Archaeology in the Upstate of South Carolina

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					                                                                                                   UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA
                                                                                                       VOL. 9, NO. 3, DECEMBER 2005

                                        Archaeology in the Upstate of South
                                        By Tommy Charles and Terry A. Ferguson
                                        Research in the South Carolina                equipment from a 169-square-meter
                                        Upstate is continuing with much               block near the center of the site. It
                                        success. After preliminary testing at         was determined that Early through
                                        several sites in 2004, 38GR1 in               Late Woodland/Mississippian Period
                                        Greenville County and 38PN35 in               components existed at the site with
                                        Pickens County were selected for              the majority of the surface and plow
                                        more extensive investigations. These          zone artifacts attributable to the
                                        sites are located approximately one-          Pisgah Phase (450-1,000 B.P., Dickens,

Inside. . .                             half mile apart on opposite banks of
                                        the Saluda River.
                                                                                           After removing the plow zone, it
FIELD NOTES                                  We began investigations at a             was determined that long-term
Director's Notes                        flood plain site 38GR1 in January of          intensive cultivation, erosion due to
Clovis in the Southeast Conference      2005 with a controlled surface                flooding, and land leveling had
                                        collection. Based on this collection          largely destroyed all Woodland
                                        and informant information,                    Period middens or occupation
Fort Search at Ninety Six
                                        approximately 50-centimeters of               surfaces that might have once
Clam Shell Analysis
Return to Santa Elena                   plow zone was removed with heavy                                      See UPSTATE, Page 4

Footsteps of Lieut. Allaire

32nd Annual S.C. Archaeology
 Conference February 2006

Gifts Can Make A Difference

S.C. Tribes Recognized                  Fig. 1: Pisgah pottery rim sherd found at 38GR1. (SCIAA photo by Terry A. Ferguson)

 Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005                                                                                           1
Legacy is the magazine of the SC Institute
                                              Director’s Note
                                               Since 1963 the South Carolina
                                                                                                 By Thorne Compton
                                                                                                 SCIAA Director

                                                                                            Institute Director was put on hold.
of Archaeology and Anthropology,
University of South Carolina                   Institute of Archaeology and                 For two years, Jon Leader loyally
Legacy will be published twice in 2005.
Thorne Compton, Director                       Anthropology has been engaged in             carried out the duties of the Director
Nena Powell Rice, Chief Editor, Layout,        helping South Carolina and the world         and simultaneously worked on his
Design, and Production
                                               understand its rich past and                 own research and service.
Editorial Board                                remarkable people. Through its own                The College will soon begin a
Christopher F. Amer, State Underwater          research as well as its partnership          national effort to find a new director
Christopher Ohm Clement, Applied Research      with archaeologists, anthropologists,        for the Institute. In this transition
Thorne Compton, Director
Chester B. DePratter, Research                 historians, and interested citizens          period, Jon Leader will be allowed to
Adam King, Savannah River Archaeological       throughout the state, it has worked to       return to his own research and
  Research Program
Jonathan Leader, Office of the State           explore and conserve the unique              invaluable work as State
Carl Naylor, Maritime Research,                cultural resources of the state.             Archaeologist, and Dean Fitzpatrick
  Charleston Office (Copy Editor)
Nena Powell Rice, Archaeological                    While the Institute was                 has assigned the administrative and
  Research Trust, Archaeological Society of    established as a state cultural              management duties of the Director
  South Carolina
Steven D. Smith, Applied Research              resource management agency, it is            to me. As the Interim Director of the
Archaeological Research Trust                  also a vital part of the research,           Institute, I have been asked to carry
Board of Trustees     s                        teaching, and public service mission         out overall management while
David Hodges, Chair, Columbia, SC
William A. Behan, Vice-Chair, Callawassie      of the University of South Carolina.         preparing the Institute to move into
  Island, SC
Nena Powell Rice, Secretary, Columbia, SC           In 2003, with the retirement of its     the future with a new director. I am
Russell Burns, Past Chair, Laurens, SC         Director, the Institute faced a crisis of    looking forward to working both
Thorne Compton, Ex-Officio, Columbia, SC
Priscilla Beale, Columbia, SC                  leadership. Jonathan Leader, who             with staff on campus and with
B. Lindsay Crawford, Columbia, SC
Estelle Frierson, Lexington, SC                had long provided valuable research          clients and citizens from across the
Esther Shirley Gerard, Travelers Rest, SC      and service for the Institute, agreed to     state who have an interest in the
Edward Kendall, MD, Eastover, SC
Kimbrell Kirby, Chapin, SC                     serve as the Interim Director until a        future of the Institute.
Ira Miller, Columbia, SC
"Doc" Lachicotte, Pawleys Island, SC           national search for a new Director
James C. Ryan, Greenville, SC                  could be completed. At this time, the
William Sullivan, Callawassie Island, SC
G. N. "Butch" Wallace, Columbia, SC            University decided to
J. Walter Wilkinson, Darlington, SC
                                               reorganize its college
Administrative Assistant to ART Board
Nena Powell Rice (                structure in order to
                                               better capitalize on the
SC Institute of Archaeology and
Anthropology                                   growing links between
University of South Carolina
1321 Pendleton Street                          disciplines and
Columbia, SC 29208                             strengthen its research
(803) 799-1963 / 777-8170 / 777-8172
(803) 254-1338, FAX                            efforts in the sciences,
                                               the social sciences, and
                                               humanities by
                                               acknowledging their
                                               interrelationships. Out
                                               of this effort came the
                                               new College of Arts and
                                               Sciences, a new dean,
                                               Mary Anne Fitzpatrick,
                                               and a new home for
                                               SCIAA. During the
                                               process of the merger
                                               and search for the new
                                               dean, the search for the
                                                                             Thorne Compton, SCIAA Director

