts
   • Authors, speakers, and illustrators use different styles of communication to
      connect to the audience.
   • Style is a characteristic way in which a person expresses ideas through language.
   • The way authors, speakers, and illustrators present ideas evoke feelings and
      different responses.
   • The style of individual authors, speakers and illustrators influences audience
      expectations.

Evidence of Achievement
 MCF – Grade Level Content Expectations
   • Exhibit individual style and voice to enhance the written message; e.g., in
      narrative text: strong verbs, figurative language, and sensory images; and in
      expository text: precision, established importance, and transitions.
   • Explain authors’ use of word choice, style and voice to enhance their message.
   • Respond to oral and written texts by extending, elaborating, and creatively
      representing the authors’ ideas.

 Classroom Assessment
  • “Author’s Style”

Instructional Activities
   • As a group, identify styles and characteristics of different authors.

   •   Find examples of how authors shape text.



                                 Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                      983
   •   Discuss what feelings and expectations the students have about the pieces of
       literature they experience.

Resources
      Teacher
            Books:
               • Guiding Readers and Writers Grades 3-6 by Gay Su Pinnell and
                   Irene Fountas
               • Author Studies Handbook by Laura Kotch and Leslie Zackman

              Videos:

              Websites:
                • Author study http://http://teachers.net/lessons/posts/2285.html
                • Author Study Home Page
                    http://http://athens.fcps.net/author_studies.htm
                    http://http://sdcoe.k12.ca.us/SCORE/cyberguide.html
                • Children's Literature Web Guide - David Brown at the University
                    of Calgary has put together one of the premier websites on all areas
                    of children's literature
                    http://http://acs.ucalgary.ca/~dkbrown/index.html

              Others: (Field trips, speakers, MI CLiMB examples)




       Student:
              Books:

              Videos:

              Websites:

              Other:




                               Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                 984
                                      Assessment


Title of task: Author’s Style                               Grade: Four

Strand/Content Standard/Benchmarks: III. 6.2, 6.3
                         See Integrated Assessments

                                        Assessment Task
You will identify author style by telling what the author does to make their writing unique, exciting,
etc.




                                    Scoring Guide Criteria

   •   Content/Ideas
   •   Organization
   •   Conventions



    Beginning              Developing                    Achieving                    Exceeding

                                              Explanation correctly two
                                              things that make a specific
                                              author identifiable.

                                              The writing is organized to
                                              inform/persuade.

                                              The language is well
                                              controlled. Lapses do not
                                              interfere with meaning.




                                Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                    985
                     English Language Arts – Grade Four


Strand III: Language Conventions, Voice, and Communication

MCF Later Elementary Benchmark 6.4
Reveal personal voice by explaining growth in learning and accomplishment through
their selection of materials for different purposes and audiences. Examples include
portfolios, displays, literacy interviews, and submissions for publications.

Grade Level Benchmark 6.4
Continue to develop personal voice by explaining growth in learning.



                                Analysis of Benchmark



Key Concepts
   • Personal voice in writing is the distinctive way in which the writer expresses ideas
      with respect to style, form, content, purpose, etc.
   • All communicators have a personal voice.
   • This voice changes as they develop and grow as communicators.
   • This growth of voice can be demonstrated through use of journals, portfolios,
      displays, etc.

Evidence of Achievement
 MCF – Grade Level Content Expectations
   • Focus writing by identifying audience, point of view, and format based on
      purpose.

 Classroom Assessment
  • “Portfolio”

Instructional Activities
   • Have students remember conversations they have had. Have them write the
       conversations as faithfully as they can.

   •   Select an event (such as a recess problem) for students to write about. Have
       students write one version for their parents and one for their friends. Share in
       small groups or pairs. Discuss how the voice changes in each version.




                                Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
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   •   Rewrite a piece of their writing in a different format, such as a poem or a
       newspaper article. Note how the “voice” changes.

   •   Students examine their portfolios and explain their own growth in voice.

Resources
      Teacher
            Books:
               • Portfolio Sourcebook by Barry Lane

              Videos:

              Websites:
                • Personal Voice – 6 Traits http://6traits.cyberspaces.net/mini-
                    voice.html

              Others: (Field trips, speakers, MI CLiMB examples)




       Student:
              Books:

              Videos:

              Websites:

              Other:




                                Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                     987
                                           Assessment


Title of task: Portfolio Reflection                      Grade: Four


Strand/Content Standard/Benchmarks: II. 12.3, 12.4
                                    III. 6.4
                         See Integrated Assessments

                                      Assessment Task
You will analyze your portfolio and describe how you have grown/changed as a writer.




                                  Scoring Guide Criteria

       •   Growth
       •   Explanation


    Beginning            Developing                  Achieving                  Exceeding

                                            Analysis specifically
                                            identifies area of growth and
                                            cites examples.

                                            Analysis explains possible
                                            reasons for growth (peer
                                            revising, focus correcting,
                                            attention to detail, more
                                            reading/writing …).




