"Archaeology in the Upstate of South Carolina"
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA VOL. 9, NO. 3, DECEMBER 2005 Archaeology in the Upstate of South Carolina By Tommy Charles and Terry A. Ferguson Research in the South Carolina equipment from a 169-square-meter Upstate is continuing with much block near the center of the site. It success. After preliminary testing at was determined that Early through several sites in 2004, 38GR1 in Late Woodland/Mississippian Period Greenville County and 38PN35 in components existed at the site with Pickens County were selected for the majority of the surface and plow more extensive investigations. These zone artifacts attributable to the sites are located approximately one- Pisgah Phase (450-1,000 B.P., Dickens, Inside. . . half mile apart on opposite banks of the Saluda River. 1970:21). After removing the plow zone, it FIELD NOTES We began investigations at a was determined that long-term Director's Notes flood plain site 38GR1 in January of intensive cultivation, erosion due to Clovis in the Southeast Conference 2005 with a controlled surface flooding, and land leveling had collection. Based on this collection largely destroyed all Woodland RESEARCH and informant information, Period middens or occupation Fort Search at Ninety Six approximately 50-centimeters of surfaces that might have once Clam Shell Analysis Return to Santa Elena plow zone was removed with heavy See UPSTATE, Page 4 APPLIED RESEARCH Footsteps of Lieut. Allaire ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 32nd Annual S.C. Archaeology Conference February 2006 ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH TRUST Gifts Can Make A Difference OFFICE OF THE STATE ARCHAEOLOGIST S.C. Tribes Recognized Fig. 1: Pisgah pottery rim sherd found at 38GR1. (SCIAA photo by Terry A. Ferguson) Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 1 Legacy is the magazine of the SC Institute Director’s Note Since 1963 the South Carolina By Thorne Compton SCIAA Director Institute Director was put on hold. of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and For two years, Jon Leader loyally Legacy will be published twice in 2005. Thorne Compton, Director Anthropology has been engaged in carried out the duties of the Director Nena Powell Rice, Chief Editor, Layout, helping South Carolina and the world and simultaneously worked on his Design, and Production understand its rich past and own research and service. Editorial Board remarkable people. Through its own The College will soon begin a Christopher F. Amer, State Underwater research as well as its partnership national effort to find a new director Archaeologist Christopher Ohm Clement, Applied Research with archaeologists, anthropologists, for the Institute. In this transition Thorne Compton, Director Chester B. DePratter, Research historians, and interested citizens period, Jon Leader will be allowed to Adam King, Savannah River Archaeological throughout the state, it has worked to return to his own research and Research Program Jonathan Leader, Office of the State explore and conserve the unique invaluable work as State Archaeologist Carl Naylor, Maritime Research, cultural resources of the state. Archaeologist, and Dean Fitzpatrick Charleston Office (Copy Editor) Nena Powell Rice, Archaeological While the Institute was has assigned the administrative and Research Trust, Archaeological Society of established as a state cultural management duties of the Director South Carolina Steven D. Smith, Applied Research resource management agency, it is to me. As the Interim Director of the Archaeological Research Trust also a vital part of the research, Institute, I have been asked to carry Board of Trustees s teaching, and public service mission out overall management while David Hodges, Chair, Columbia, SC William A. Behan, Vice-Chair, Callawassie of the University of South Carolina. preparing the Institute to move into Island, SC Nena Powell Rice, Secretary, Columbia, SC In 2003, with the retirement of its the future with a new director. I am Russell Burns, Past Chair, Laurens, SC Director, the Institute faced a crisis of looking forward to working both Thorne Compton, Ex-Officio, Columbia, SC Priscilla Beale, Columbia, SC leadership. Jonathan Leader, who with staff on campus and with B. Lindsay Crawford, Columbia, SC Estelle Frierson, Lexington, SC had long provided valuable research clients and citizens from across the Esther Shirley Gerard, Travelers Rest, SC and service for the Institute, agreed to state who have an interest in the Edward Kendall, MD, Eastover, SC Kimbrell Kirby, Chapin, SC serve as the Interim Director until a future of the Institute. Ira Miller, Columbia, SC "Doc" Lachicotte, Pawleys Island, SC national search for a new Director James C. Ryan, Greenville, SC could be completed. At this time, the William Sullivan, Callawassie Island, SC G. N. "Butch" Wallace, Columbia, SC University decided to J. Walter Wilkinson, Darlington, SC reorganize its college Administrative Assistant to ART Board Nena Powell Rice (firstname.lastname@example.org) structure in order to better capitalize on the SC Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology growing links between University of South Carolina 1321 Pendleton Street disciplines and Columbia, SC 29208 strengthen its research (803) 799-1963 / 777-8170 / 777-8172 (803) 254-1338, FAX efforts in the sciences, http://www.cla.sc.edu/sciaa the social sciences, and humanities by acknowledging their interrelationships. Out of this effort came the new College of Arts and Sciences, a new dean, Mary Anne Fitzpatrick, and a new home for SCIAA. During the process of the merger and search for the new dean, the search for the Thorne Compton, SCIAA Director 2 Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 I approach this assignment with long relationship. The new College has made in carrying out his respect and enthusiasm. In my more of Arts and Sciences has brought responsibilities with the Institute for than 30 years at the University of together into new collaborations the past two years. Jon’s patience, South Carolina, I have come to know disciplines that had grown in good humor, and wonderful cookies well the work of the Institute and its separately for many years. The sustained the Institute as his remarkable staff. In the past few Institute should be a key player in competence, commitment, and days, I have been meeting with all of the growth of many of these dedication carried it forward. the SCIAA staff and coming to an collaborations. The Institute has long I look forward to talking with understanding of the truly worked closely with the Department many of you over the next few outstanding work that is being done of Anthropology. The Department is months. Please e-mail me at by the Institute and its collaborators. now beginning a new Ph.D. program email@example.com or call me at Over the next few months the that will bring to campus some of the 803 777-8170. Institute will face some very brightest students in the nation who important challenges as it prepares will be able to learn and grow Clovis in the Southeast Conference, for the next phase of its future. We working with the Institute while October 26-29, 2005 are all excited by discussions about contributing to its research efforts. moving into a new and much larger The Institute has long had an The Clovis in the Southeast conference was building that would accommodate all outstanding underwater and held in Columbia over a four-day period in of the Institute’s collections and maritime archaeology program. late October ending with a field trip to the make them more accessible to all While it has collaborated in the past Topper and Big Pine Tree sites in Allendale County, South Carolina. Nearly 400 people South Carolinians, as well as with the Marine Science program attended with approximately equal providing more and better space for and the University’s Baruch Center, participation by professional archaeologists curation, research, and developing under the new structure such and members of the public. The conference new programs. The search for a collaborations will be strongly featured two days of scientific paper director will be a defining moment, encouraged and fostered. presentations by leading scholars on Clovis as we intend to bring to South This year the University began a and pre-Clovis archaeological sites in the Carolina some of the most very aggressive program of faculty Southeast. A large exhibit of Paleoamerican outstanding people in the field and hiring with many of them to target artifacts were on display contributed by both professional institutions and privately from them choose a person to help us building