AZ Target Platform Architecture

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					               State of Arizona

 Target Platform Architecture
 Information Technology (IT) Technical Document

“A Device Framework for e-Government Solutions”




                              EA

               Az Enterprise
               Architecture

                   Revision 2.0
                   August 26, 2004

                     Prepared by

       Government Information Technology Agency
              Chris Cummiskey, Director
             100 North 15th Ave, Suite 440
               Phoenix, Arizona 85007
                                       Ariz o na En t er p ris e A rch i t ec t ur e
       EA                               Guiding Arizona to Ever Improving Citizen Service

Az Enterprise   602.364.4482
Architecture    Fax 602.364.4799                                                                                100 N 15th Ave, Suite 440
                ea@azgita.gov                                                                                     Phoenix, Arizona 8500 7




Revision          Effective        Summary of Changes
                    Date
  NC            09/12/2002         Initial release
  1.0           05/06/2003         Revision 1.0 release
  2.0           08/26/2004         Revision 2.0 release
                                   1. Introduction. Revised text to be consistent with newer domain documents. Added a graphic,
                                   references to applicable policies and standards, along with footnote containing link to Enterprise
                                   Architecture Trends document. Expanded EWTA Domains graphic to be consistent with the one
                                   on the EA website.

                                   4. Target Platform Architecture. Updated the recommended implementation approach to clarify
                                   that the implementation of Target Platform Architecture is the responsibility of each agency and,
                                   when undertaken, shall be in accordance with Statewide Policy P700, Enterprise Architecture, and
                                   Statewide Policy P340, Project Investment Justification (PIJ).

                                   Removed implementation information relative to the roles and responsibilities for incorporation of
                                   the recommended principles, standards, and best practices into Statewide IT contracts. The
                                   alignment of EWTA standards and best practices with Statewide and agency IT contracts is
                                   presented in the Framework and Strategies document and Statewide Policy P700, Enterprise
                                   Architecture, to consistently address all EWTA domains.

                                   Replaced Platform Architecture Table with Arizona Enterprise Architecture Target Technology
                                   Table encompassing all EWTA domains, available at
                                   http://www.azgita.gov/enterprise_architecture/AZ_EA_Target_Technology_Table.htm.

                                   5. Platform Architecture Standards. Incorporated all Recommended Standards into the current,
                                   published version of Statewide Standard P720-S720, Platform Infrastructure, available at
                                   http://www.azgita.gov/policies_standards.

                                   6. Platform Architecture Purpose. Removed the description of Enterprise Architecture Strategic
                                   Alignment with FY2002-03 State IT Plan. It is available at:
                                   http://www.azgita.gov/enterprise_architecture/.

                                   8. Platform Architecture Recommended Best Practices. Updated section to reflect the
                                   incorporation of certain Best Practices into Statewide Standard P720-S720, Platform
                                   Infrastructure.

                                   9. Platform Architecture Technology Trends. Removed entire section since reference to the
                                   location of the document has been added to the footnote in Section 1, Introduction.

                                   Appendix B. State of Arizona Target Platform Assessment. Removed, added reference and
                                   link to 5. Platform Architecture Standards.




                                                                          I
                                             Ariz o na En t er p ris e A rch i t ec t ur e
            EA                                 Guiding Arizona to Ever Improving Citizen Service

     Az Enterprise   602.364.4482
     Architecture    Fax 602.364.4799                                                                                           100 N 15th Ave, Suite 440
                     ea@azgita.gov                                                                                                Phoenix, Arizona 8500 7


                                                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.       INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 1

2.       PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE VISION ................................................................................................. 2

3.       PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE DEFINITION ......................................................................................... 2

4.       TARGET PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE .............................................................................................. 2

5.       RECOMMENDED PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE STANDARDS ......................................................... 4

6.       PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE PURPOSE ........................................................................................... 4

7.       PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLES ....................................................................................... 6

8.       PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE RECOMMENDED BEST PRACTICES ................................................ 8

APPENDIX A. PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE ASSESSMENT FORM ....................................................... 12




                                                                                  II
                                           Ariz o na En t er p ris e A rch i t ec t ur e
           EA                               Guiding Arizona to Ever Improving Citizen Service

    Az Enterprise   602.364.4482
    Architecture    Fax 602.364.4799                                                                                          100 N 15th Ave, Suite 440
                    ea@azgita.gov                                                                                               Phoenix, Arizona 8500 7


1. INTRODUCTION
            The State of Arizona’s Enterprise Architecture (EA) describes a comprehensive framework for
            information technology (IT)1 and business that supports the Arizona State government strategic plan.
            EA facilitates the application of information technology to business initiatives and objectives and
            subsequent change in an orderly, efficient manner by describing a direction for current and future
            activities, supported by underlying principles, standards, and best practices.

            EA effectively supports and enhances the business of government and
                                                                                                            Security
            improves the ability to deliver responsive, cost-effective government
            functions and services. Effective utilization of technology to achieve                                 Ef
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            business functions and services, increasing citizen access to those




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            services, sharing information and resources at all levels of




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            government, and maximizing IT resources investment are major                                    E-Gov

            motivating factors for the development and implementation of EA.