                              Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                               988
                      English Language Arts – Grade Four


Strand III: Language Conventions, Voice, and Communication

MCF Later Elementary Benchmark 8.1
Identify and use mechanics that enhance and clarify understanding. Examples include
sentence structure, paragraphing, appropriate punctuation, grammatical constructions,
conventional spelling, and relating in sequence an account of an oral or visual experience.

Grade Level Benchmark 8.1
Identify and use language mechanics that enhance and clarify understanding.



                                Analysis of Benchmark

Key Concepts
   • Language mechanics are the written conventions and rules of our language.
   • Some examples of mechanics include: grammar usage, punctuation, spelling,
      capitalization, etc.
   • The effective use of mechanics enhance and clarify understanding of written
      material.
   • Different types of text require different mechanics and text structure.
   • There are specific rules that must be applied for effective written communication.
   • There are a variety of organizational patterns that serve specific functions.
   • Sentences can be written in a variety of ways to enhance aesthetic quality.
   • Words can be categorized into different parts of speech (nouns, verbs, adjectives,
      adverbs, pronouns, conjunctions, interjections, and prepositions) to create a
      common language to enable them to become better writers and communicators.

Evidence of Achievement
 MCF – Grade Level Content Expectations

 Classroom Assessment
  • “Michigan History”

Instructional Activities
   • The classroom, as a whole group, decides at the beginning of the school year
       “What Third Graders Should Know” in regards to writing mechanics,
       conventions, and rules.




                                Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                   989
   •   Use mini-lessons to demonstrate how poor mechanics can cloud the clarity of the
       message.

   •   Use Daily Oral Language (by Great Resources) to evaluation achievement in
       mechanics. (See “Scope and Sequence”)

   •   Demonstrate how a sentence can be written several ways and still convey the
       same meaning. Example: Winning the prize made me happy. I was so happy
       when I won the prize.

Resources
      Teacher
            Books:
               • Hot Fudge Monday: Tasty Ways to Teach Parts of Speech to
                   Students Who Have a Hard Time Swallowing Anything to Do With
                   Grammar by Randy Larson
               • Caught'Ya !: Grammar With a Giggle by Jane Bell Kiester,
                   Jacqueline Cake (Designer), Ralph Knudsen

              Videos:

              Websites:
                • Grammar, Usage, Mechanics
                    http://http://webenglishteacher.com/grammar.html
                • Paragraphs - Gives very simplistic description of what goes into a
                    paragraph, how to write one, and the different types.
                    http://www2.actden.com/writ_den/tips/paragrap/index.htm
                • Paragraph a Week; A Yearly Writing Program
                    http://http://teachersdesk.org/topics/par_week_program.html

              Others: (Field trips, speakers, MI CLiMB examples)

       Student:
              Books:
                 • Writers Express by Great Source Publishing
                 • Essential Grammar in Use With Answers: A Self-Study Reference
                     and Practice Book for Elementary Students of English by
                     Raymond Murphy

              Videos:
              Websites:
                 • Grammar and Mechanics help for students
                     http://http://indianchild.com/english__grammar__help.htm

              Other:

                              Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                990
                                               Assessment


Title of task: Michigan History                                 Grade: Four

Strand/Content Standard/Benchmarks: III. 8.1, 8.4


                                         Assessment Task
Select a time period or event from Michigan history. Write a story about the event and the people
who participated. Don’t change historical outcomes. You have more freedom with characters who
may be actual historical figures of the time or fictional. Include interesting characters, conflict, and
dialogue. Pay attention to word choice, grammar, and mechanics.



                                     Scoring Guide Criteria

       •   Content/Ideas
       •   Writer’s Craft
       •   Mechanics


    Beginning               Developing                     Achieving                      Exceeding

                                              Story focuses on an event from
                                              Michigan history. Writer
                                              understands the time period –
                                              paying special attention to
                                              historical correctness- minimal
                                              anachronisms.

                                              Use of dialogue, characterization,
                                              conflict and metaphor contribute
                                              to the effectiveness of the story.

                                              Language is well controlled.
                                              Mechanics enhance and clarify
                                              meaning.




                                 Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                      991
                      English Language Arts – Grade Four


Strand III: Language Conventions, Voice, and Communication

MCF Later Elementary Benchmark 8.4
Identify and use aspects of the craft of the speaker, writer, and illustrator to formulate and
express their ideas artistically. Examples include intonation, hues, design, perspective,
dialogue, characterization, metaphor, simile, and points of view.

Grade Level Benchmark 8.4
Identify and use aspects of the craft of the speaker, writer, and illustrator to formulate
and express their ideas artistically, including intonation, simile, metaphor, and dialogue.

