GIS HardwareSoftware System Architecture and Design by nzu52594


                System Architecture
                    and Design

Parts of this lecture draw upon:
Dave Peters, ESRI User Conference 2002
And Ronald Briggs, U Texas, Dallas
    GIS Software system components

   User interface
   Tools and functions
   Data manager
    System architecture configurations

   Desktop
   Client-server
   Centralized desktop
   Centralized server
       GIS software categories

   Desktop
   Server (Internet)
   Developer
   Hand-held
   Other
        ESRI’s GIS Components
                                                    Consistent interface
c:\ ArcGIS Workstation              Clients         Increasing capability

     ArcInfo      ArcEditor       ArcView       $   ArcExplorer               Browser
     ArcMap        ArcMap          ArcMap
     ArcCatalog    ArcCatalog      ArcCatalog
     ArcToolbox    ArcToolbox      ArcToolbox

ArcEngine/                                                ArcServer Services
ArcObjects                      ArcIMS Services
Development &      ArcSDE Services


                                                                             Source: ESRI with mods.
               GIS Characteristics
    Detailed, high resolution graphic displays
    Large data files
    Intensive data analysis/computation
    Need powerful workstations
    Need powerful servers for data retrieval
     and batch processing
    Need high capacity networks

    These requirements differ significantly from standard IT
    Information System Components
   Computer hardware: physical machinery, boxes, cables,
   Software: instructions which make hardware perform as
    desired by user
    – Operating System to control the basic functions of the hardware
      and networks
    – Applications to provide users with desired results
   Data and databases to store information required by
   Networks to distribute information between different
    computers and users
   Orgware: people, procedures & organizational structures
    to make all of the above function
    – 85% of cost of IT?
                 The Computer:
              Hardware Components
   Central processing unit
    – microprocessor (control unit             Storage
      and arithmetic/logic unit)               -disks
    – primary storage -RAM (main               -tapes
      memory or simply memory)
   Secondary storage
    – disks
        » magnetic                   Input       cpu        Output
        » optical
                                     devices                devices
    – tapes                                     Main
   Input/Output Devices (I/O)
   communications devices/
        network connections
     Some Measurement Concepts
                       for CPU and Storage
   capacity
    –   bits and bytes: 8bits=1 byte
    –   kilobytes (KB), megabytes(MB), gigabytes(GB), terabytes (TB),petabytes(PT)
    –   (x1,000) 1KB=1,000bytes 1TB=1,000,000,000,000bytes (approx.)
    –   5MB: the text of all of Shakespeare’s works
    –   1TB: 2001 digital orthos for one large city
    –   10TB: text of the library of Congress
   speed
    –   hertz: number (frequency) of electrical pulses per second
    –   clock cycle (megahertz: MHz): (8088: 4.7MHz; p5: 133MHz; p5II 450MHz)
    –   MIPS: million instructions (integer) per second (very~ = 1 MHz)
    –   Gigaflops: Billions of floating point operations per second
        Central Processing Unit: performance
          Moore’s Law: Performance doubles every 18 months
                                          main memory capacity (RAM):
   processor speed
                                           (size of program &/or data file)
    – clock cycle (megahertz: MHz):
                                            – 256MB-1GB (pc)
      8088-4.7MHz PIII-750MHz
                                            – Servers substantially more
    – word length (8,16,32,64) at
                                          Processors & their
      single address (8088-16; PIII-
                                            – single v. multi processing
    – data bus width (processor to
                                                » 1 v 2,4,8 processors
      main memory) (8088-8; PIII-64)
                                            – massively parallel processing
Examples                                        » 1,000 processors
    – 4.7Mhz - 2.2Ghz (pc/ws)               Ability of multi-processors to improve
    – Servers substantially more              performance depends on
                                              operating system capabilities and
                                              application software design
                          Moore’s Law