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            The implementation of EA presents opportunities for State agencies




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            to interoperate together to deliver a higher level of courteous, efficient,       /In
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            responsive, and cost-effective service to the citizen owners and                          at
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            employees of State government. Individually, each State agency can
            independently implement EA components that are interoperable, however, e-government initiatives,
            economies of scale, consolidation, and cross-agency savings may best be realized not just through
            interoperability, but also by working together in partnership and sharing.

            EA includes important business, governance, and technical components. The technical
            components, collectively referred to as Enterprise Wide Technical Architecture (EWTA), provide
            technical guidance to State agencies. That guidance is supported by principles correlated to
            agency business functions, recommended standards, applicable recommended best practices, and
            technology trends2. Each component, or domain, of the EWTA is a separate but interrelated,
            architectural discipline. EA is the glue that integrates each of these technical disciplines into a
            cohesive framework having the potential to transform government by improving service delivery,
            reducing costs, simplifying and streamlining requirements and services, and increasing efficiency
            and effectiveness.
                                                        Arizona’s EWTA Domains
                                            Infrastructure                            Application
                                               Platform                           Data/Information
                                               Network                                 Software
                                                                   Security
                                                  Basic, Fundamental Principles of EA
                                                      Business Focus and Alignment

                                       Secure Interoperability, Flexibility, Adaptability, Scalability,
                                        Portability, common, secure, pervasive, industry-wide,
                                                  open-standards-based technologies



1
  Terminology used throughout this document is defined in the GITA Policies, Standards, and Procedures (PSP) and Enterprise
Architecture (EA) Glossary of Terms available at: http://www.azgita.gov/policies_standards/glossary.htm.
2
  Trends, economic, governmental, and technical, that impact and influence EA are available at
http://www.azgita.gov/enterprise_architecture/.
                                                                          Page 1
                                        Ariz o na En t er p ris e A rch i t ec t ur e
        EA                               Guiding Arizona to Ever Improving Citizen Service

 Az Enterprise    602.364.4482
 Architecture     Fax 602.364.4799                                                                              100 N 15th Ave, Suite 440
                  ea@azgita.gov                                                                                   Phoenix, Arizona 8500 7

         EA applies to all agencies. The agency director, working in conjunction with the agency CIO, is
         responsible for ensuring the implementation of EA within the agency’s “sphere of influence,” as
         designated by statute or rule. The EA Target Domain Architecture documents define an overall
         strategy and technical framework; however, by design, the capital planning, process approach and
         timeframes for transition, project management, and investment control for the implementation of the
         target architectures are the responsibility of the agency3. Implementing EA requires significant
         capital investments. Arizona, like most states, does not have unlimited capital to invest in
         implementing EA, therefore, migrating to EA within available budgets is the only viable method.

2. PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE VISION
         The State of Arizona’s Platform Architecture describes a reliable, scalable, interoperable set of
         physical and logical technology platform devices to implement and support the State’s business
         functions in an efficient and effective manner. Platform Architecture provides the interrelated IT
         devices necessary to implement, process, and support agency business functions, enable new
         business opportunities, and provide new methods for delivering service.

3. PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE DEFINITION
         Platform Architecture describes common, industry-wide, open-standards-based, interoperable
         devices, facilitating the reliable and pervasive availability of, access interfaces with, and processing
         for, the State's distributed information processing environment. It defines various technologies
         required to facilitate and deliver individual agencies’ and the State’s business application systems
         and services to its citizens. It provides for increased interoperability with the federal government,
         counties, local governments, and the private business sector. Platform Architecture allows the State
         and individual agencies to quickly deploy and support effective and efficient end-user access
         interfaces to business application systems, as well as providing the processing capability to execute
         business application systems, while increasing the use of e-government solutions and maintaining
         traditional methods of service delivery to citizens.

4. TARGET PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE
         Target Platform Architecture addresses platform devices relative to their: versatility, capability to
         seamlessly interoperate with other platform devices, operating systems, embedded security,
         adherence to open or pervasive industry standards, provision for open system standard interfaces,
         and utilization of open standard drivers. This approach aligns with Statewide Policy P100,
         Information Technology, by focusing on the functionality of platform technologies to support agency
         business requirements that enhance agency services and operational capacities, improve
         productivity, performance, and public services rather than addressing attributes such as specific
         platform configurations, explicit devices, and operating system revisions that neither provide a
         direction for current and future activities nor directly relate to the State’s business functions.

         Appendix A, Platform Architecture Assessment Form, codified in Statewide Standard P720-S720,
         Platform Infrastructure, expands upon the categories summarized below to establish the
         methodology for determining an agency’s platform technology position. The assessment is designed
         to demonstrate Statewide Policy P100, Information Technology, through the incorporation of the
         underlying principles, standards, and best practices of Target Platform Architecture as well as
         Statewide Policy P800, IT Security, and applicable Statewide security standards. Current,
         representative scoring4 of the State’s “as-is” platform assets5 demonstrating the application of the

         3
             The IT Project implementation process is described in Statewide Policy P340, Project Investment Justification (PIJ).
         4
             Scoring is performed at least on an annual basis, or as required based on major industry IT technologies.
                                                                       Page 2
                                    Ariz o na En t er p ris e A rch i t ec t ur e
        EA                            Guiding Arizona to Ever Improving Citizen Service

 Az Enterprise   602.364.4482
 Architecture    Fax 602.364.4799                                                                          100 N 15th Ave, Suite 440
                 ea@azgita.gov                                                                               Phoenix, Arizona 8500 7

         Platform Architecture Assessment Form is available at
         http:/www.azgita.gov/enterprise_architecture/platform_assess.htm.