interdisciplinary and cross- owned collections. Thursday evening Dr. chart the future of SCIAA. disciplinary collaboration. I believe Dennis Stanford at the Smithsonian I do not come to SCIAA as a that over the next decade the Institution presented in detail his views of professional archaeologist. I do bring Institute will find itself to be the how the European Solutrean culture may to this brief assignment a great deal nexus of new and exciting research have ultimately been the origin of North of administrative experience in a involving scientists and scholars American’s Clovis culture. The Topper site wide variety of areas, from serving as from a variety of disciplines. was featured in two presentations by Albert Associate Dean of three colleges, to The Institute has long done all of Goodyear documenting the dense Clovis occupation on the hilltop as well as the deep chairing the Department of Theatre, those things that great universities pre-Clovis evidence found well down in the Speech, and Dance, managing the are supposed to do––critical and ancient Pleistocene terrace. A controversial University’s Bicentennial celebration, cutting edge research, outstanding paper presented by Richard Firestone dealt and a long period as Associate public programs and service, and with evidence for a comet impact event, Director of the University’s institute teaching––with both university which may have occurred at the end of the for Southern Studies. I also bring a students and thousands of citizens Clovis culture potentially contributing to its life long interest in and commitment who are interested in and committed demise, as well as certain animal species. to the study of South Carolina and to the study of their own history and On Saturday, buses took attendees down to Clarient where a tour was conducted of the southern history and culture. culture. I am delighted to have this Topper and Big Pine Tree sites. The 2006 One of the reasons I was pleased opportunity to work with an Allendale Paleoindian Expedition will be to accept this assignment was outstanding staff at a moment when offered May 2-June 3. Registration to because I believe that the Institute the Institute steps off into its future. participate in the Topper site dig will begin and the University have come to a All of us deeply appreciate the January 1, 2006. Please contact Al Goodyear real moment of opportunity in their hard work and sacrifices Jon Leader at firstname.lastname@example.org or (803) 777-8170. Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 3 Research Division Archaeology in the Upstate of South Carolina (Cont.) patterns. One series of postholes forms an arc that extends into an unexcavated area; it appears to be part of a very large round structure. The projected diameter of the structure is between 12 to 15 meters. The excavated arc includes the burned post, Feature 143 (660 +/- 40 BP), which places the structure within the Pisgah Phase range. The two Pisgah Phase graves were inferred on the attributes of Fig. 2: Removing the plow zone at site 38GR1. (SCIAA photo by Lezlie Mills Barker) rectangular shape, general size, and length to width measurements, as the existed. What remained was a Woodland component is also present two features contained no skeletal number of postholes, oval pits, two at 38GR1. Another conventional remains or grave goods. possible graves, and a rock-filled radiocarbon date of 5630 +/- 40 BP In the spring of 2005, hearth that had been dug deep from an auger test made in the investigations shifted across the enough by the prehistoric inhabitants bottom of a 2004 backhoe trench at a South Saluda River to a terrace site to have intruded into lighter colored depth of 240 cm below surface 38PN35. Geoarcahaeological sediment beneath the area disturbed suggests the presence of a buried investigations, involving ground- by the plow zone. In general, the Archaic Period component. penetrating radar and auger testing, preservation of features at this site is An impressive array of postholes were conducted to better understand consistent with that exhibited at the were defined and mapped at 38GR1. the landforms on which the site is Warren Wilson site investigated by Analysis of the postholes indicates located and the site formation Dickens in 1976. the presence of mainly partial processes. Other geophysical As the features were mapped and excavated, charcoal samples were collected for radiocarbon dating. The two possible graves, Features 7 and 53, produced conventional radiocarbon ages of 880 +/- 50 BP and 730 +/- 40 BP, respectively, whereas a burned post, Feature 143, returned a conventional radiocarbon age of 660 +/- BP. These dates confirmed that these were Pisgah features. In contrast, the rock- filled hearth returned a conventional radiocarbon age of 2950 +/- 40 BP. A charcoal sample taken from a backhoe trench excavated in 2004 from the level into which the Pisgah features intruded provided a conventional radiocarbon age of 3080 +/- 40 BP. These two ages establish that a Terminal Archaic/Early Fig. 3: Fran Knight mapping features at 38GR1. (SCIAA photo by Tommy Charles) 4 Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 Fig. 4: Postholes of possible Pisgah structure at 38PN1. (SCIAA photo by Lezlie Mills Barker) investigations conducted during the beneath. The Archaic components excavations at 38PN35 were course of study at 38PN35 included have produced numerous diagnostic submitted for radiocarbon dating. magnetometry, and magnetic bifaces and features. Features include Six samples returned conventional susceptibility, which were used to rock circles, arcs, and clusters, rock- radiocarbon ages ranging between characterize the magnetic signatures filled, and dark-stained organic rich 4850 +/- 60 BP and 6190 +/- 50 BP. of features and strata. Two small sediment-filled pits. The six dates are among the few ever blocks, one begun in 2004, Eight charcoal samples recovered obtained from Middle and Late measuring 5 X 2 meters and 2 X 2 from the spring and summer 2005 Archaic sites on South Carolina’s meters, were opened and hand excavated. The plow zone of approximately 20 centimeters at 38PN35 was shallower than at 38GR1. The average size of the pottery sherds recovered from the surface and plow zone at 38PN35 were also on average four times larger than at 38GR1, indicating less intensive cultivation. But as with 38GR1, Woodland Period components of 38PN35 appear to be confined mainly to the plow zone. Below the plow zone are relatively undisturbed deposits containing a stratified sequence of Archaic Period strata, with a Late Archaic component on top, and a well- defined Middle Archaic component Fig. 5: Lamar Nelson, Jeff Catlin, and Roger Lindsay auger testing at site 38PN35. (SCIAA photo by Tommy Charles) Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 5 in prehistoric environment reconstruction. Faunal remains are few, due to poor preservation in the sites acidic soils. The surviving faunal remains consist of fragments of calcined bone that may be too small for meaningful analysis. Work will continue at 38GR1 and 38PN35 beginning in October of 2005 with the following goals. At 38GR1, an attempt will be made to expose the rest of the postholes for the large structure identified earlier Fig. 6: Late Archaic rock features at site 38PN35. (SCIAA photo by Tommy Charles) this year. If it proves to be Piedmont and are a much needed fragments from 38PN35, feature 38. as large as expected, then the area addition to our radiocarbon That feature returned a date of 1020 interior to the posts will be opened database and understanding of the +/- 50 BP from wood charcoal. The and excavated in hopes that any areas culture chronology. The two remains will be analyzed by an internal features might yield clues as other samples returned conventional ethnobotanist to examine prehistoric to the structure’s function. A series radiocarbon ages of 830 +/- 40 BP plant use, plant domestication, times of deep tests across the terraces and and 1020 +/- 50 BP, documenting the and seasons of occupations, and aid flood plain will also be excavated to Late Woodland features, which intruded into the upper Archaic strata. The 1020 +/- 50 BP date derives from a feature containing several segments of carbonized sticks and other plant remains incompletely consumed as fuel. Our research design calls for processing by water flotation. Flotation permits the capture of small-scale remains, especially plant and animal remains but also micro- debitage, that otherwise would be lost by screening through 1/4" mesh. Over 200 bags of fill from features and several proveniences of interest have been collected from 38GR1 and 38PN35 to date. Flotation of these