(Wikipedia) Moore's law is the empirical observation that at our rate of technological
development, the complexity of an integrated circuit, with respect to minimum component cost, will
double in about 18 months.
       Storage:                     performance (speed)
    disks and tapes                  – seek time (to find data)
                                          » disk: random access
   capacity                              » tape: sequential access
     – 4,000 (80x50) bytes per       – transfer rate
       printed page
                                     – cache size and performance
     – 350 pages per 1.44MB
       diskette                      – SCSI (fast) v. IDE (cheap) bus
     – 50,000 pages per 200MB       magnetic disk cost
       1/2 inch reel/cartridge       – $15,000 per gigabyte in 1985
     – 150,000 typed pages per         (mainframe)
       640MB CD-ROM                  – $500 per gigabyte in 1995(pc)
     – 1-7 Gigabytes per             – $30 per GB in 1999
       4mm or 8mm cassette           – $2 per GB in 2002 for IDE
     – 40-80GB per DEC DLT           – $7 per GB in 2002 for SCSI
       (digital linear tape)        traditional trade-off:
     – DVD (4.7-17GB)                  disk---optical---tape

                                     & cost                    capacity
IBM Hollerith Card
          User Interface
   ―IBM‖ punched card                  Resolution
                                          – CGA: 320x300 pixels with 4
     – Herman Hollerith, 1884               colors (96,000 pixels)
                                          – VGA: 640x480 with 16 colors
   Graphical user interface              – SVGA: 800x600 or 1024x768
    (GUI)                                   with 256 colors
                                          – XGA: 16,777,216 colors at
    – bit-mapped display:                   1024x768 (786,432 pixels)
    – each picture element (pixel)      24 bit color
      manipulable                         – RGB: red/green/blue primary
                                          – 1x8bit register per color =256
                                            intensity values
                                          – 3 primary colors @ 256 each =
                                            16,777,216 combinations
Xerox Star 8010 with mouse-
 controlled GUI April 1981
Issues: Performance bottlenecks
   CPU performance
   Memory (RAM)
   I/O: to disk and/or to network
   Network performance: speed and/or load
         Balanced system critical
Issues: Capacity Planning
 peak load versus standard load
Issues: CPU Selection & configuration
 Servers: database, geoprocessing, web, terminal
 Client: Workstation, terminal client, browser client
 Mobile: portable, palm, pocket (laptop, PDA, phone)
Example ArcIMS (Web) Server Configurations
                                                                         Three Tier
ArcIMS Components                  Two Tier with            Three Tier   with Load
 Single Tier Config.               load balancing                        balancing


                                 Note: data is duplicated                Note: data is from
                                                                         database server
Example ArcIMS
relative to security

      Least secure

     One of many

       Most secure
                 Client Configurations
            Web        Terminal                   Geoproc.     Database     Servers
            server      Server                     Server       Server

  GISWeb Software runs on         GIS Software runs on
                                   terminal server                        GIS Software runs on PC
  web server                                                              Data to PC
  Can hand-off some work          Can hand-off some work
                                     to GP server                         High end PC
    to GP server                                                          High network bandwidth
  Data stays on servers           Data stays on servers
                                  Image to Client                         Full GIS functionality
  Image to Client
  Low end PC with standard        Low end PC with special
    web browser                     TS software                           LAN link
  Low network bandwidth           Low network bandwidth
  Limited GIS functionality       Full GIS functionality
   (depends on GIS Web            (Citrix is primary vendor)
                                           Terminal                            PC
        Web                   LAN link      Client                          Workstation
       Browser                Or VPN*
                                *VPN Virtual Private Network
    Mobile Client Considerations
   Device type: Portable, tablet, palm or pocket?
    – Palm and pocket likely to merge
    – How much capability is required
       » In field editing or info look up?