                                       Platform Architecture Assessment Form Summary
Device Category                          Description
1. Versatility                           Provides flexibility, adaptability, and scalability without substantial modification
2. Operating Systems                     Utilizes open- or pervasive-industry-standard operating systems
3. Operating Systems Security            Addresses the security functionality of Operating Systems
4. Open Standard Interfaces and          Adheres to open-system-standard interface specifications and utilizes device
   Drivers                               drivers with IEEE interfacing and industry de facto standard protocols and
                                         formats

         Target Platform Architecture is vendor/manufacturer neutral and strategic by design. As such, it
         does not attempt to identify or address specific device or operating system manufacturers or
         distributors. Statewide Policy P720, Platform Architecture Policy, and Statewide Standard P720-
         S720, Platform Infrastructure, technologies identified in the Target Technology Table, as well as
         applicable Statewide IT security standards guide the State and agencies in selecting platform
         architecture products and services, and making informed judgments when specifying and choosing
         solutions to meet current and planned requirements. An individual agency’s selection of specific
         manufacturers, platform hardware configurations, and operating systems within these parameters is
         based on the business needs of a given project, a positive business case, or the overall business
         requirements of the agency.

         The development of Target Platform Architecture and related Statewide IT policies and standards
         are ongoing, collaborative processes6 that encourage the continual refinement of the architecture, IT
         policies, and standards to ensure continued alignment with evolving business strategies and
         requirements of the State, emerging industry standards, and changing technology. This allows
         agencies to participate in the process to maximize their current investment in certain devices and
         services, and to develop a transition plan7 to allow obsolete or non-conforming platform elements to
         be phased out. Maximizing the investment benefits and transitioning the platform elements are not
         mutually exclusive activities, and are in the best interest of agencies and the State enterprise.

         Arizona’s Target Platform Architecture is supported by principles correlated to agency business
         functions, statewide standards, applicable recommended best practices, and technology trends. The
         principles and recommended standards contained in this revision and previous revisions of this
         document are codified in Statewide Policy P720, Platform Architecture, and Statewide Standard
         P720-S720, Platform Infrastructure, respectively. Policies and standards generated as part of EA are
         subject to the review, approval, and refresh/renewal procedures outlined in Statewide Policy P105,
         Policies, Standards, and Procedures (PSP) Policy.

         The agency director, working in conjunction with the agency CIO, is responsible for ensuring the
         implementation of Target Platform Architecture within the agency’s “sphere of influence,” as
         designated by statute or rule. The Target Platform Architecture document defines an overall strategy
         and technical framework that is codified in Statewide Policy P720, Platform Architecture, and
         Statewide Standard P720-S720, Platform Infrastructure; however, by design, the capital planning,
         process approach and timeframes for transition, project management, and investment control for the
         5
           “As-Is” platform assets are reviewed and updated as necessary based on information submitted through the GITA
             Information Systems Inventory System (ISIS).
         6
           The Enterprise Architecture lifecycle process is defined in Framework and Strategies and Statewide Policy P700,
           Enterprise Architecture.
         7
           Transition plans and the implementation of Target Network Architecture are addressed in Statewide Policy P700,
           Enterprise Architecture.
                                                                    Page 3
                                        Ariz o na En t er p ris e A rch i t ec t ur e
        EA                               Guiding Arizona to Ever Improving Citizen Service

 Az Enterprise    602.364.4482
 Architecture     Fax 602.364.4799                                                                              100 N 15th Ave, Suite 440
                  ea@azgita.gov                                                                                   Phoenix, Arizona 8500 7

         implementation of the target architectures are the responsibility of the agency. Implementation
         strategies and conformance of IT investments and projects with EA is described in Statewide Policy
         P700, Enterprise Architecture, and Arizona’s Enterprise Architecture Framework and Strategies
         document.

         Individual domain target technology tables presented in previous revisions of Target Domain
         Architecture documents have been combined and are summarily presented relative to the OSI 7498-
         1 Reference Model in a composite, integrated Arizona Enterprise Architecture Target Technology
         Table, available at http://www.azgita.gov/enterprise_architecture.

5. RECOMMENDED PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE STANDARDS
         Platform Architecture Standards are established to coordinate State and agency implementation of
         platform infrastructure. The goal is to utilize platforms based on common, proven, and pervasive
         industry-wide, approved, open standards; however, a full complement of open standards does not
         exist for all components of platform architecture. Therefore, combinations of open standards,
         industry de facto standards, mutually agreed upon product standards, and best practices are
         currently required to support the State's heterogeneous operating environment.

         The Platform Architecture Standards contained in previous revisions of this document have been
         codified in Statewide Standard P720-S720, Platform Infrastructure, and related statewide security
         standards.

         Platform Architecture Standards contained in Statewide Standard P720-S720, Platform
         Infrastructure, are reviewed, updated, and approved in accordance with Statewide Policy P105,
         Policies, Standards, and Procedures (PSP) Policy.