samples is nearing completion. Carbonized plant remains are abundant and diverse. We recovered two carbonized maize cob Fig. 7: Volunteers Lezlie Mills Barker, Ronald Rich, Mike Bramlett, and Terry Ferguson (to right). (SCIAA photo by Tommy Charles) 6 Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 examine geoarchaeological attributes Michael C. Murray Joins Maritime and document the locations and depths of any buried prehistoric Research Division Staff as the New cultural components. The test results Manager of the Sport diver should be invaluable in planning long-term research, not only at the Archaeological Management Program two sites currently under (SCDAMP) investigation but also for developing By Christopher Amer models for site development and The South Carolina Institute of location across the Upstate. At Archaeology and Anthropology has a underwater archaeology projects in 38PN35, excavations will be new manager of the Sport Diver the late 1990s. Notably, these include expanded in an attempt to find in Archaeological Management the “Aucilla River Prehistory Project” context the elusive fiber-tempered Program (SDAMP). Michael Murray, in Florida and the excavation of a 17th pottery that was found in a surface most recently of Tallahassee, Florida, century Dutch shipwreck known as collection at this site in 2004. Fiber- joined the Maritime Research the “Monti Christi Pipewreck” tempered ceramics have not been Division in September of 2005. located off the northern coast of the previously documented so far north Prior to coming to South Dominican Republic. or west and away from the Savannah Carolina, Michael spent six months Michael brings to SCIAA a wide River drainage in South Carolina. as a Senior Archaeological Database range of experience in the areas of As always, we welcome visitors, Analyst for the Florida Master Site technical diving, professional volunteer workers, and financial File and four months teaching seamanship, GIS database work, support. Should you wish to visit or onboard the traditional schooners shipwreck excavation, and participate in the excavations or to Spirit of Massachusetts and Westward, experiential education onboard support this research you may as Second Mate and Marine Science nautical school ships. contact the following persons: Educator respectively. He seeks to continue with the Tommy Charles, South Carolina Michael received a Bachelor of successes that SDAMP has gained Institute of Archaeology and Science degree in Anthropology from and expand the program into new Anthropology, 1321 Pendleton Street, the University of Idaho and a and exciting areas. Michael will Columbia, SC 29208, (803) 777-8170, Master’s degree in Maritime strive to forge new relationships that email@example.com; Dr. Terry Ferguson, Archaeology from the University of will give divers and others within Wofford College, 429 N. Church St., Southampton in the U.K. While in South Carolina’s maritime Spartanburg, SC 29303-3663, (864) Great Britain, he was actively community a better understanding 597-4527, FergusonTA@Wofford.edu; involved with the Nautical and appreciation of our state’s Frances R. Knight, 22 Colgate Archaeology Society in Portsmouth maritime heritage. Avenue, Greenville, SC 29617, on their Dive With firstname.lastname@example.org; Dr. Brian a Purpose (DWAP) Siegel, Furman University, initiative to create Department of Sociology, 3300 a program that Poinsett Highway, Greenville, SC teaches 29613-0476, (864) 294-3304, recreational divers email@example.com. how to record Funding for these investigations submerged is provided by a grant from the cultural resources Archaeological Research Trust, The for archaeological South Carolina Institute of purposes. Archaeology and Anthropology, He also Wofford College, and contributions served as an from private citizens, and we greatly archaeological thank all of the above for their assistant on a support. variety of terrestrial and Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 7 Fortification Search at Ninety Six National Historic Site By Stanley South In the summer of 2005, assisted by conducted between May and August Project Objectives Chester DePratter, James Legg, and 2005. As the end of the 1971 project Michael Stoner, we completed a approached, part of my crew was fortification search project at Ninety Background working on reconstructing the Six National Historic Site, assisted by In 1970, the Star Fort Historical earthen embankments of USC student volunteer, Laura Litwer. Commission and other donors Revolutionary War Holmes’ Fort, The project, which was funded by the worked with Bruce Ezell and the captured by Light Horse “Harry” Lee Archaeological Research Trust and South Carolina Institute of on June 18, 1871 (South 1970a, Figure SCIAA, was to relocate two bastions Archaeology and Anthropology to 4). Another part of the crew was of a fort I found in the last days of help fulfill the dream of the site backfilling the many exploratory three expeditions I conducted at the becoming a National Historic Site in trenches used to locate the various site in 1970 and 1971. the Department of the Interior under fortification ditches and features. The current project was an National Park Service management. While that was going on, I had other attempt to relocate those bastions, That dream was realized in 1976. workers following a stockade ditch at which I interpret as a fort built in (Those archaeological projects the south edge of the town of Ninety 1776 to defend against a possible revealed and mapped 15 forts and Six because I wanted to determine attack by Cherokee Indians. The fortification features dating from whether it was a clue to yet another second goal of the project was to cut 1751 to 1781). These were fortification (South 1972b, Figure 19). slot-trenches to locate and map documented in published reports, It was on the last few days of the fortification ditches dug by the which included 15 maps on file at project when I cut slot-trenches British in 1780 and 1781 to defend the SCIAA (South 2003b). trying to locate the extent of that town against an attack by American In the years following my work ditch but had trouble finding it in the General Nathanael Greene. The fort (South 1970a, 1970b, 1971, 1972a-c, slots I dug in the woods. Then, we bastions I had seen in 1971 were not 1973), historians wrote about the site luckily found postholes for a small found, but the exploration of the fort (Cann 1996), archaeologists came and bastion. ditches at the southeast corner of the examined various parts of it using a Excited by this discovery, we cut town produced interesting details of variety of methods (Holschlag and slot trenches to the north, still having the archaeological map lying beneath Rodeffer 1977; Prentice 2002, Prentice little luck finding a ditch to follow. the grassy field and topsoil the and Nettles 2003), and I summarized Then, in the woods, at a point visitor views on the site today. my work there (2005:239-265). parallel with the north fortification In 2005, I received a permit (NISI ditches of the town, we found a Historical Note 05-001) from the U.S. Department of second set of postholes forming a Ninety Six National Historic Site the Interior, through the office of small diamond-shaped bastion. in Greenwood County, South Regional Archaeologist Bennie C. There was no time left for mapping Carolina, is located two miles south Keel at the National Park Service, of the present town of Ninety Six. It Southeastern is the site of many forts and Archaeological fortification features, dug during the Center to conduct French and Indian War and the excavation of American Revolution, dating from exploratory slot 1751 to 1781. American General trenches at Ninety Nathanael Greene besieged the Royal Six National Historic Provencal force defending the town Site. In the following under Lt. Col. John Harris Cruger, sections, I from May 22 to June 19, 1781 (South summarize the 1972b, Figure 16). The story told here Ninety Six is of the archaeological explorations fortification search Fig. 1: Michael Stoner, James Legg, and Chester DePratter project. excavating Slot 155. (SCIAA photo by Stanley South) 8 Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 the bastions, and I expected I would fort as having been erected, not in priority, along with the more be returning in a few months to 1776, but in 1780, by Col. Cruger, who extensive, Haldane-ordered, 10 to 14- expose and map them. I tied added 95 feet to the south side of the foot wide dry fortification ditches in flagging tape to the trees and bushes two-bastioned stockade fort. An various parts of the town of Ninety around the bastions to locate them observer states that: “Colonel Cruger