July to Sept. THE JOURNAL ROYAL ARCHITECTURAL INSTITUTE OF CANADA 91
Architecture in Canada
BY PERCY E. NOBBS, M.A., R.C.A., F.R.I.B.A.
President of the Province of L&uebec Association of Architects
Read before the Royal Institute of British Architects, London, on Monday, 21st January, 1924
NE cannot be at all sure that writing or talking for shade and shelter and an essentially bad snow
is of any value except as
writing and talking, and there being no doubt
is made to be seen
Perhaps its grace has been sufficient
It is dead; but it has died hard.
Just after the end of the French regime there was
rather than to be heard about, an exhibition of a school of crafts established at St. Joachim, on the
one hundred examples of buildmg in Canada has north shore of the St. Lawrence, below Quebec.
been provided. For this we have to thank McGill There, among other things, iron latches, locks and
University for the illustrations of work from the cockspurs were made with distinct signs of Gothic
French and the Georgian periods, the Canadian method-the only trace of natural, traditional, un-
Pacific Railway in the case of most of the Victorian revived Gothic culture I know of in America.
examples, and for photographs of work designed Again, from about 1800 to 1825, one Quevillon
and executed by Canadian offices since 1900! the established a school of design and craft at St. Vin-
architects concerned, who most willingly and kindly cent de Paul., near Montreal, and much of the quaint
provided what was asked of them. The collection and interesting work in the way of pulpits and altar
will, I trust, be found representative of Canadian pieces in French-Canadian churches is to be ascribed
architecture. Ma,ny of the most important build- to his school, which at one time numbered about one
ings in Canada are not illustrated for the reason hundred apprentices.
that they are not the work of Canadian offices.
Many common, and therefore characteristic, types Until a century ago there were two well estab-
of house, church, office, store and mill are ignored lished traditions in Eastern Canada, with French
in this collection on the ground that, by no stretch and English origins, both curiously parallel to the
of the imagination-not even the application of contemporary work in the cities of the Baltic. The
an undiluted Crocean aesthetic doctrine-can these English tradition was, of course, closely allied to
things rank as works of art. What is shown in that of New England. These traditions, inherited
this little exhibition is meant as fair samples of our from the France of the Louis and the England
varied best. of the Georges, were partly ameliorated by climate
and partly by the use of that greatest of all timbers,
It is perhaps not necessary to embark on a crit- now well-nigh squandered out of existence, white
ique of the ugly to justify a claim to your gratitude pine. But these simi-indigenous traditions are no
for not unduly stressing our work from the third more, for to build in the good old ways is now become
quarter of the nineteenth century in this exhibition. desperately expensive, and that part of the good-
Much of what is shown must appear strange to ness which was craftsmanship is quite unattainable.
the English eye, and strangeness as an element of In Halifax and St. John, Quebec, Montreal and
charm has very discreet limits. The remarks which Kingston there are buildings from the design of
follow are intended as explanation supplementary of men trained in the offices of Adams and Cockerel,
to this exhibition, in the hope that critics here may who came to Canada as civil officials attached to
thereby find themselves in a better position to ex- naval and engineers’ services. Their works are
tend that sympathetic understanding of our prob- equal in delicacy and grace-and, I may add, in
lems which might be the beginning of an appreciation stability-to anything of the kind in England.
of our efforts. But such treasures are in a sad way, and public
interest in their preservation is as yet non-existent.
Previous to the cession in 1763, French Canada
A survey of the older architecture is now begun by
had a well-established tradition in rubble building,
the students of the Department of Architecture at
with shingle, and later with sheet tin roofing. McGill, while the Province of Quebec Association
Strange to say, the French never evolved a log archi-
of Architects has a scholarship for travel and study
tecture in Canada, and their clapboard and framing
of old French work. These are poor expedients
was an adaptation of New England methods, when public pride is lacking.