         Agency compliance with Statewide Standard P720-S720, Platform Infrastructure, shall be in
         accordance with Statewide Policy P700, Enterprise Architecture.

         All Statewide Policies, Standards, and Procedures referenced in this document are available at
         http://www.azgita.gov/policies_standards.

6. PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE PURPOSE
         The purpose of Platform Architecture is to provide processing capability for the State’s business
         functions, and common access interfaces into the State’s information resources. The goal is to
         create an environment in which the State’s current and future e-government business can be
         transacted: one that facilitates interoperability, sharing of information and resources, and is highly
         flexible and adaptable to changing technology, business, and information requirements.

         Target Platform Architecture aligns with and facilitates the strategic goals of the State and agency IT
         plans8 and supports the business and program priorities of State government. EA is a strategic
         initiative of the current State IT Plan and is interwoven with the Governor’s objectives for the State.

         Platform Architecture must support the business and program priorities of State government.
         Technology investments in Platform Architecture must provide measurable improvements to public

         8
             The Arizona IT Strategic Plan is available at http://www.azgita.gov/planning_inventory/2004StrategicPlan.pdf. Individual
              Agency IT Plans are available at http://www.azgita.gov/planning_inventory. Alignment of the initial EA domain
              documents to the FY2002-03 State IT Plan is available at:
              http://www.azgita.gov/enterprise_architecture/NEW/Architecure_Strategies_Framework/strategic_alignment.htm.
                                                                       Page 4
                                   Ariz o na En t er p ris e A rch i t ec t ur e
       EA                           Guiding Arizona to Ever Improving Citizen Service

Az Enterprise   602.364.4482
Architecture    Fax 602.364.4799                                                          100 N 15th Ave, Suite 440
                ea@azgita.gov                                                               Phoenix, Arizona 8500 7

        service. The Platform Architecture must support the economical and efficient development of open,
        interoperable software application systems that make State information, programs, and services
        more accessible to the people of Arizona. Platform Architecture must enable new software
        applications to be developed more rapidly and modified more easily as business requirements and
        technical environments change.

        Platform Architecture suggests end-user (client), server, and storage platform devices, operating
        systems, and open system interfaces that provide for interoperability [the capability for services
        (applications) operating on different, diverse devices to exchange information and function
        cooperatively using this information], and portability [the capability of software to operate and
        perform in the same manner on different types of devices] of business application systems.
        Categories of the Platform Architecture Domain range from enterprise-class mainframe-servers to
        end-user workstations and hand-held computing devices along with the operating systems that
        control these devices. Platform categories, or tiers, complement each other and maximize the
        operation and usefulness of various specialized platform devices to address agency business
        requirements.

        Platform Architecture categories include the following:

         Server. The server with its associated operating system provides services requested by clients
          (end-user devices). Types of servers included are: mainframes, midrange, and network servers
          (application, file, print, database, etc.). Servers should be positioned to embrace a variety of
          applications so that, over time, as open-standard operating systems and open-standard
          interfaces are deployed the traditional boundary lines between voice, data, and video are
          eliminated. Server-attached or network-attached output devices such as printers, plotters, etc.
          should use IEEE-standard interfaces and industry de facto standard software drivers.

         Storage. Storage is increasingly recognized as a distinct resource, one that is best thought of
          separately from the devices (servers, end-user devices) that are its consumers and beneficiaries.
          Such storage is increasingly often shared by multiple platform devices, and acquired and
          managed independently from them. Storage solutions should address the State’s requirements
          for short term, long term, and permanent storage of information. Types of storage include:
          o Direct Attached Storage (DAS) is comprised of interfaces (controllers) and storage devices
              that attach directly to a server or an end-user device. DAS, in the form of independent
              storage devices, RAID arrays, or tape libraries, is the most common storage architecture
              today.
          o Network Attached Storage (NAS) is an open-industry-standard, file-oriented, storage
              implementation where storage devices are connected to a network and provide file access
              services to server and end-user (client) devices. A NAS storage element consists of an
              engine, which implements the file services, and one or more devices, on which data is
              stored. By connecting directly into a network, NAS technologies allow users to access and
              share data without impacting application servers.
          o Storage Area Network (SAN) is an open-industry-standard, data-centric, storage
              implementation that traditionally uses a special-purpose network that incorporates high-
              performance communication and interface technologies as a means to connect storage
              devices with servers.

         End-user device (client). The end-user device, with its associated operating system, provides the
          end-user interface to the business application. End-user devices include the personal computer
          (PC), thin client, host-controlled devices (terminals, telephones, etc.), voice interface devices,
          single- and multi-function mobile devices (Pocket PC, PDA, PDA-phone, etc.), telephony

                                                                  Page 5
                                      Ariz o na En t er p ris e A rch i t ec t ur e
        EA                             Guiding Arizona to Ever Improving Citizen Service

 Az Enterprise     602.364.4482
 Architecture      Fax 602.364.4799                                                              100 N 15th Ave, Suite 440
                   ea@azgita.gov                                                                   Phoenix, Arizona 8500 7

                 devices, smart cards, etc. “Personal” input devices (tablet, keyboard, probe, etc.) and output
                 devices (monitors, displays, projectors, speakers, printers, etc.) attached to an end-user device
                 should use IEEE-standard interfaces and industry de facto standard software drivers.

7. PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLES
         The principles listed below provide guidelines for the design and selection of platform technology
         components that will support distributed n-tier-architecture-based processing activities across the
         State. Platform Architecture promotes the ability of software and hardware on different devices, from
         different vendors, to integrate and interoperate in an efficient and effective exchange and sharing of
         data and information. Platform Architecture Principles guide the evaluation, planning, design,
         selection, and implementation of platform technology and services.

   Principle 1
   Platform Architecture provides the device infrastructure to support State and agency business
   and administrative processes.

         Rationale:
          Platform Architecture provides the end-user, citizen interface to State and agency information
            and resources. It enables the rapid and effective execution and processing of a wide spectrum of
            State and agency business applications. Platform Architecture works in conjunction with Network
            and Security Architecture to extend resources and information capabilities and access,
            regardless of the location of the citizen or end-user.
          Platforms (servers, storage, and end-user devices (clients)) must accommodate new and
            expanding applications; increased storage, access, and retention requirements for a variety of
            data (e.g., voice, data, image, and video), and a variety of concurrent users, regardless of
            location.
          Specific platform choices or preferences should not dictate or restrict agency business and
            administrative application solutions. The platform decision is dependent on the overall
            application solution(s) in accordance with agency business requirements.
          Stored information must be readily accessible from any point in the network, presented in a
            consistent framework and timely manner so that business decisions can be based on up-to-date
            information.

   Principle 2
   Servers and storage that support essential business processes and mission-critical business
   operations shall be operational, reliable, and available 24x7x365.

         Rationale:
          Server and storage platforms provide for the execution of State and agency business functions
            and processes as well as the electronic storage of associated information.
          Sufficient reliability, redundancy, and fault tolerance must be built in to ensure that a single point
            of failure does not have severe adverse effects on essential business processes and mission-
            critical business operations.
          Server and storage platforms that support essential business processes and mission-critical
            business operations should be designed to permit continued operations during a failure that
            occurs in the course of normal operations, or in the event of a disaster. Throughput may be
            impacted during the event; however, information and services should remain accessible and
            available to citizens and end-users, regardless of location in the network.
          Storage solutions should address the State’s requirements for short term, long term, and
            permanent storage of information.

                                                                     Page 6
                                   Ariz o na En t er p ris e A rch i t ec t ur e
       EA                           Guiding Arizona to Ever Improving Citizen Service

Az Enterprise   602.364.4482
Architecture    Fax 602.364.4799                                                           100 N 15th Ave, Suite 440
                ea@azgita.gov                                                                Phoenix, Arizona 8500 7

         Backup and recovery of information stored on servers and storage platforms shall adhere to
          Statewide Standard P800-S870, Backups. Timely, well-documented, and tested backups of
          software and information will allow agencies to recover quickly and effectively from potential
          interruptions of service, and also the requirement to restore critical information.

  Principle 3
  Platforms shall use industry-proven, mainstream technologies based on pervasive industry-
  wide, open interfaces, and open architecture.

        Rationale:
         Platforms should interoperate to improve customer (both end-user and citizen) access, reduce
           integration complexity, and facilitate the sharing of business process information.
         Open, vendor-neutral platforms provide flexibility and consistency, and facilitate communications
           and the sharing of information across the State enterprise and agency boundaries.
         Platform Architecture that utilizes pervasive industry-wide, open interfaces ensures application
           portability and integration across platforms.
         Industry-wide, open interfaces and architecture provide for consistent deployment, management,
           and expansion of agency business functions, while enabling agencies to respond more quickly in
           an environment of changing business requirements.
         Open, vendor-neutral systems support economic choices and implementation flexibility, to better
           protect the State against unexpected changes in vendor strategies and capabilities.
         Industry-wide, open interfaces allow agencies to choose from a variety of sources and select the
           most cost-effective and efficient platform solutions without adversely impacting business
           applications.

  Principle 4
  Platform operating system security should be based on industry-wide, open standards.

        Rationale:
         Platform operating system security that utilizes open standards facilitates application portability
           and integration across platforms.
         Security services already exist for many common operating systems and applications; however,
           products from different vendors may be implemented in ways that make it difficult to integrate
           these products into an overall security architecture. Existing application, operating system, or
           platform security mechanisms should be used whenever they match Statewide Policy P100, IT
           Security and associated Statewide IT security standards. Application-specific security
           mechanisms should only be developed where necessary.

  Principle 5
  Platform configurations and associated operating system versions should be minimized.

        Rationale:
         Reducing uniqueness in platform and operating system selection and increasing standardization
           reduces support and maintenance costs.
         Standardization of platforms and associated operating systems can lead to increasing
           purchasing economies of scale for the State.
         Standardization of platforms and associated operating systems reduces future upgrade and
           migration issues.
         Standardization of platforms and associated operating systems simplifies training, learning
           curves, and skills transfer.