Six. This second priority focused on when I returned, but that never has enclosed the Court House & some the southeast corner of the happened. Thirty-four years later, I other Houses that joined it within a fortification ditches around the town. was still bothered by not having square stockade, flanked by The research was designed to mapped those two bastions! Blockhouses” (Cornwallis Papers, 50/ provide the visiting public a more 11/1, F220, Letter from Wemyss to complete picture of what happened The Interpretation of Cornwallis, October 29, 1780, at that nationally significant site, Fortifications on the East Greenwood County Library, BPRO,). allowing interpretive exhibits to Side of Ninety Six In December 1780, Lt. Henry more effectively communicate to the On July 1, 1776, the Cherokee Haldane inspected Cruger’s stockade public the valuable information from Indians “poured down upon the and ordered more extensive works, the archaeological map that still lies frontiers of South Carolina; including a star-shaped redoubt on buried beneath the grassy surface of massacreing all persons who fell into the northeast of the town and a so- the site the visitor now sees. their power.” The people crowded called stockade (that archaeology together and “ran into little stockade proved to be a stockaded hornwork Project Funding forts, for momentary preservation” [Holmes’ Fort] ) on the high ground It was on this interpretation that (Drayton 1821: II, 339, 341). Another on the west. These works included I requested and received from the source revealed that: “Ninety Six, the excavation of a 10- to 14-foot wide Archaeological Research Trust, and previous to the war, had been from Jonathan Leader, Interim slightly fortified for defense against Director for the South Carolina the incursions of the neighbouring Institute of Archaeology and Indians.“ “This stockade was still Anthropology, a total of $10,484 standing…” on June 22, 1780, when (exclusive of salaries for me and British troops occupied Ninety Six. Chester DePratter) to attempt to (Johnson 1822:138-139). “These relocate those once-seen 1776 works were considerably bastions, and to cut slot trenches to strengthened after the arrival of the follow the Cruger and Haldane Fig. 2: Clovis projectile point found in Slot British troops” (Lee 1812). 159. (SCIAA photo by Stanley South) fortification ditches at the southeast On one of my maps of the corner of the town. The fortifications I found around the dry ditch and parapet around the archaeological project was a joint town of Ninety Six (South, 1972b, town (MacKenzie 1787:143; South endeavor by the National Park Figure 19), I show a little two- 1970a, Figure 3, 1972b, Figure 19). Service, the State of South Carolina bastioned fort measuring 190 X 220 When Lt. Haldane left to return to through the University and SCIAA feet. It had been intruded-upon by a being Cornwallis’ Aide de Camp, Col. (contributing the salary for South later ten-foot-wide fortification ditch. Cruger was then responsible for and DePratter to the effort). Based on the above references to the carrying out the more extensive strengthening of the 1776 fort by the works ordered by Haldane. In this Leadership and Visitors British, I interpreted this ditch as project, I refer to the stockade fort The two-to-three-week representing “The Stockade Fort of ditch as that of Col. Cruger and the expedition was led by me, assisted 1776,” which was incorporated into wider fortification ditch as being a by Chester DePratter, James Legg, Lt. John Harris Cruger’s 1780 Haldane-ordered defensive work. and Michael Stoner––all highly defenses around the town experienced and respected However, an alternative Project Goals archaeologists. Volunteers from the interpretation of these fortifications I was interested in relocating the National Historic Sites and Parks and is shown on another map (South 1776 anti-Cherokee fort bastions I saw from the National Forest Service, 1970b, Figure 3), on which I indicate in 1971. The 220 X 285-foot Cruger assisted with the research. Visitors the square, 190 X 220 foot stockade stockade of 1780 was the second Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 9 were welcomed to the project while we cut a number of slot trenches on underway, Al Goodyear was at excavation was underway, and I the east side of the Charlestown Allendale searching for Clovis and explained to a number of individuals Road, in “Area B,” but did not find Pre-Clovis evidence there (Goodyear and groups what was going on and the stockade trench or the southeast et. al. 1990; Wormington 1957). As pointed out the evidence being bastion I saw in 1971 (Fig. 1). What James Legg was cleaning the side of revealed. One of these groups was a we did find was that refuse from the Slot 159 in Area B, located south of field trip sponsored by the late 18th and early 19th century was the fortified area of the town, a Archaeological Society of South deposited in Area B by those living Clovis point fell from the profile into Carolina at the site. Full cooperation there, south of the fortified area, after the slot (Fig. 2). This bonus and assistance from the Ninety Six the Revolutionary War. Ceramics, discovery demonstrated that others National Park Services’ Chief Park iron pot fragments, window glass, had lived there ten thousand years Ranger, Eric Williams, and his staff wine bottle, and other bottle glass, earlier than the Ninety Six period of helped make the project a success. were discarded there more than in occupation in which we were any other area of the site. As slot- interested. This was an interesting Project Time Frame digging progressed, though we did artifact, but not one connected with Two to three weeks were not sift the soil from the slots, we the later occupation of the Ninety Six planned for the project, but field made an extra effort to recover metal site. I later told Al that if he wanted work covered several weeks from objects from trench fill through James to find evidence for Clovis he might May 23 through August 11, with a Legg’s use of a metal detector to want to try his luck at Ninety Six! return project to reveal Col. Cruger’s recover nails and a few other metal northeast stockade bastion planned objects. A Flèche Trench Is for the fall (see the enclosed map, At the time I saw the two Discovered and Figure 3 in my 1970a report in bastions in 1971, I marked their However, in Area C, Slot 168, we SCIAA Research Manuscript #9) . location with flagging tape tied to found a 3 X 10 foot trench, Feature The necessary laboratory work of trees and bushes around each bastion 169, which James cut a section cataloging the artifacts onto a under the plan to return within three through, and found it was three feet spreadsheet has been carried out, months for an upcoming project, the deep (Fig. 3). James Legg made a with a total of 365 artifacts being funding for which had been profile drawing of the trench. The included in my Carolina Artifact promised by Bruce Ezell, but that profile is like the one illustrated in Pattern analysis (South 1977, 2002: funding did not materialize. In Diderot’s Pictorial Encyclopedia 1763 83-140). Final report writing is hindsight I should have put a rebar ( Plate 80) (Fig. 4). At first I currently underway and hopefully or some other marker to identify the thought this feature might be an will be published in the fall. The location of each bastion, but I didn’t. observation trench for General artifacts will be turned over to the So, I had to depend on my memory Greene to keep informed of comings National Park Service, Southeastern of where the bastions had been found and goings at the southeast corner of Archeological Center, for processing in the woods, and, the fortifications around the town of and curation. although we dug a total of 75 slots in Publicity the current project Several articles on the fort-search (not all of which research project appeared in the local were dug Ninety Six newspaper The Star and searching for the Beacon. 