founded on prototypes evolved between the Thames
and the Channel, where the typical English forests Such things, belonging to an era that has passed,
of oak ever gave way to pine. The French-Canadian exceed in grace and accomplishment anything done
steeples have always had distinctive character, and since in Canada. Here and there, up to 1860, a
the earlier ones are characterized by simplicity of little work in the older manner was still occurrmg,
composition, combined with extraordinary grace. but a grander scale soon supervened, bringing with
The French window (casement, opening in) has it a somewhat vulgarized taste in detail. There-
been adhered to with a tenacity almost as great after the most virulent phase of “American Vic-
as that bestowed upon language and religion, and torianism” had a vogue. Some fine square houses
only of late years has its supremacy been challenged were built about this time, with better detail
by the mullioned ranges of casements, and the outside than in, but the vernacular taste became
sliding sash, respective heritages of the English wholly corrupted, and the use of galvanized iron
Gothic and Classic traditions. But by far the most for feigned stonework made all things possible. By
characteristic feature of aid French building craft 1880 people were no longer building so large; the cycle
in Canada is the exaggerated bellcast designed of economy in scale had set in; but prodigality in
92 THE JOURNAL ROYAL ARCHITECTURAL INSTITUTE OF CANADA July to Sept.
Architecture in Canada (Continued)
the use of pine and oak was still manifest. By 1900 Horne, President of the company, well knew,
rapidly rising prices and the depletion of the sup- love a romantic setting. Mr. Painter made some
plies of the better qualities of timber had inaugurated bold additions to the Frontenac before the War,
an era of condensed planning and inferior construc- and the Messrs. Maxwell have made still bolder
tion. Craftsmanship disappeared. ones last year. All have drawn freely on the
Some time about the fifth year of this century, Loire. When the Grand Trunk was becoming
I had the pleasure of showing Mr. Salm, the Dutch a transcontinental railway, it also went into the
architect, the charms of Montreal in midwinter, ch%teau business and, taking a leaf out of the rival
and it befell that we sat us down in a then famous railway’s book, instigated the design of a notable
hostelry before a mighty jig-saw doorway, mani- pile, “the Chateau Laurier,” at Ottawa, also mak-
festing in sundry natural and grained woods, with ing heavy draughts upon the Loire. A chain of
pediments and chamfered whatnots. “Why did “ch%teaux” has been embarked upon by both
he make it so ugly?” asked my friend; and again railway companies. In the Canadian language
and again, “But why did he make it so ugly?” “ch$teau” now means railway hotel.
And then, after a long pause, finding me still dis- A corollary of Confederation in 1867 was the
creet, he grabbed me by the thigh in enlighten- erection of the Houses of Parliament at Ottawa,
ment, and chirruped, “I know! I know! Because and in 1917 the main building was burned. Fuller,
he could not make it any u$ierl” After that we who had been concerned with the State House at
went slumming, and he was charmed with some Albany, was the architect, and his manner showed
of the gracious and dignified simplicities of a by- the influence of the Ruskin, Street, Butterfield
gone day, more particularly several buildings since and Nesfield School.
The horrors into which the Neo-Greek tradition The design for reconstruction was put in the
hands of John Pearson, of Toronto, and Joseph
in Canada degenerated, after a good start, laid
open the way for Gothic revivalism, even in its Marchand, of Montreal-the first a Yorkshireman
crudest forms, as a welcome relief. This was in with a sentimental attachment for the “middle
flowing,” the latter a French Canadian trained in
turn supplanted by the robust American Roman-
Paris, with a flair for a fine plan. Thus Ottawa
esque of Richardson during the last twenty years
of the centry, only to be superseded by a second retains its neo-media5valism.