                                                                  Page 7
                                    Ariz o na En t er p ris e A rch i t ec t ur e
        EA                           Guiding Arizona to Ever Improving Citizen Service

 Az Enterprise   602.364.4482
 Architecture    Fax 602.364.4799                                                         100 N 15th Ave, Suite 440
                 ea@azgita.gov                                                              Phoenix, Arizona 8500 7

   Principle 6
   Platform infrastructure should employ open, industry-standard components, using an n-tier
   model.

         Rationale:
          Open, industry-standard, component platform architecture allows:
            o Business application development and acquisition to focus on business requirements,
                without proprietary issues,
            o Simplification of the environment and geographical independence of servers,
            o For better use of modular, off-the-shelf components and solutions, and.
            o For significant changes to a component of a system without changing the entire system
                (open interfaces).
          A highly granular, loosely coupled server design supports modular application-code-sets in an n-
            tiered application architecture.

   Principle 7
   Platform infrastructure should be designed for growth, flexibility, and adaptability.

         Rationale:
          Changing business processes and requirements drive application, network, and platform
            architecture.
          Scalable, flexible, and adaptive platform and network infrastructure facilitates the delivery of
            applications resulting from changing business requirements.
          As new processes are developed and new information becomes available, platform infrastructure
            and networks must scale to allow for increased demand.

   Principle 8
   Platform infrastructure should maximize the design and availability of Target Network
   Architecture for delivery of applications and services to citizens and end-users, regardless of
   location.

         Rationale:
          Platform Architecture provides the end-user, citizen interface to State and agency information
            and resources. It enables the rapid, effective execution and processing of a wide spectrum of
            State and agency business applications. Platform Architecture works in conjunction with Network
            and Security Architecture to extend resources and information capabilities and access,
            regardless of the location of the citizen or end user.
          Target Network Architecture defines industry-wide, open-standards-based, scalable, flexible, and
            adaptive networks to facilitate the delivery of applications and services.
          Networks enable access to a wide spectrum of information, applications, and resources,
            regardless of the method of delivery or the location of the citizen or end user.

8. PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE RECOMMENDED BEST PRACTICES
         Best Practices are approaches that have consistently been demonstrated by diverse organizations
         to achieve a similar high-level result, which, in the case of architecture, means demonstrating the
         principles. Recommended Best Practices assist agency staff in the planning, design, implementation
         and expansion, administration, maintenance, and support of platforms.

    Recommended Best Practice 1


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                                   Ariz o na En t er p ris e A rch i t ec t ur e
       EA                           Guiding Arizona to Ever Improving Citizen Service

Az Enterprise   602.364.4482
Architecture    Fax 602.364.4799                                                             100 N 15th Ave, Suite 440
                ea@azgita.gov                                                                  Phoenix, Arizona 8500 7

   Configure all server and storage platforms supporting mission-critical applications to minimize
   service interruptions.

        Rationale:
         Server and storage platforms that support essential business processes and mission-critical
           business operations should be designed to permit continued operations. Continued operations
           includes accessibility and availability of information and services to citizens and end users,
           regardless of location in the network, albeit at reduced throughput, during a failure that occurs in
           the course of normal operations, or in the event of a disaster.
         Sufficient reliability, redundancy, and fault tolerance must be built in to ensure that a single point
           of failure does not have severe adverse effects on essential business processes and mission-
           critical business operations.
         Recommended Best Practices should be used for security, disaster recovery, and backup to
           ensure the integrity of the server, the data storage, and the application.
         Target Network Architecture principles, standards, and best practices ensure the accessibility
           and availability of mission-critical business operations, regardless of location, and minimize
           service interruptions.

  Recommended Best Practice 2
  Consider normal, anticipated future application growth demands when determining increased
  processing and capacity requirements for server and storage platforms.

        Rationale:
         Server and storage platforms should be configured and procured to accommodate the current
           demand as well as to support anticipated, normal, practical growth without requiring the
           purchase of a new platform.
         The processing and capacity capability for server and storage platforms continues to increase as
           initial procurement and support costs decrease. Agencies should consider useful life cycle cost
           analysis for server and storage platforms when purchasing and sizing for future growth.
         Utilize Target Network Architecture principles, standards, and best practices to ensure sufficient
           network access and availability of applications to citizens and end users, regardless of location.

   Recommended Best Practice 3
   Design and implement storage networking solutions for the State’s data centers and agency
   storage requirements.

        Rationale:
         Storage networking enables storage to be consolidated, shared, accessed, and managed over a
           networked infrastructure.
         Storage networking is a strategic component of the Platform Architecture that addresses
           scalability, sharing, and maximum utilization of storage and information resources, while
           streamlining administration, minimizing the total cost of ownership for storage, and improving
           data availability and integrity.
         Storage networking provides the framework for uniting multiple storage architectures including
           Fiber Channel Storage Area Networks (SAN), which provide block-based access to shared
           disks; IP-connected Network Attached Storage (NAS), which provides file-based access to
           shared storage; and server Direct Attached Storage (DAS) into a single, managed, scalable, and
           extensible storage infrastructure.
         Storage networking is based on open architecture and industry standards, and utilizes IEEE-
           standard SCSI and Fiber Channel interfaces.