1776 fort), we did not find the Summary of the bastions. Archaeological Findings By cutting several slot trenches, A Clovis Point we located the stockade ditch I had Is Discovered seen in 1971 coming from the gut at While our the south side of the town site in the expedition at Fig. 3: James Legg's excavated profile of the flèche ditch in area I designated as “Area A.” Then Ninety Six was Area C. (SCIAA photo by Stanley South) 10 Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 Ninety Six, because the profile D) the 14-foot wide 2.5-foot deep defensive ditch along the east side of suggested that the defensive mound fortification ditch dug in 1781 along the town (Fig. 6). This wide of dirt (parapet) was on the town the east side of the town (Fig. 5). fortification ditch also simply ended side of the trench. My thinking This fortification ditch was located about two-thirds of the way toward changed, however, when I found that 30 feet east from, and parallel to, the south from its junction with the Greene had said that the British Cruger’s stockade ditch. We then covered way to the Star Fort (Area fortifications around the town followed the 10-foot wide south D). I suspected this may have included several flèches, or double- fortification ditch, also in Area D, at indicated a gateway through the sided arrow-shaped trenches (ours the southeast corner of the town. curtain at the junction with a was a single trench ten feet long). We These defensive ditches were southeast bastion (such as was seen took photos and James made a ordered dug by Lt.. Haldane (in at Ft. Moultrie) (South 1974: 26, Fig. profile drawing of Feature 169 December 1780). Haldane was an 2). To check this hypothesis Mike (Tarleton 1787: 499; Mackenzie 1787: engineer sent by Cornwallis to Stoner cut slots to reveal the ditch, 142-143). inspect Cruger’s defenses around the but it was not seen. Under the hypothesis that town. Apparently, Lt. Haldane More exploration of this perhaps other such ten-foot military didn’t think Col. Cruger’s defenses southeast fort corner is needed to ditches may have been aligned with were adequate to hold off General resolve what caused both the south Feature 169, I cut a number of slots to Greene’s army, so he ordered and the east fortification ditches to attempt to locate another one (Area (recommended?) in December 1780, end, leaving a 70-foot wide space at C), but no other was found in that that Col. Cruger (some room for the corner. One possibility is that a exploratory process. speculation as to the conversation structure such as a barn or house was there relative to the rank of the located here, which was used as a The Search at the Southeast officers involved), build (early in ready-made bastion. Another Corner of the Town 1781) the Star Fort on the northeast possibility is that a blockhouse was Fortifications side of the town and the Holmes’ erected here, but discovery of that At this point in the excavation Fort horn work I found on the high type bastion can only be determined process, Professor Terry Ferguson ground to the west. He also ordered by opening a block excavation in the from Wofford College arrived to test the 10-to-14-foot wide ditch to be area between the end of the east and some of his subsurface radar dug in other areas around the town, south fortification ditches at this equipment and Feature 169 was an and from the town to the Star Fort, southeast corner of the fortified town. ideal subsurface trench feature for all of which were successful in This project has allowed us to this purpose. I have not yet learned holding Greene at bay for 28 days in discover and delineate only a part of the results of this experimental 1781––thanks to Haldane’s orders the remarkable archaeological map process, which was also tried in the and Cruger’s efforts to fulfill them. lying beneath the grassy surface the grassy area where the town stockade At the southeast corner of the visitor sees while visiting the 1780-81 was located. town, slot trenching revealed the town site of Ninety Six today. A vast However, once I became south fortification ditch made a dog- quantity of that archaeological map is frustrated at not finding the bastions, leg jog of a bastion, which allowed yet to be revealed and interpreted to I turned to the second goal of the covering fire down the ditch in case the visitor through on-site exhibits project, which was searching for of attack against the southeast tightly anchored in the original what happened at the southeast entrance to the town on the archaeological record. When I corner of the fortifications around the Charleston Road. Then, instead of fundraise for more work at Ninety town (Area D). Here we had more making a large bastion at the Six, I hope to be involved in such success. We followed (cutting slots), southeast corner, as was the case at activity at the town site in the future. photographed and mapped, the ditch the southwest corner of the town, The artifacts, maps, photographs, for the east side of the 220 X 285-foot which was my expectation, the ditch drawings, field log, and slot data stockade (including Cruger’s 95-foot curved to make a much smaller-than- sheets, etc., will be turned over to addition). expected mini-bastion and then Regional Archaeologist Bennie Keel Our next step was for Michael ended (Area D). when my final report is completed. Stoner and volunteer Laura Litwer to Meanwhile, Michael Stoner and cut slots to follow and reveal (in Area volunteer Laura Litwer, revealed the Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 11 Georgetown County Marsh Middens and Clam Shell Analyses By Chester DePratter As a part of my continuing interest in clam shell middens, oysters middens contain very few bones, the clam shell middens found in the (Crassostrea virginica), ponderous arks indicating that hunting was not a marshes of Georgetown County, I am (Noetia ponderosa), cross-barred major activity associated with currently working with the Florida venus clams (Chione cancellata), accumulation of these middens. Museum of Natural History on a banded tulip (Fasciiolaria tulipa), Our excavations into the clam project that will allow us to better Atlantic ribbed mussels (Geukensia middens disclosed that they all interpret the origin and history demissa), and stout razor clams contain dense, lensed deposits of ash of those middens as well as separated by lenses of clean other sites in the area that shell. At the present time, we contain clam shells. do not know if the Indians To date, James Legg and I were using heat to open the have visited 25 clam shell clams or if they were using middens located between heat to dry or smoke the clams Winyaw Bay and Murrells so they could be transported Inlet on the northern South elsewhere for consumption, Carolina coast. We have made but there were certainly transit shot maps of 13 of those extensive fires burning on the sites, and we have excavated summits of these clam middens test units in 12 of them. during their accumulation. Radiocarbon samples will be Based on what we know submitted from three of these so far, it appears that these sites. It is apparent from the clam middens were primarily locations and position of these extraction stations used by sites relative to present sea people who were intensively level that at least some of them harvesting clams, though may be 4,500 or more years occasionally other species were old. Others contain pottery in gathered as well. They contain their upper levels that very few, if any artifacts. We indicates that they are less have found no stone tools or than 1,000 years old. flakes (even though all Fig. 1: James Legg in deep excavation of Murrells Inlet shell These clam shell middens midden. (SCIAA photo by Chester DePratter) middens are eroded with are different from most known abundant exposed surfaces) middens along the southeast U.S. (Tagelus plebeius) are among the most and only occasional pottery coast. Most noticeably, they are all common inclusions. sherds. They do not contain food composed primarily of shells of hard The clam middens differ from bone except as rare, incidental clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), which the more typical oyster middens in inclusions. are the same clam species that we another major way. Typical oyster Given that collecting clams was consume today in seafood shell middens nearly always contain the primary focus of the middens’ restaurants. More typical coastal an abundance of food bones inhabitants, a logical question middens are composed primarily of including those of large mammals concerns whether this collecting oyster shells with many other species (deer, raccoon, opossum, etc.), activity was confined to a particular also present including knobbed and reptiles (mainly turtles), birds season of the year or were the channeled whelks, hard clams, razor (turkey, ducks, plus a wide variety of middens used for the same activity clam, Atlantic ribbed mussels, marsh other species), and fish in great throughout the year? This question periwinkles, and other less common abundance and variety. The can be readily addressed by looking species. In the Georgetown County Georgetown County clam shell at the growth rings in the clam shells. 