phase of Gothic, which looks to Mr. Goodhue, The various provincial parliament buildings have
rather than the Tudor originals, for inspiration. now all been built. Halifax has her old Georgian
Our medizvalism is thus seen to be both artificial “Province Building,” dating from 181 1, and still
and exotic in its inspiration. It has been most the gem of the collection; the New Brunswick build-
successful when least scholarly, as in the case of ing at Fredericton is of little interest; Quebec has
the choir in St. Patrick’s Church, Montreal, in her Parliament House in the manner of Louis
which material and climatic considerations join Philippe, tasteless and banal; Ontario possesses in
with a vaguely felt tradition to embody a noble her Legislative Building a rare example of “masonry
scale and sensitive proportions. brute mishandled.” The legislative building at
Victoria, B.C., has a freer and more graceful char-
In 190.3, Messrs. McKim, Meade 8: White, of
New York., designed the head office of the Bank of acter. The three prairie provincial capitals possess
Montreal m that city; in 1918 Messrs. Sproatt 8: parliament buildings of more recent date, of the
of Toronto, built Hart House, Toronto recognized State Capitol type, with pedimented
porticos and central lantern domes, That at W7in-
University-the first an affair of rarified classic
nipeg, by Mr. ITrank W. Simon, is a truly notable
tase, the second a matter of mullions, timber
roofs and tender, textured rubble masonry. Mc- achievement, in the full dress of European classic
Kim’s work is often indistinguishable from Smirke’s;
Sproatt almost uses plates of measured work as Ofice buildings are a highly specialized line in
working drawings, albeit with a fine selective taste. what used to be listed as “Yankee notions,” and
Each achieved a notable building and, a thing many thoroughly effective examples have been built
rare in our time, a great popular success. Neither in Canada both by American architects and Can-
can claim much originality in these buildings, adians. So also with the institutional work and
except on the score of the plans, both brilliant in collegiate buildings, the American models have,
their very different ways. But only a few, even for the most part, been followed, with their good
among architects, apprehend an accomplished plan. and bad points evenly accentuated.
I cite these two cases as important milestones. Standardization is the vice of the Americans;
McKim has had many followers in Canada, and one town becomes like another throughout the
Sproatt leads a devoted band. These traditions States of the Union and, by an infection which there
are incompatible. They cannot both represent the is no possibility of avoiding and no use in denying,
right thing in the right place when the place is throughout the provinces of Canada as well. The
c ana d a. older towns still have the bouquet and saviour of
In the ‘nineties the Canadian Pacific Railway individuality. Halifax and St. John retain their
built two hotels, in Quebec and Montreal, and rugged silhouettes on ridge and crag,; Quebec her
labelled the former the “Chateau 1:rontenac.” discreet fronts on narrow and prectpitous lanes,
Mr. Bruce Price, of Boston, was the architect, and with dainty spires wherever a church may cling
they were made French out of compliment to the upon her slopes; Montreal the disordered pictur-
Province, and Old French for the delectation of esqueness of a lingering eighteenth century civilisa-
American tourists, who, as the late Sir William Van tion at odds with modern commercialism; Kingston
July to Sept. THE JOURNAL ROYAL ARCHITECTURAL INSTITUTE OF CANADA 93
Architecture in Canada (Continued)
her forts and her palladian fasades; and London Materials throughout Canada vary about as much
(in the bush) her shaded avenues of elms. as they do in the similar range of distance from Lon-
The smaller towns of Ontario still retain a cer- don to Moscow. Of lumber the best goes abroad.
tain charm due to a not over-accelerated develop- White pine has been wantonly exhausted. British
ment. But the cities of Ontario, and the cities Columbia fir is now used, even in Nova Scotia.
and town of the plains, are American, with certain Except birch and maple for flooring, the best hard-
very American standard features such as useless wood comes from the United States. In Alberta
but elegantly designed columnar porticoes to the there are superb brickfields, whose product matches
banks, and useless and ill-designed Gothic towers the best in the United States-that is, in the world
upon the churches; and where educational institu- -the brickfields of the chief centres of population
tions of any importance occur, a display of collegiate yield sound material, but it is uninteresting in
stage setting, mullions and buttresses and parapets texture and colour. Much first-class face brick-
all turned out by the yard, with a singular lack of work in Canada is done with American bricks.
all that Mr. Prior would understand as of the Gothic The situation as to stone is similar. Nova Scotia,
spirit. Now, in the Eastern States of the Union, Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia have granite,
the demure and legitimate classic inherited as a and some of the plants are as highly developed as
real tradition from Georgian times is able to achieve any in the world. The grey limestones of the St.