   Is Connectivity required?
    – Wireless data connections slow and expensive
   How to keep databases in synch?
             Software and Programs
   Software: instructions to the computer
   Program: a set of instructions which accomplish a specific task.
   All computers use the stored program concept for program execution:
     – instructions (program) reside permanently on secondary storage
     – program is copied and stored (loaded) into main memory to be run
   to be executed, programs must be in binary machine language
     – compilers convert a programmer’s source code to binary code
        »   once converted, can be run many times
        »   most purchased packages delivered in binary form
        »   will only run on the OS for which binary was created
        »   cannot be ―understood‖ or modified by the user
          Software Layers
 Firmware, Device drivers
 Operating System
 Utilities
 Data Base Software
 Application Software
 User Interface
       Operating Systems: Primary Current Systems
Portable                            Windows Server
    – Windows CE                     – Server
    – Palm                           – Advanced server
                                     – Data center server
Desktop:                            UNIX: Solaris (SUN), HP-UX, IBM
   Basic (home)                     AIX
    – Windows 95/98/Me/XP           Linux
    – MAC System 9 and X         Legacy
    – Linux (Red Hat, Caldera)       – IBM MVS & OS/390 (mainframe)
   Advanced (professional)          – IBM AS/400 (minicomputer)
    – Windows XP Professional        – Digital Equipment Corp (DEC):
    – UNIX of various flavors          Open VMS (1999 Compaq
                                       announced 5 yr support)
                                     – UNIX niche (Unisys, NCR, Sequent)
  Significance of Different Operating Systems
Upside to Variety: advantages for
  particular groups of users or
  applications                                     Downside to Variety
    – legacy for hard core data                       –   user training
                                                      –   user interface development
        » extreme reliability
        » maximized for I/O and data access           –   different software binaries
        » binary compatibility between versions       –   support staff expertise
    – UNIX for scientific processing,                 –   communications and
      Internet applications and,                          networking complexities
      increasingly, database applications          Web browsers and JAVA help
        » extreme flexibility
        » horsepower for number crunching
                                                     address some of these
    – Windows
                                                     issues, but really only the
        » user oriented, but with power left for
                                                     first two
          processing                               GIS may have to access legacy
    – MAC                                            systems for data
        » user friendly
    – Wireless
        » Access from the field
         Software for GIS:                             The Main Vector Players
   ArcGIS--ARC/INFO (ESRI, Inc., Redlands, CA)
     –   privately owned by Jack Dangermond, a legend in the field and former Harvard student The only two
     –   originated commercial GIS and still clear market leader with about a third of the market “pure GIS”
     –   Strong in gov., education, utilities and business logistics                              companies.
   MapInfo
     –   Trying very hard to move from Desktop/Present. to Enterprise/Industrial with newer MapX,
         MapXtreme and MapInsight products
     –   Strong presence in telecom and business, especially site selection & marketing
   Intergraph (Huntsville, AL)
     –   origins in proprietary CAD hardware/software
     –   strong in design and FM (facilities management), and running hard to match ESRI in GIS
     –    UNIX-based MGE (Modular GIS Environment) and FRAMME evolved from CAD
     –   after split with Bentley, courageously committed to NT and object technology in 1995 and first
         released ―new generation‖ GeoMedia product in March 1997
     –   Serious threat to ESRI until ArcInfo 8 released.