                                  Analysis of Benchmark



Key Concepts
   • Craft means using various aesthetic elements when speaking, writing, or
      illustrating.
   • Using various aspects of the craft of speaking, writing, and illustrating greatly
      enhanced the meaning and understanding of ideas communicated.
   • Appropriate word choice is important (strong verbs, colorful vocabulary, strong
      imagery).
   • The use of illustrations enriches the printed word.
   • Aesthetic elements include flashback, metaphor, and simile, mood, tone, etc.,
      dialogue and points of view.

Evidence of Achievement
 MCF – Grade Level Content Expectations
   • Explain authors’ use of word choice, style and voice to enhance their message.

 Classroom Assessment
  • “Michigan History”– See III. 8.1

Instructional Activities
   • During author studies (See III. 6.3), identify various aspects of the author craft.
       Include examples of how authors use perspective, dialogue, and description to
       enhance literature.

   •   Give examples to students of how they can incorporate writer’s craft in their own
       writing including metaphors, similes, flashbacks, mood, tone, and colorful
       vocabulary.

                                 Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
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   •   Assist students in editing and revising a selected portfolio (See II.12.2) piece by
       including one or more writer’s craft techniques to improve the selection.

Resources
      Teacher
            Books:
               • Wondrous Words by Katie Woodray
               • The Reviser’s Toolbox by Barry Lane
               • Craft Lessons: Teaching Writing K-8 by Ralph Fletcher & Joann
                   Portalupi
               • Nonfiction Craft Lessons: Teaching Information Writing K-8 by
                   Joann Portalupi, Ralph J. Fletcher

              Videos:

              Websites:
                • Literary Terms Glossary
                    http://teachers.pps.k12.or.us/literacy/stories/storyReader$33
                • Using Picture Books to Teach Narrative and Six Trait Writing
                    http://http://geocities.com/oberry1790/narrativebibliography.htm

              Others: (Field trips, speakers, MI CliMB examples)




       Student:
              Books:

              Videos:

              Websites:

              Other:




                               Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                  993
                      English Language Arts – Grade Four


Strand III: Language Conventions, Voice, and Communication

MCF Later Elementary Benchmark 8.5
Describe and use the characteristics of various oral, visual, and written texts (e.g., films,
library databases, atlases, and speeches) and textual aids they employ (e.g., footnotes,
menus, addresses, graphs, and figures) to convey meaning.

Grade Level Benchmark 8.5
Describe and use the characteristics and organizational structures of various oral,
visual, and written texts to convey meaning.



                                  Analysis of Benchmark



Key Concepts
   • Various oral, visual, and written texts have specific characteristics such as
      vocabulary, organization, purpose, etc.
   • Various oral, visual, and written texts have textual aids such as prefaces,
      appendices, stage directions, prologues, etc.
   • Using specific characteristics will more accurately convey meaning and inspire
      audiences.
   • Textual aids exist to aid the reader’s comprehension of the material.

Evidence of Achievement
 MCF – Grade Level Content Expectations
   • Apply knowledge of text features to locate information and construct meaning;
      e.g., tables, maps, marginal notes, written directions.

 Classroom Assessment
  • “Graphic Organizer”

Instructional Activities
   • Use a compilation of films, library research, maps and speeches to convey chosen
       subject matter using PowerPoint.

   •   Use graphs, illustrations and footnotes during a presentation to set an example of
       how to use these elements.



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   •   Provide opportunities for students to create visual aides for a whole classroom
       report and demonstrate the presentation with and without the visual aides.

Resources
      Teacher
            Books:
               • Teaching Students to Read Nonfiction (Grades 4 and Up)
                   by Alice Boynton (Author), Wiley Blevins (Author)
               • Reading and Writing: Nonfiction Genres
                   by Kathleen Buss, Lee Karnowski

              Videos:

              Websites:
                • Reading Informational Text
                    http://http://smasd.org/pssa/html/Reading/rihand12.htm

              Others: (Field trips, speakers, MI CLiMB examples)




       Student:
              Books:

              Videos:

              Websites:

              Other:




                               Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                  995
                                            Assessment


Title of task: Graphic Organizer                             Grade: Four

Strand/Content Standard/Benchmarks: III. 8.5


                                      Assessment Task
Select and event or time period from Michigan history. Study the event/time period using two
different kinds of text (oral, written, or visual text). Note the textual aids employed to convey
meeting. Compare the two in an appropriate graphic organizer. Write/orally present an explanation
that justifies the choice of organizer and elaborates on the content.



                                   Scoring Guide Criteria

       •   Understanding
       •   Comparison
       •   Choice
       •   Explanation


    Beginning            Developing                   Achieving                   Exceeding

                                           Organizer/presentation clearly
                                           demonstrates importance of
                                           characteristics of
                                           oral/visual/written text and the
                                           aids they employ.

                                           Organizer shows recognition of
                                           differences between text types.

                                           Organizer is appropriate to task.

                                           Written/oral presentation
                                           adequately explains choices of
                                           organizer and text differences.




                               Bay-Arenac ISD 2003
                                                                                996

								
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