solutions for all manner of collegiate problems, and Lawrence Valley-Kingston, Montreal and Quebec
cheaply too. -are unsurpassable as a dignified material, but they
We have reviewed the traditions, natural and are costly to work compared to the softer sandstones
exotic, affecting Canadian architecture, and taken and limestones from the States. Winnipeg has a
some account of the Government buildings and pale limestone with a strong shell mark admirably
the character of the cities and towns from sea to suited to large scale work; this finds its way as
sea. It remains only to make note of the climate, far east as Montreal and as far west as Edmonton.
the materials, and the culture-lay, professional Material has thus but little local significance in
and industrial-and then to hazard a guess at Canada. In many cases, whole streets of buildings
imminent economic conditions, if one would prog- have involved transport in the raw over five hundred
nosticate the future of Canadian architecture. miles and more, from half a dozen directions.
Enough has surely been shown and said to main- Now, as to the culture which finds a general
tain the thesis that, beyond the practicalities of expression in Canadian architecture through the
window and roof making, at the moment Canadian co-operation of the lay and professional minds,
architecture is a polite fiction. But it is in these there is, of course, that easy generalisation to fall
very practicalities that there is hope, for they are back upon about Canada as an interpreter of
due to force majeure, that most potent agency for Britain to America, and America to Britain. For
making a distinctive character in men and things this view there is some superficial corroboration
-weather. Of the Canadian climate, the worst in the fact that to English eyes Canadian archi-
that has ever been said is that there is too much of tecture is very American, while to American eyes
it. It is a high-powered affair of desperate ranges it often appears a little English. But all travellers
in temperatures and humidities and pressures, both are predisposed to react to the unfamiliar.
from summer to winter, and from mid-day to mid- Strenuous efforts are made from time to time
night. Moreover, east and west, there are at least in magazine articles, novels, histories and carica-
six varieties of climate in Canada, all severe and tures to elaborate a Canadian type-so far without
most of them sunny. Ultimately, we might there- success, for the all-sufficient reason that there are
fore expect in Canada as many architectures as many types, all abundantly characteristic, and much
climates, since architectural character is largely water will pass down the Great Lakes before there
resultant from window and roof forms. If only is assimilation. The best rooted elements of society
landsmen were as logical as seamen or beavers, in the Maritimes, in Quebec, in Ontario, on the
or birds, architecture would be an exact science. plains, and on the coast, are all distinctive, and
Climate has already shown itself in Canada to be long will they remain so. Current Canadian archi-
a powerful solvent of exotic tradition. Bear in tecture, however, does not reflect these distinctions
mind, please, that most of the building in this land at all. An understanding of the constituent ele-
of 8,000,000 people on 3,700,OOO square miles has ments of the architectural profession in Canada is
been constructed within the last thirty years, under necessary to explain this.
the influence of ten distinct traditions. Give the It is only within the last twenty years that the
north wind time! means for a complete technical professional edu-
The climate being classed as “northern” and cation of Canadian architects have existed in
“arid” by the geographers and weather authori- Canada, and only within the last ten years that the
ties, we find, when compared with England, that recruitment of the profession from the University
exposed woodwork lasts long, brickwork and mason- Schools has become commensurate with the oppor-
ry require much metal coping, and covering on tunities. There are in Canada to-day between
water tables; copper and galvanised iron take the eight and nine hundred architects, and about a
place of lead and zinc; slates are an extravagance, score are now entering practice each year, with
gravel roofs a commendable economy, and double the diploma of one or other of the Canadian schools.
windows an essential to comfort (except in British Previous to the institution of these schools, the
Columbia and the Niagara Peninsula). It is a land Canadian offices which claimed a reputation for
of bright sunshine, and deep shadow accompanies teaching were never numerous. Indeed, the offices
all modulations of form. have been all too blithe and irresponsible in trans-
94 THE JOURNAL ROYAL ARCHITECTURAL INSTITUTE OF CANADA July to Sept.
Architecture in Canada (Continued)
mitting their teaching responsibility to the schools. tionment of the several labours of building in a
At this time, then, the schools are just beginning district and the prevalence of raciallv homogeneous
to make an impression on the general output of gangs for different work on a job. .Appreniiceship
architectural design in Canada. is nracticallv non-existent. The trade schools have __ -
The Canadian work illustrated at this time so far failed of their purpose. As a result the
must not, therefore, he fathered on the schools. skilled trades are recruited by immigration from
By the middle of the century it will perhaps be overseas. Against such recruitment the “progress-
possible to judge of the architectural schools of ive” influences marshal their strength. Meanwhile
Canadian Universities by their fruits. the building booms of our prosperous protectionist
The variety and characteristics of Canadian cousins to the South rob us of such skilled labour
architectural efforts from 1900 to I923 can only be as we may generate or capture.