   Bentley Systems (Exton, PA)
     –   Bentley brothers (Barry & Ray) originally developed the PC-based Micro-Station product under
         contract with Intergraph, but split in 1995
     –   have very successfully continued to develop and sell MicroStation GeoGraphics since then.
     –   Strong in engineering; advertises itself as ―geoengineering‖
   Autodesk’s AutoCAD Map
     –   dominant CAD supplier and world’s 4th largest software company
     –   fully topological AutoCAD Map introduced in 1996 (but no raster)
     –   High initial expectation (huge installed AutoCad base) but hasn’t lived up to earlier expectations
     –   Primarily small business/small city customer base
  Software for GIS: Remote Sensing/Raster
– Different players
– origins in remote sensing thus      – ERDAS/Imagine long
  raster oriented                       established leader, purchased
– Some now include vector               by Leica Systems of
  support, but has proven               Switzerland in 2001
  insufficient for them to really     – ER MAPPER very agressive
  compete with vector-based GIS
                                        newcomer originating in
– Convergence of raster and vector      Australia
  GIS software has not occurred to
  the degree expected 5 years ago     – Envi, another relative
– Need one of these products if you     newcomer, radar
  are heavy into remote sensing,        specialization, now (2000)
  image analysis,                       Kodak owned
  ororthophotography production       – PCI long-term Canadian
– new satellite data products           player
  enhance their utility               – CARIS another newer
– Will never compete in the             Canadian entry
  enterprise/management market
      Software for GIS:                   other professional/analytical
   Other Commercial
    Players                             GRASS
    – Manifold
                                          –   raster oriented, but some vector routines
      (CDA International Corp)
      one of the best deals around        –   originally developed by US Army Construction
                                              Engineering Research Lab(CERL)
    – Maptitude
                                          –   army ended dev. & support in 1996 but
      (Caliper Corp, MA): another
                                              assumed by Baylor University.
      low cost one
                                        IDRISI (Clark Univ)
    – CadCorp SIS (Spatial
      Information System)                 –   one of the pioneering, university developed
      recent entry from UK
                                          –   limited commercial penetration but still trying
    – WinGIS
      (Progis Corp, Austria):             –   raster orientation with some vector capabilities
      European entry
    – Smallworld Systems
      (Englewood, CO)
      first to use OO (in early
      1990s) but never broke out
      of its FM utilities base and
      bought by GE in 2000
GRASS: Unix Tkl/Tk
Manifold GIS Release 6.5
            Software for GIS: Niche products
 Business Targeted
 – BusinessMAP (from ESRI): $99 choropleth and pin mapping (originally Maplinx)
 – NDS (National Decision Systems): marketing data supplier; I-Mark software
   (released 1999) combines earlier Infomark Express (reporting) and I-Map (maps)
 – Tactician: specialist product for market analysis, site selection, etc.
 – GeoQuery (Naperville, IL): a business mapping product based on Intergraph GeoMedia
   (originally an independent product)
 Other Industry Targeted
 – TransCAD (from Caliper): specialized GIS for transportation
 – EDX, Planet (from Mobile Systems International, now part of Marconi),
   Network Engineer (from Mesa Solutions), Cell CAD II: wireless telephony planning
 GIS specialized functions
 – Surfer (Golden Software): contour creation & spatial interpolation
 – Map Viewer (Golden Software): thematic map creation
 – FreeGIS (
 – Xmap Geographic (DeLorme): 3-D TopoQuads display, image registration, coordinate
 – Blue Marble Geographic Calculator: projections, conversions, etc.
Extensions to standard GIS Products
 – Add-ons to standard GIS packages to meet niche needs
Estimated Market Shares
                                                    GIS Vendor
                                                  Marketshare 2001