                                                                  Page 9
                                   Ariz o na En t er p ris e A rch i t ec t ur e
       EA                           Guiding Arizona to Ever Improving Citizen Service

Az Enterprise   602.364.4482
Architecture    Fax 602.364.4799                                                           100 N 15th Ave, Suite 440
                ea@azgita.gov                                                                Phoenix, Arizona 8500 7

         The storage and networking industries are driving to convergence through several IETF
          standards, including SCSI over IP (iSCSI) for accessing block-level storage from IP-connected
          hosts and Fiber Channel over IP (FCIP) for transparently internetworking Fiber Channel SANs
          across IP networks.
         Metropolitan optical infrastructures (SONET, DWDM, etc.) enable the extension of storage
          networking over IP, Fiber Channel, ESCON, etc.
         Target Network Architecture provides for the design and operation of network infrastructure to
          deliver and support storage networking.
         Storage solutions should address the State’s requirements for short term, long term, and
          permanent storage of information.
         Backup and recovery of information stored on storage platforms should support Statewide
          Standard P800-S870, Backups. Timely, well-documented, and tested backups of software and
          information will allow agencies to recover quickly and effectively from potential interruptions of
          service, and also the requirement to restore critical information.

   Recommended Best Practice 4
   Implement n-tier platform architecture.

        Rationale:
         N-tier platform architecture entails different types of devices performing different functions that
           may exist to maximize the usefulness of various specialized devices. Suitably designed business
           application solutions minimize hardware dependencies and incur little or no detriment from
           changes in platform selections.
         Mainstream open and industry de facto operating systems are scalable through the use of
           multiple processors or clustering techniques to address growth.
         Clustering allows additional flexibility and potential cost reduction because the servers operate
           standard processors and software, allowing an agency to choose from multiple suppliers, if
           desired.
         Platform choices should support, not restrict, agency business and administrative application
           solutions. Platform decisions are dependent on the overall application solution in accordance
           with agency business requirements.
         Mainstream operating systems provide greater flexibility for choice of common, open-industry-
           standard interfaces, middleware software, Database Management Systems (DBMS),
           management software, office productivity software, software development tools, etc. as well as
           specific application software (financial, HRIS, call/contact centers, customer relations
           management, etc).
         Using open-standards-based server platforms whenever possible minimizes issues with
           interoperability, maintenance, and support and maximizes the reusability of devices and
           services.
         N-tier platform architecture facilitates system management and support since the application
           logic resides on servers, not on every end-user platform device.
         Applications designed for n-tier processing utilizing a multi-tasking, multi-threaded operating
           system allow components (application processing, database accesses, etc.) to be deployed on
           separate physical devices whenever possible.
         Granularity in servers facilitates the partitioning of application systems and databases and the
           preservation of logical boundaries.
         Multiple, highly scaleable servers maximize interoperability, portability, and flexibility.


   Recommended Best Practice 5


                                                                 Page 10
                                   Ariz o na En t er p ris e A rch i t ec t ur e
       EA                           Guiding Arizona to Ever Improving Citizen Service

Az Enterprise   602.364.4482
Architecture    Fax 602.364.4799                                                          100 N 15th Ave, Suite 440
                ea@azgita.gov                                                               Phoenix, Arizona 8500 7

   Select and implement end-user platforms and associated operating systems that support
   personal productivity and connectivity, while adhering to uniform standard configurations.

        Rationale:
         A business application may have a variety of users with different end-user platform
           requirements. End-user platform choices should satisfy both end user ease-of-use and uniform
           standard configurations for end-user platforms.
         Uniform, standard configurations of end-user platforms and associated operating systems
           minimize problems with interoperability, maintenance, and support and maximize the reusability
           of devices and services.
         The end-user platform displays the interface to an application. Office productivity software is
           designed to operate with the major, industry de facto standard, end-user operating systems.
         Agency-specific applications should be designed to minimize dependency on a particular end-
           user platform, as much as possible.
         Web browsers are becoming widespread application interfaces that support multiple platforms.
         N-tier applications, using "thin" client architectures, reduce dependence on a particular end-user
           platform because the user interface is isolated from application code.




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                                       Ariz o na En t er p ris e A rch i t ec t ur e
           EA                            Guiding Arizona to Ever Improving Citizen Service

    Az Enterprise   602.364.4482
    Architecture    Fax 602.364.4799                                                                             100 N 15th Ave, Suite 440
                    ea@azgita.gov                                                                                  Phoenix, Arizona 8500 7

 APPENDIX A. PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE ASSESSMENT FORM

 This assessment is designed to support the planning and implementation of Target Platform Architecture
 recommended standards and best practices. The assessment applies to IT projects that include business
 requirements that propose or require modifications and/or additions to existing deployments of platform devices.
 Score. Questions for the four (4) platform device categories are scored with one (1) point for a “Yes” answer, and zero (0) for a “No”
 answer. Maximum possible is the total number of questions for each category.
 Definitions:
          Applicable is defined as pertinent, related to, relevant, and appropriate.
          Capability is the potential and ability for development or use. It is the capacity to be used or developed for a purpose.
          Device includes logical groupings or categories of server, storage, and end-user (client) platforms in use statewide, or
          within a budget unit.
          Maximize is defined as taking full advantage of the subject attribute(s).
          Variety is defined simply as more than one. Note: the intent of versatility is to maximize flexibility and usefulness of a
          device relative to the applicable budget unit business applications.
          Widespread is defined as extensive and prevalent.
Platform Device Name/Description:
 Category                         Max.                   Score       Category Description
                               Possible
 1. Versatility                    8                                 Provides interoperability, flexibility, adaptability, and
                                                                     scalability without requiring substantial modification.
 2. Operating Systems                        6                       Utilizes open- or pervasive-industry-standard, secure,
                                                                     operating systems.
 3. Operating Systems Security               7                       Addresses the security functionality of Operating Systems.
 4. Open Standard Interfaces &               4                       Adheres to open-system-standard interface specifications
 Drivers                                                             and utilizes device drivers with IEEE interfacing and
                                                                     industry de facto standard protocols and formats.
                Total Rating Points          25