partially explained, then, by the varied climates, In the large communities of Canada skilled men
the varied materials, and the varied provincial can, indeed, be found to carve, model, hammer,
Cultures. The circumstances of recruitment and cast or paint anything the wit of man can conceive,
training of the profession in Canada, as it is to-day but they are few,, and very inadequately remuner-
constitute the main factors. ated, and facilities are woefully lacking for the
Broadly speaking, our architectural body con- dissemination of their craft knowledge. A few
sists of three elements: shops still retain the high standards of execution
(1) Born Canadians who have studied abroad, of a former generation, but very few. Within my
for the most part in the United States, seldom in own experience the standard of execution has gone
England. steadily down in spite of a great improvement in
(2) American immigrants trained in the United professronal services, so far as drawings and details
States, and for the most part in the French academic are concerned. A certain mechanical perfection
tradition; of execution can, it is true, be realised at a price,
(3) British immigrants, the majority hailing from but for the time being the vital touch and sense
Scottish offices, often immature, and picking up of craft have departed from our midst.
their experience in Canada before becoming prac- As to Canadian contractors, generally speaking,
titioners. both great and small are of high ability, conspicu-
Now, I have had abundant opportunity to ously so in all matters of organisation and adminis-
observe the contributions of these three more or tration. They are not, however, invariably masters
less distinct elements to the problems of Canadian of their craft. The present tendency is for the
design, and I have no hesitation in attributing to execution . of works to be regarded . as a . profession .
the British immigrant the sincerest and most in- requiring a college trainmg in civil engmeermg or
ventive efforts to modify traditions to new require- in architecture. The man bred in the builder’s -- Y
ments and local conditions, and incidentally to yard thus often finds himself in a subordinate
appreciate the good work done in Canada between capacity, and so tends to extinction. As a conse-
1700 and 1900. quence, great actual responsibility falls on the
The Canadian-born contingent has, with a few clerk of works. A good one will often shoulder .*-.
notable exceptions, been a little prone to accept the real control on a job, the contractors putting
American solutions en ~~uJ, as the “Academic des themselves quite cheerfullv in the position of
Architectes du Roi” in the time of Louis XIV agents to assemble material and provide labour,
accepted Vignola’s orders. The American immi- as required, leaving the clerk of works to issue all
grant architect has made a contribution with instructions. This leads to rather subtle situa-
indefatigable accomplishment of those elegant insin- tions now and then; but generally to very good
cerities which obscure the path of natural evolution value for the client’s outlay.
in design. Artificiality, however, is the life-blood As the ordinary surveyor is all but unknown in
of architecture on the American continent. Canada, and the contractor takes his own quanti-
In this our period of experimentation, with the ties (rarely requiring more than a week even on a
forces of crude nature and economic law, with big undertaking), everyone concerned on a job has
competing cultures, social problems and the artificial a good deal more discretion as to interpretation
rivalries of traditions, it is inevitable, perhaps, than with the English system. This adds to the
that design and architecture should suffer some architect’s responsibilities, but on the whole it
divorcement. Whether the teaching of architecture makes for self-respect and professional dignity and
at the Universities will tend to the inculcation of standing on the part of the contractor.
those first principles on which a tradition can be I have endeavoured to present to you our his-
re-established, or to further fortify the confusion toric background, our lost tradition, the considera-
of the Babel which is with us, remains to be seen. tions of a material, cultural and technical kind
First principles are illusive things to discover, and which underlie and modulate our efforts in architec-
notoriously difficult to teach, and schools of archi- tural expression, and I leave it for you who view
tecture slip with fatal facility into the exploitation the photographs to make your appraisals, begging
of rival propagandas in Canada as elsewhere, thus only that you will take account of our difficulties
defeating the ends for which they exist. as well as our opportunities.