          3%                                     ESRI         Total Revenue
       SICAD                                     34%            Estimates

        IBM                                                   2001 1,073 M
                                                              2004 2, 020 M

                                                        2003 Sector share
      6%                                                Utilities             44%
                                                        Public sector         29%
Leica Geosystems                                        Private sector        24%
       6%                                 Intergraph    2003 Type share
               Autodesk     GE Netw ork                 Software              64%
                  7%         Solutions                  Services              24%
                                                        Data                  8%
                                                        Hardware              4%
  ESRI Product Line-up: ArcGIS client products
ArcReader (―adobe acrobat‖ for maps) & ArcExplorer (spatial data viewer)
    –     Free viewers for geographic data.
ArcGIS 9.x Desktop: two primary modules (MS NT/2000/XP only)
           1.   ArcMap: for data display, map production, spatial analysis, data editing
           2.   ArcCatalog: for data management and preview
           ArcToolbox, for specialized data conversions and analyses, available as a window in both
    Available capabilities within these modules are “tiered”
           »     ArcView: viewing, map production, spatial analysis, basic editing
           »     ArcEditor: ArcView, plus specialized editing
           »     ArcInfo: ArcView & ArcEditor plus special analyses and conversions
    Extensions: for special apps.: Spatial Analyst, 3D Analyst, Geostatistics, Business Analyst,etc.
    ArcObjects: build specialized capabilities within ArcMap or ArcCatalog using VB for Applications
ArcGIS Workstation (for UNIX and MS NT/2000/XP)
    –       the old command line ArcInfo 7.1
ArcGIS Engine (MS NT/2000/XP)
    –       Set of embeddable GIS components (ArcObjects software objects) for building custom applications
    –       Runs under Windows, Unix and Linux, with support for Java, C++, COM and .NET
    –       Replaces MapObjects which were based upon a previous generation of GIS objects
        ArcGIS 8 released 2000 to integrate two previous standalone products: ArcView and ArcInfo
        ArcGIS 9 released 2004 providing the full capability that should have been in ArcGIS 8!!!
           --full support for all data types (coverages, shapefiles, geodatabases)
           --full support for all previous geoprocessing analyses
           --Modelbuilder for scripting and repetitive processing
           --ArcEngine for building custom applications
        ArcView 3.3 (the predecessor to ArcGIS 8.x) the only GUI option for UNIX.
   ESRI Product Line-up: ArcGIS server products
SDE (Spatial Database Engine)
   – middleware to support spatial data storage in standard DBMS
   – Supports all major industry databases:
       »   Oracle, SQL-Server, IBM DB2, Ingres
ArcGIS Server
   – Permits the creation of server-based GIS services using any
       ArcGIS capability
   – Provides GIS capabilities to a user without a desktop GIS
       »   inward focus—user goes to server
   – Software to develop Internet server-based mapping and basic
   – Provides maps to the user without a desktop GIS system :
       »   outward focus—gives user a map
ArcGIS Services
   – Server based applications built and operated by ESRI or its
       partners and made available on the Internet for subscription
   – Normally charged on a ―per transaction‖ basis, but can be flat fee
   – presumably built using ArcGIS Server
    Decisions/Actions Required
            for Software
   Operating systems for clients and
   Interfacing with existing non-GIS
    application systems
   Selection of GIS software appropriate
    for task required
                      GIS Software Selection
   Council, get off my back! Planner Needs faster, easier, jazzier way of
    answering council member queries.
     – Need professional analysis package
     – use ArcView 9, since city has extensive ArcInfo shapefiles & coverages;
     – Uses ModelBuilder and Python scripts to automate most common queries
   Appraisal District needs to accurately maintain parcel files
     – Replaces current CAD system with ArcEditor for accurate topological editing
       and easier interface with GIS files
   Emergency Preparedness Manager for coastal county needs
    application to track potential spread of oil spills
     – Uses ArcObjects and VB for Applications within ArcInfo version of ArcGIS to
       develop customized model
   City Planner wants easier way for citizens to know location of city
    facilities, property zoning, roads, etc..
     – Developes ArcIMS application on city server which includes layers for roads,
       zoning, parcels, schools, other city facilities, etc.. which citizens can access
       from their home PCs using any browser

                                                         Contd on next slide
                  GIS Software Selection
   Bus service manager. Wants application to display real time location of
    buses on touch-screen terminal to passengers waiting at transit centers
     – Uses ArcServer to develop central application to track buses
     – Uses internet browser at transit station to query ArcServer
   Developer of software to support operations within a real estate
    office, including payroll, client tracking, billing, etc.., requires way
    to map location of houses sold by office
     – Uses ArcEngine to incorporate mapping capabilities within his software
   Taxation aqnd Assessment. Must tie all my data together--land
    ownership, tax rolls, utility lines, roads, 911 calls etc.
     – Needs enterprise solution.
     – ArcSDE with ORACLE data base, accessed with ArcExplorer (free),
       ArcView 9 (for read only & analysis), ArcEditor 9 (for data maintenance) &
       ArcInfo 9 (for specialized analyses)
       Functional Types of Data
   strategic: long term direction, goals (us versus
    them; Ford v. GM; Plano v. Richardson
   Tactical/procedural: comparisons for short term
    decision making (is it selling?, focus policing at high
    accident/crime sites; identify roads)
   operational: daily activities (inventory
    replenishment; repair orders)
   transactional: flows through the system ( water
    meter readings, billings, 911 calls).
              Database Choices
       Workstation                DB

ArcSDE supports                    Some database vendors
                                     have ability to support
 Oracle                             spatial data directly
                                     without ArcSDE (e.g.
 Microsoft SQL Server
                                     Oracle Spatial)
 IBM’s DBII                          may conform to ISO standard
                                      Better security
 Informix                            May cost less than ArcSDE
Selection often a function of         More limited capability (e.g.
  what already exists in house         no ―geodatabase‖)
  for business applications
Does not protect against disastrous
destruction! (WTC 9/11, tornado, etc.)

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