12 Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 clams only during a particular season of the year or whether they were collecting clams year round. Also, by looking at the size of the clams from the individual sites and from the various levels within sites, it should be possible to determine if the Indians were over-harvesting the clam beds at various times in the past or whether they were rotating their collecting from bed to bed to keep from stressing local populations. My clam gathering trips to Club House Creek began in March 2005, Fig. 2: Kalla DePratter collecting clam sample from Club House Creek; Litchfield Beach and will continue until February is in background. (SCIAA photo by Chester DePratter) 2006, by which time we will have a As clams grow, they put down analyzed by my colleagues in this sample of clams spanning an entire growth rings in their shells, much project, Dr. Douglas Jones, Director year. My daughter, Kalla DePratter, like the rings that chart the growth of of the museum, and Irvy Quitmyer, has been my capable field assistant trees. Clams can be sliced Senior Biological Scientist in the on most of the collecting trips to date. longitudinally to expose the growth museum’s Environmental The clam collecting project has been rings with the last ring indicating Archaeology Laboratory. With a supported by Bob Mimms, owner of when the shell was collected/killed. year’s worth of clams in hand, they the Litchfield Beach Fish House. But those rings can only be will be able to chart the growth Between now and February interpreted through comparison of patterns of clams from Club House 2006, I will be working to find the the patterning of those rings to a Creek. By comparing our funds necessary to complete the modern sample. We know from archeological specimens to the analysis of the archaeological clam previous studies of clam growth in modern sample, it will be possible to collection. For more information Virginia that maximum growth there determine the season during which about this project or to make a tax- (represented by abundant and widely the excavated specimens were deductible donation, please contact spaced growth rings) occurs in the collected. me directly at SCIAA by email: summer, while in Florida samples, The results of this work will firstname.lastname@example.org or by phone (803) maximum growth occurs in the allow us to say whether the Indians 777-8170. winter. Since our Georgetown were going to the coast to collect middens fall between these two extremes, neither of these growth models can be used to interpret the collection date for the shells in our Georgetown County sites. To remedy this problem, I collect a sample of live clams from a portion of Club House Creek behind Litchfield Beach once a month. This collecting is done under a permit from the S.C. Department of Natural Resources, because that marsh is closed to shellfish harvesting due to pollution from various sources. The shells of these clams are shipped to the Florida Museum of Natural Fig. 3: Chester DePratter (right) with Dr. Doug Jones (left) and Irvy Quitmyer (center) of the History where they will be cut and Florida Museum of Natural History. (SCIAA photo by James Legg) Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 13 Upcoming Santa Elena Field Projects two hundred foot at least, compleately covered with Palmeta- By Chester DePratter leaves, the wal-plate being twelve After several years during which we In late winter 2006, we will be foot high, or thereabouts, and within did no fieldwork at the Spanish working in the moat of Fort San lodging Rooms and forms.” Based colonial Santa Elena site on Parris Felipe to investigate some human on our shovel testing survey of 1995, Island, Stanley South and I have remains we found there in 1997. The we know where the concentration of obtained funds from the U.S. Marine bones were tossed in the Spanish late 17th century Indian pottery is Corps to conduct four field projects moat as it was being filled in the located on the site, so we are going to there over the next year and a half. 1570s or 1580s, and we suspect that do some testing in that area to see if These projects will allow us to they may belong to some of the we can find evidence of this large investigate new parts of the site as French crew of Le Prince, who were structure. well as to complete research on the rounded up, questioned, then put to The final project, which we will pottery kiln we discovered there in death at Santa Elena between 1577 start in summer 2006, involves 1993. and 1580. Dr. Matthew Williamson, a continued excavations in the vicinity Perhaps the most important forensic anthropologist at Georgia of the Spanish pottery kiln we project will involve preliminary Southern University, will be discovered near the present golf testing along the shoreline in conducting the analysis of whatever course clubhouse in 1993. With the anticipation of bank stabilization. remains we find. For now the bones newly obtained funds, we will Since the site was abandoned in 1587, will be left in place, but once we investigate an area near the kiln that approximately 125 to 150 feet of the know the extent of the deposit, we could contain a well (none found shoreline (including parts of at least will find funds to return to do more around the kiln to date), the potter’s two forts) has been lost to erosion. work in this part of the moat. house, or perhaps even the potter’s Now the U.S. Army Corps of Early in the spring of 2006, we waster dump. We will also do some Engineers has been hired to produce will be digging in the old eighth additional testing in a sinkhole a stabilization plan, and we will fairway in a search for an Indian located near the kiln that may have provide input to that plan based on council house seen by William Hilton been the source of clay for the potter, what we know of the site’s when he was there in 1663. Hilton as well as a source of water and archaeology based on more than 25 visited Parris Island as part of his perhaps even served as a place for years of excavations. The new search for a place for Barbadian disposal of kiln waster material. research, to be done in fall 2005, will colonists to settle along the southeast Available funds will support these involve looking at several areas along U.S. coast. He visited the Indian various excavations as well as the shoreline to assist in planning for town of “St. Ellens” where he found completion of a final report on the the stabilization of this National a large council house in the shape of kiln and its contents as well as all Historical Landmark site. a “Dove-house” that was “round, excavations in the area surrounding it. Stan and I look forward to resuming work at Santa Elena. As always, our work there will be open to the public. The Parris Island Museum will have a new Santa Elena exhibit completed by the end of the year, so be sure to go see that exhibit when you come to visit our excavations. For details concerning the excavations, call Chester DePratter at SCIAA by email at email@example.com or by phone (803) 777-8170. Excavations in the vicinity of the Santa Elena pottery kiln (SCIAA photo by Stanley South, 1998) 14 Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 APPLIED RESEARCH DIVISION Military Sites Program Follows in the Footsteps of Lieutenant Anthony Allaire By Steven D. Smith Anthony Allaire was a lieutenant in associated with the two sites, thereby was the likely location of the initial the Loyal American Regiment and confirming their precise physical British skirmish line. Civil War attached to Major Patrick Ferguson’s location. artifacts and a 19th century house site Corps during the American The Battle of Cooswahatchie was were found, but nothing from the Revolution. Allaire kept a diary of fought on May 3, 1779. With the Revolutionary War. his march with the Corps through continuing stalemate in the north, the The effort to find Fort Balfour South Carolina to Kings Mountain, British decided to turn to the was more successful. The exact where Ferguson was killed and southern colonies in hopes that construction date of Fort Balfour has Allaire was captured. Through a loyalists there would support the not been determined, but it was series of unrelated contracts and effort to suppress the revolution. In probably after British Lord Balfour grants in 2004, James Legg and December 1778, the British entered became commandant at Charleston myself of the Institute’s Military Sites Georgia and fought a number of in the fall of 1780. In April of 1781, Program have found ourselves along battles there. In early 1779, the Colonel William Harden was following Allaire’s route, conducting Americans under General Benjamin detached by Francis Marion with archaeological research into Lincoln advanced against Augusta, about 70 or 80 men to operate against Revolutionary War battlefields and leaving British Major General the British south of