A word upon the building trades in Canada is Editor’s Note.-The exhibit of photographs referred to in Mr.
now in order. They are not as highly unionised Nobb’s address included the jollowin~:-
as in England, but unionisation is aninternational Church of St. Louis de Terrebonne, near Montreal, built 1787,
affair in the United States and Canada. The Church of St. Charles de In Chenaye, near Quebec. C. 1750.
effect of this is complicated by the racial appor- A Church near Quebec, C. 1750, now demolished.
July to Sept. THE JOURNAL ROYAL ARCHITECTURAL INSTITUTE OF CANADA 9.5 I
Architecture in Canada (Continued)
Church of St. Bartel&ne at Berth&, P.Q. Quevillon School. The Arts Building, Toronto University. Architects: Cumber-
C. 1830. land and Storm 1865.
The Basilica, Quebec--Architect for Facade and Unfinished The Univers;tv Convocation Hall, Toronto. Architects:
Tower, Baillarge. South Tower, 1770; Facade, etc. 1844, burnt Darling and Pearson, 1908.
1923. Knox College, Toronto. Architects: Chapman and McGrifin,
A Church at Quebec. C. 1800. 1912.
The Grey Nunnery, Montreal. Architect: Bourgeau, 1871. Hart House, University of Toronto. Architects: Sproatt and
St. Patrick’s Church, Montreal. Architect: Rev. Fathe, Rolph, 1914.
Martin. S.T.. 1847. The Physics Building, McGill University, Montreal. Archi-
Church ;i St. Cunegonde, Montreal. Architects: Mnrchand tects: Taylor, Hogle and Davis, 1898.
and Hake!], 1906. McGill University Union, Montreal. Architects: I’. E. Nobbs
Seigneurle de Lossier at St. Vincent de Paul, P.Q. C. 1830. (F) and Hutchison and Wood, 1904.
A House on the Island of Orleans, P.Q. C. 1770. The Women’s Residence, Dalhousie University, Halifax.
House on Beauport Road near Quebec. C. 1750. Architect: Frank Darling, R CA., 1910.
An Old Farm House near Montreal. C. 1820. The Medical Buildine. Universitv of Alberta. Edmonton.
An old House in Montreal. C. 1750. Architects: Nobbs and Hyde, 1920. ’
Doorway to the Grand Seminaire, Quebec Quevillon School. The Montreal Technical School. Architect: John S. Archi-
C. 1820. bald, 1910.
The Champlain Market, Quebec. Built from ruins of Parlia- The Mother House, Congregation of Notre Dame, Montreal.
ment Buildings and now demolished. C. 1860. Architects: Mnrchand and Haskell. 1907.
St. Paul’s Church, Halifax, N.S. Founded 1751. A Synagogue in Westmount, P.Q. Architect: J. M. Miller, 1922.
The An&can Church. Grane Prt. N.S. C. 1760. Canadian Bank of Commerce, Winnipeg. Architects: Darling
Anglican Cathedral Church at Quebec. Architects: Capt. Hall and Pearson, 1906.
and Major Robe, 1804. Canadian Bank of Commerce, Montreal. Architects: Darling
Governor’s House, Halifax, N.S. Architect: John Merrick, and Pearson,. 1907.
1801 Bank of British North America, Montreal. Architects: Barott,
Legislative Building, Halifax, N.S. Architect: John Merrick Blockader and Webster, 1914.
1811. Public Librarv. Montreal. Architect: E. Pavette. 1912.
The Custom House, Quebec. 1833. The Bathing pavilion, Hnrbour Commission,.Toronto. Archi-
The Court House at Kingston, Ont. C. 1825. tect: A. H. Chapman, 1920.
The Court House at Brantford Ont. C. 1850. The Alexandra Theatre, Toronto. Architect: J. M. Lyle, 1910.