1. Versatility refers to a device’s capability (assuming connectivity where applicable) to provide interoperability,
flexibility, adaptability, and scalability without requiring substantial modification.
  Score 1 Rating Point for a “Yes” answer                                                                                           Yes
 1. Is the device capable of delivering applicable EA Target Technologies and Statewide IT standards without
 major upgrades and additional costs?
 2. Is the device capable of delivering or providing secure (as defined by Statewide IT Security Policy and
 Standards) end-user interface access to a variety of business applications (HRIS, email, office productivity
 applications, Internet, telephony, voice mail, etc.) without substantial modifications, regardless of end-user
 location?
 3. Is the device capable of delivering or providing end-user interface access to a variety of business applications
 maximizing a fully converged network, regardless of end-user location?
 4a. Server only – is the device capable of hosting or delivering multiple, and varied application solutions, with
 sufficient reliability, redundancy, and fault tolerance to support essential budget unit business operations?
 4b. Storage only – is the device capable of hosting or delivering storage for multiple, and varied application
 solutions, with sufficient reliability, redundancy, and fault tolerance to support essential budget unit business
 operations?
 4c. End-user device only – is the device capable of providing one common point for end-user connectivity
 access and productivity for multiple and varied application solutions?
 5. Is the device able to maximize the use of the Statewide Network Infrastructure standards?
 6. Is the device capable of accommodating increased demands for service and new application solutions without
 substantial modifications?
 7. Are widespread choices for off-the-shelf application solutions, without modifications, available for this device?
 8. Does the versatility of this device directly improve the quality and timeliness of budget unit business
 functions?
                                                                                                  Total Rating Points

                                                                      Page 12
                                      Ariz o na En t er p ris e A rch i t ec t ur e
          EA                           Guiding Arizona to Ever Improving Citizen Service

   Az Enterprise   602.364.4482
   Architecture    Fax 602.364.4799                                                                100 N 15th Ave, Suite 440
                   ea@azgita.gov                                                                     Phoenix, Arizona 8500 7

2. Operating Systems refer to a device’s, or networks, capability to utilize open- or pervasive-industry-standard
operating systems.
 Score 1 Rating Point for a “Yes” answer                                                                            Yes
 1. Is an open-industry-standard operating system currently available for this device?
 2. Is the operating system currently deployed with this device an open or industry de facto standard operating
 system?
 3. Does the operating system currently deployed with this device allow for all updates to be pushed to, or
 accepted by, all associated devices?
 4. Does the same version of the operating system currently deployed with this device have mass availability?
 5. Is the installed version of the operating system currently deployed with this device the most current
 production version, or undergoing continued development by the manufacturer?
 6. Is the operating system currently deployed with this device scheduled for future production releases?
                                                                                               Total Rating Points
3. Operating Systems Security refers to a security functionality that is available with the Operating System (must be
answered relative to responses in 2. Operating Systems.)
 Score 1 Rating Point for a “Yes” answer                                                                            Yes
 1. Do the operating system security services align with Statewide IT Security Policy and Standards?
 2. Does the operating system security allow for logging and the security controls for applications, platform, and
 network levels to be integrated to reduce and eliminate redundancies?
 3. Does the operating system support access, authentication, and authorization techniques as defined in the
 Statewide IT Security Policy and Standards?
 4. Does the operating system allow for an integrated LDAP directory service?
 5. Does the operating system allow for all security updates to be pushed to, or accepted by, all associated
 devices?
 6. Does the operating system allow for logging and the restriction, including preventing end-user override, of
 particular functions or services, such as non-essential or redundant services, communication options that are
 susceptible or prone to abuse, and operating-system-level utilities?
 7. Can extraneous services, open ports, etc., be easily removed from “default installations of the operating
 system” and prevented from returning when the operating system is upgraded?
                                                                                               Total Rating Points
4. Open Standard Interfaces and Drivers refer to a device’s capability to adhere to open-system-standard interface
specifications and to utilize device drivers that use IEEE and industry de facto standard protocols and formats.
 Score 1 Rating Point for a “Yes” answer                                                                            Yes
 1. Does the device utilize Statewide Network Infrastructure Standards for communication protocols?
 2. Is the device capable of being configured, managed, and maintained using standard SNMP-based
 management tools?
 3. Is the device capable of utilizing open-standard drivers that employ IEEE-interfaces and industry de facto
 standard software drivers?
 4. Are multiple, off-the-shelf, peripheral devices that conform to open-system-standards and that utilize industry
 de facto standard drivers available for this device?
                                                                                               Total Rating Points




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