Charleston. They camps. Augustine Prevost an opening to captured a post at Red Hill near the Ferguson’s Corps marched out move against Charleston by crossing present day Saltketcher Bridge on of Savannah on Sunday, March 5, the Savannah River. Opposing him Highway 17. They then proceeded 1780. On Monday, the 13th, Allaire was General William Moultrie with south to the bridge where they wrote that “We took up our ground two Continental Regiments. skirmished against British cavalry. at dusk, at Coosawhatchie Bridge, Moultrie was camped at Tullifinny On April 14, they pressed south where the Rebels opposed our troops Hill in present day Jasper County, along or near present day U.S. 17 to last May and got defeated.” In the with Colonel John Laurens at Pocataligo, where Fort Balfour was fall of 2004, the Lowcountry Council Coosawhatchie––the same location as located. Harden was able to of Governments (LCOG), Yemassee, modern day Coosawhatchie. convince the fort’s occupants that he South Carolina, provided funds to Laurens, against orders, crossed the had enough men to take the fort, and the Military Sites Program for river and skirmished with the loyalists inside the fort surrendered. locating the Coosawhatchie advancing British, numbering some Two British officers had been battlefield, at Coosawhatchie, and 2,400 men. He was quickly forced captured at a nearby tavern a short Revolutionary War Fort Balfour at back across the river and back to time before. Pocataligo. This effort was in Tullifiny Hill. After the battle, Primary sources and maps support of the LCOG’s on-going morale was so low General Moultrie related to Fort Balfour narrowed the development of a “Lowcountry decided to retreat toward Charleston. search region to the one square-mile Revolutionary War Trail,” a 22.5 mile Our efforts to find the battlefield area around the modern location scenic and historic trail through were not successful. Several days of known as Pocataligo. This area can Beaufort, Colleton, Hampton, and metal detecting determined that be defined as from Pocataligo Creek Jasper counties, highlighting events development of the town after the Bridge east to the intersection of U.S. and sites associated with the battle and fill along the banks have 21 and U.S. 17, and on both sides of American Revolution. The specific obliterated the battlefield. The that road. Today, the road is a four goal of the project was to conduct an closest the team came to finding lane highway, and it is obvious that archaeological survey to locate anything was at a two-acre field this modern road has taken out many artifacts or features that were along a ridge line in the town that historic features. Based on the Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 15 historic accounts, the location with metal detecting survey, a number of strongly points to this area being the the greatest potential was near the Civil War period minie balls and location of the fort. The musket balls Pocataligo River. There the fort other artifacts were recovered. The and English half penny were very could have covered the river, the Civil War military artifacts were likely to have been lost or fired road, and the intersection. A Family quite interesting to the survey team, during the fort’s occupation by the Worship Center is located there but were not the goal of the project. British. Most likely, the exact today. However, beside the center However, the team also found two location of the fort is the church was a wooded area of about one acre. unfired musket balls used in the property or underneath the modern This area has had not only modern British Brown Bess musket, two four-lane highway. If so, it must be disturbances, including abandoned smaller balls (one unfired, one fired) said that modern development cars, but was also greatly disturbed either for an 18th century pistol or cannot be totally blamed for the fort’s by Civil War activities. The rifle, a carved musket ball of loss, as the extensive Confederate Confederate Army constructed an unknown caliber, and an English earthworks probably destroyed the extensive network of batteries and King George (either II or III) half- archaeological remains of the fort lines in the area to protect the penny. While the recovery of these long before modern construction. Charleston to Savannah Railroad. Revolutionary War artifacts is not Back in March 1780, Lieut. Today, remnants of these lines still 100% proof that we have found Fort Allaire and Ferguson’s Corps left exist on both sides of the modern Balfour, the combined historical, Coosawatchie and marched for highway. As a result of a thorough map, and archaeological evidence Charleston. They marched to the Fig. 1: James Legg drawing profile of Fort Motte ditch. (SCIAA photo by Steven D. Smith) 16 Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 Saltketcher, and most likely passed deep ditch and parapet. Americans several days in late September. by where Fort Balfour would be under the command of Brigadier While sending out patrols through built. Once on the outskirts of General Francis Marion, the Swamp the surrounding area, Major Charleston they participated in its Fox, and Lieutenant Colonel Henry Ferguson proclaimed to the capture in May 1780. In early June, Lee lay siege to the fort from May 6, Overmountain men that if they did they started north into the 1781 until May 12 when the fort was not come in to surrender, he would backcountry. For four days they captured. The site is famous for its march over the mountains and hang camped at Colonel William history and legends, including stories them. This did not sit well with the Thompson’s plantation, called of the gallantry of Mrs. Motte, who Overmountain men, who gathered at Belleville, near the strategic ferry supposedly provided the arrows to Sycamore Shoals and, crossing the crossing at McCord’s Ferry on the set fire to the house in order to get mountains themselves, came after Congaree. Thompson’s Belleville the British to surrender. The siege Ferguson. Eventually, the Corps was plantation house was later fortified was significant as part of the summer surrounded at Kings Mountain, by the British and in February of of 1781 American offensive that South Carolina, and suffered a major 1781, Colonel Thomas Sumter, the broke the British hold on the defeat; Patrick Ferguson was killed. Gamecock, attempted to capture the backcountry. Allaire was captured but, after being fort. He failed, but only a month The archaeological work marched to Gilbert Town again, he later, the British abandoned Belleville included a systematic metal detector later escaped to make his way to and moved their post about a mile survey to locate the camps and Charleston. north to Rebecca Motte’s house, and plantation features. The survey During the summer of 2004, the built Fort Motte. discovered many musket and rifle Military Sites Program was awarded The Military Sites Program has balls indicating the firing positions of another ABPP grant to assist conducted investigations at both both sides. The entire fort was also Thomason and Associates, Inc. in an sites. In August of 2002, I conducted found and recorded. A series of archaeological survey to prepare a a site visit and documentation of trenches were excavated across the National Register nomination for Belleville for the American Battlefield fort site that revealed the seven-foot Gilbert town. With the help of a local Protection Program’s (ABPP) deep ditch that surrounded the relic collector, Mr. Dale Williams, the Revolutionary War Study. The exact house. James Legg excavated a 1.5 team was able to locate several location of the fort is not known but meter-wide trench across the ditch to archaeological sites associated with two artifact scatters provide some draw a profile (Fig. 1). There were Gilbert Town including the probable evidence of its general location. numerous other features inside the site of the tavern, a cemetery, and Meanwhile, in the fall of 2004, James fort ditch that promise exciting future several outbuildings. But certainly Legg and I conducted a metal excavations. Beyond the fort, the the most exciting site found was detecting survey and excavations at metal detector survey discovered Ferguson’s camp. The camp was not Fort Motte, again funded by the several sites that appear to be the located where one would first ABPP. firing positions of American soldiers believe. Interestingly, the camp was Fort Motte was the plantation and possibly Colonel Henry Lee’s located on the hill side opposite hill home of Mrs. Rebecca Motte, camp. The site is a treasure of to Gilbert Town, and on a fairly steep fortified by the British in the spring information, and it is hoped that I slope, reminiscent of the topography of 1781 after they abandoned will be able to return. at Kings Mountain. It would appear Belleville. Forts Balfour, Belleville, During those June days in 1780 that Ferguson chose hillsides as his and Motte were in fact, all plantation when Ferguson’s Corps camped at campsite of choice, which may have homes, fortified as British posts. Belleville, no one knew that so much offered protection from enemies and Located on a high prominence warfare would occur there only a if we may be permitted, perhaps was overlooking the Congaree River, Fort year later. The Corps continued to reminiscent of his Scottish homeland. Motte served, like Belleville, as a march north up to Congaree Stores While there was no intention of depot for British supply convoys (West Columbia), and Ninety Six. following in the footsteps of between Charleston and Ninety Six Eventually, the Corps would march Lieutenant Anthony Allaire over the or Camden. Fort Motte consisted of into North Carolina and camp at last year, the Military Sites Program Mrs. Motte’s home, surrounded by a Gilbert Town (near Rutherfordton for hopes that future opportunities will allow us to, again, cross his path. Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 17 Archaeological Society of South Carolina 32nd Annual Conference on South Carolina Archaeology By Nena Powell Rice, Local Arrangements The 32nd Annual Conference on South Carolina Archaeology is sponsored by the Archaeological Society of South Carolina (ASSC) and will be held on Saturday, February 18, 2006 in Gambrell Hall Auditorium from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM. There will be a lunch session featuring several speakers. The banquet will be held at the Clarion Town House on Gervais Street starting with a cocktail gathering from 5:00 to 6:30 PM. The banquet will begin at 6:30 to 9:00 PM. Dr. Lawrence Babits, who is Director of the Maritime Archaeology program at East Carolina University, will be our banquet speaker this year. It will be geared to a more professional/serious amateur Dr Lawrence Babits. (Photo courtesy of Dr. Babits) audience. The title of his talk will be Powell Rice, SC Institute of "Fort Dobbs on the Carolina Frontier Archaeology in the New World, Archaeology and Anthropology, Revisited." There will be chairs set Archaeology, and the Maryland 1321 Pendleton Street, Columbia, SC up for those of you who do not wish Historical Magazine. He is the co-editor 29208. to eat but do want to hear the talk. If of Maritime Archaeology: A Reader of For further information, please you want to give a paper, please Substantive and Theoretical contact Nena Powell Rice, Treasurer contact Jean Guilleux Contributions (1998) with Hans van at firstname.lastname@example.org or 803-777-8170 email@example.com (843) 298- Tilburg and Underwater Archaeology Office, http://www.cas.sc.edu/ 1638 Cell or Catherine Shumpert (1998) with Ryan Harris and Cathy sciaa. Long firstname.lastname@example.org (770) Fach. He has received a number of 722-7730 Home. grants including the Julianton Bio of Dr. Lawrence Babits Also, on Friday, February 17, Dr. Plantation Matching Grants (1989- Larry Babits has extensive Babits will give a public lecture in 1992) and Survey and Planning experience in military and Gambrell Hall Auditorium at 3:00 Grants from the North Carolina plantation archaeology and is a PM. This will be geared for a general Department of Cultural Resources specialist in maritime material audience. The title of this talk will (1993, 1994). He was the McCann- culture and military history. His be, The Great Escape––Tunnel Dick Taggert Lecturer for the American publications include numerous site and POW Memories. Institute of Archaeology in 1995. reports including the Archaeological Registration for the conference is Babits teaches classes at East Carolina Survey of the Western Shore of the $10 ($5/students/seniors), lunch is University's Program in Maritime Pungo River from Wades Point to $8, and the banquet is $20. The History and Underwater Archaeology Woodstock Point (1995). He is the deadline for pre-registration is in method and theory of nautical author of A Devil of a Whipping: The Monday, February 13, 2006. Please archaeology, material culture studies, Battle of Cowpens (1998), Cowpens make checks payable to: small boat documentation, and field Battlefield––A Walking Guide (1993), Archaeological Society of South schools. and articles in Documentary Carolina (ASSC) and send to: Nena 18 Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 Archaeological Research Trust UNEARTHING AND PRESERVING SOUTH CAROLINA ARCHAEOLOGY YOUR GIFTS CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE! The Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology welcomes gifts of any kind and amount. These gifts would be used to defray operating expenses such as this publication, as well as support ongoing research, projects, and outreach in furtherance of its mission. Thank you so much! The following lists some of our more pressing needs: One Handheld GPS Unit $350 Radiocarbon Dating Cost Per Sample $600 Marine Remote Sensing Surveys in S.C. Waters One Week $1,200 Upgraded Magnetometer Software $2,500 Upgraded Computers to Operate the Remote Sensing Equipment $5,000 Three 20-page issues of Legacy for one year (Circulation 6,000) $7,500 Total Station Electronic Survey Equipment $10,000 Publication of book on South Carolina Archaeology $20,000 Enclosure to Protect Rock Art Center in Pickens County $30,000 To make a gift, please send to: SC Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology University of South Carolina 1321 Pendleton Street Columbia, SC 29101 *Make checks payable to: USC Educational Foundation If you would like to leave the Institute in your will or have other questions, please contact: Nena Powell Rice at email@example.com or (803) 777-8170. Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005 19 South Carolina State Tribes Finally Recognized By Jonathan Leader State recognition was recently granted to several state tribes and nations. This was the result of several years of hard work by the Office of the State Archaeologist, the Commission for Minority Affairs (CFMA), and several South Carolina tribes and nations who worked together on the Governors Ad Hoc Committee on Native American Affairs. Their recommended changes to the enabling act of the Commission for Minority Affairs to permit the recognition of and assistance to State Tribes, Groups and Chief Harold Hatcher, Waccamaw Tribe (on right),, and Dr. Jonathan Leader, S.C. State Special Interest Organizations was Archaeologist, shake hands after the historic vote recognizing the Waccamaw Tribe as the first state recognized tribe. (Photo courtesy of The State newspaper) signed in to law by Governor Sanford in 2003. The regulations governing successful tribes to receive state who they’ve always been and who the process were signed on recognition were the Waccamaw they’ve always been told they September 24, 2004. The newly Tribe and the Pee Dee Tribe of Upper couldn’t be.” Dr. Will Goins, CEO of founded State Recognition Advisory South Carolina. The Eastern the ECSIUT, commented “It is the Committee of the CFMA met for the Cherokee, Southern Iroquois and most significant thing South Carolina first time shortly thereafter to take up United Tribes of South Carolina has done for Native American Indian the implementation of the (ECSIUT) and the Wassmassaw Tribe people in 300 years.” Chief Carolyn recognition regulations. The of Varnertown were recognized as Chavis Bolton of the Pee Dee Indian committee was comprised of Ms Groups. This designation is only Tribe simply said, “I don’t have to Janey Davis, Director of CFMA, Dr. somewhat less stringent than that prove who I am anymore.” Jonathan Leader, SC State required for state tribe recognition. In future issues of Legacy, the Archaeologist, and Dr. Blair Rudes, As was reported by The State Office of the State Archaeologist will distinguished linguist of American newspaper, Chief Hatcher of the provide the names of the tribes, Indian languages at UNC-Charlotte. Waccamaw thanked the nations, groups, and organizations Several organizations went through commissioners and stated that state that have achieved state recognition the rigorous process and were recognition helped his tribal as they journey through the carefully vetted. The first two members because “… it legitimized, regulatory cycle. Legacy Non-Profit Magazine of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology Organization University of South Carolina 1321 Pendleton Street US POSTAGE Columbia, SC 29208 USA PAID Permit No. 766 Columbia, SC 20 Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005