Osgoode Hall (Court House) T’oronto. Architects: Cumber- The Universitv Club. Montreal. Architects: Nobbs and
land hnd Storm 1860. Hyde, 1913.
An Office Building in Montreal. Architect: Thomas. 1870. The Royal Bank Building, Toronto. Architects: Ross and
A Residence in tiontreal. C. 1850. Macdonald, 1914.
A Private House in Kingston, Ont. C. 1860. The C.P.R. Building. Architects: Darling and Pearson, 1913.
A Residence in Montreal. Architect: Thomas. C. 1860. The General Accident Assurance Building, Toronto. Archi-
A Residence in Toronto. Architects: Wickson and Gregg, 1917. tect: F. S. Baker (F) 1920.
House of the Architect: Eden Smith, Toronto, 1912. The Southam Building, Calgary, Alberta. Architects: Brown
A Residence in Toronto. Architects: Sproatt and Ralph, 1923. and Vnllance, 1913.
A Residence in Victoria, B.C. Architect: S. Maclure, 1920. C.P.R. Hotel, Victoria, B.C. Architect: F. M. Rattenbury,
A Residence near Montreal. Architects: Nobbs and Hyde, 1923. 1908.
A Residence in Westmount, P.Q. Architect: Robert Find- The Chateau Frontenac, Quebec. Architect for Original
lay, 1918. Building, 1890: Bruce Price. Architects for New Tower, 1923:
Gold Club House, Beaconsfield, P.Q. Architect: David R. E. and W. S. Maxwell.
Brown, 1904. C.P.R. Hotel, Banff, B.C. Architect: W. S. Painter, 1913.
The City Hall, Toronto. Architect: E. J. Lennox, 1890. C.P.R. Station, Vancouver, B.C. Architects: Barott, Blnck-
The 1,ibrnrv of Parliament. Ottawa. Architect: Fuller. 1875. rider and Webster, 1912.
New Parlia’ment Building, Ottawa. Architects: John Pearson The Union Station, Toronto. Architects: Ross and Mac-
and Joseph Marchand, 1919. donaId; Hugh Tones and J. M. Lyle, 1919.
Legislative Building, Quebec Public Works Department, 1880. The Legisla;ive Building, Winnipeg, Man. Architect: Frank
Legislative Building, _, Victoria, B.C. Architect: F. M. Ratten- W. Simon (F), 1920.
bury; I 894. The J,egislative Building, Regina, Sask. Architects: E. and
Trinity College, Toronto. Architect: Kivas Tully. C. 1850. W. S. Maxwell, 1910.
Architecture of the Queen’s Doll’s House
BY LORD GERALD WELLRSLEY
I T is to be hoped that there is not, in the whole greatest living domestic architect. They form an
world, anyone so unchildlike as not to appreciate exact compromise between Palladia’s correctness
the Queen’s Dolls’ House. It must surely be and refinement, and Wren’s English common sense.
the most wonderful present which has ever been Although many of the rooms are lofty, the general
given since primitive man first shaped wood and proportion of each storey is wider and lower than
clay to his own uses. Never before can the labour an Italian house. Conversely, Wren could never
of hundreds of skilled and gifted people have been bring himself to use the truly classical slope for a
concentrated into so small a space. As I am writ- pediment which he felt was not steep enough to
ing under the heading “Architectural Notes,” I throw off our northern rains. K ut Sir E. Lutyen’s
must not describe the wonders of the electrical and design, although frankly inspired by \Vren, has
sanitary arrangements, the rarities of the wine a personal flavour about it, which becomes more
cellar and library, and the beauties of the garden- pronounced in the interior. This has certain ob-
perhaps the most astonishing feature of the whole vious pleasing anachronisms and inconsistencies of
Palace-where every minute leaf is made of iron. style about it which render it typical of the furniture
In the popular imagination these delights quite and decoration of the present day. Perhaps the
naturally overshadow the architectural and his- best thing is the grand staircase. One feels that
torical importance of the Dolls’ House. But the the “going” would be perfect, and the rounded
house is far more than a grown-up’s toy. The eleva- sweep of the bottom flight is magnificent.
tions represent an ideal house designed by our -The Spectator