    2                                                                                         Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005
    I approach this assignment with       long relationship. The new College         has made in carrying out his
respect and enthusiasm. In my more        of Arts and Sciences has brought           responsibilities with the Institute for
than 30 years at the University of        together into new collaborations           the past two years. Jon’s patience,
South Carolina, I have come to know       disciplines that had grown in              good humor, and wonderful cookies
well the work of the Institute and its    separately for many years. The             sustained the Institute as his
remarkable staff. In the past few         Institute should be a key player in        competence, commitment, and
days, I have been meeting with all of     the growth of many of these                dedication carried it forward.
the SCIAA staff and coming to an          collaborations. The Institute has long         I look forward to talking with
understanding of the truly                worked closely with the Department         many of you over the next few
outstanding work that is being done       of Anthropology. The Department is         months. Please e-mail me at
by the Institute and its collaborators.   now beginning a new Ph.D. program or call me at
Over the next few months the              that will bring to campus some of the      803 777-8170.
Institute will face some very             brightest students in the nation who
important challenges as it prepares       will be able to learn and grow
                                                                                     Clovis in the Southeast Conference,
for the next phase of its future. We      working with the Institute while           October 26-29, 2005
are all excited by discussions about      contributing to its research efforts.
moving into a new and much larger         The Institute has long had an              The Clovis in the Southeast conference was
building that would accommodate all       outstanding underwater and                 held in Columbia over a four-day period in
of the Institute’s collections and        maritime archaeology program.              late October ending with a field trip to the
make them more accessible to all          While it has collaborated in the past      Topper and Big Pine Tree sites in Allendale
                                                                                     County, South Carolina. Nearly 400 people
South Carolinians, as well as             with the Marine Science program
                                                                                     attended with approximately equal
providing more and better space for       and the University’s Baruch Center,
                                                                                     participation by professional archaeologists
curation, research, and developing        under the new structure such               and members of the public. The conference
new programs. The search for a            collaborations will be strongly            featured two days of scientific paper
director will be a defining moment,       encouraged and fostered.                   presentations by leading scholars on Clovis
as we intend to bring to South                 This year the University began a      and pre-Clovis archaeological sites in the
Carolina some of the most                 very aggressive program of faculty         Southeast. A large exhibit of Paleoamerican
outstanding people in the field and       hiring with many of them to target         artifacts were on display contributed by
                                                                                     both professional institutions and privately
from them choose a person to help us      building interdisciplinary and cross-
                                                                                     owned collections. Thursday evening Dr.
chart the future of SCIAA.                disciplinary collaboration. I believe
                                                                                     Dennis Stanford at the Smithsonian
     I do not come to SCIAA as a          that over the next decade the              Institution presented in detail his views of
professional archaeologist. I do bring    Institute will find itself to be the       how the European Solutrean culture may
to this brief assignment a great deal     nexus of new and exciting research         have ultimately been the origin of North
of administrative experience in a         involving scientists and scholars          American’s Clovis culture. The Topper site
wide variety of areas, from serving as    from a variety of disciplines.             was featured in two presentations by Albert
Associate Dean of three colleges, to          The Institute has long done all of     Goodyear documenting the dense Clovis
                                                                                     occupation on the hilltop as well as the deep
chairing the Department of Theatre,       those things that great universities
                                                                                     pre-Clovis evidence found well down in the
Speech, and Dance, managing the           are supposed to do––critical and
                                                                                     ancient Pleistocene terrace. A controversial
University’s Bicentennial celebration,    cutting edge research, outstanding         paper presented by Richard Firestone dealt
and a long period as Associate            public programs and service, and           with evidence for a comet impact event,
Director of the University’s institute    teaching––with both university             which may have occurred at the end of the
for Southern Studies. I also bring a      students and thousands of citizens         Clovis culture potentially contributing to its
life long interest in and commitment      who are interested in and committed        demise, as well as certain animal species.
to the study of South Carolina and        to the study of their own history and      On Saturday, buses took attendees down to
                                                                                     Clarient where a tour was conducted of the
southern history and culture.             culture. I am delighted to have this
                                                                                     Topper and Big Pine Tree sites. The 2006
     One of the reasons I was pleased     opportunity to work with an
                                                                                     Allendale Paleoindian Expedition will be
to accept this assignment was             outstanding staff at a moment when         offered May 2-June 3. Registration to
because I believe that the Institute      the Institute steps off into its future.   participate in the Topper site dig will begin
and the University have come to a              All of us deeply appreciate the       January 1, 2006. Please contact Al Goodyear
real moment of opportunity in their       hard work and sacrifices Jon Leader        at or (803) 777-8170.

Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005                                                                                                3
Research Division
Archaeology in the Upstate of South Carolina (Cont.)
                                                                                          patterns. One series of postholes
                                                                                          forms an arc that extends into an
                                                                                          unexcavated area; it appears to be
                                                                                          part of a very large round structure.
                                                                                          The projected diameter of the
                                                                                          structure is between 12 to 15 meters.
                                                                                          The excavated arc includes the
                                                                                          burned post, Feature 143 (660 +/- 40
                                                                                          BP), which places the structure
                                                                                          within the Pisgah Phase range. The
                                                                                          two Pisgah Phase graves were
                                                                                          inferred on the attributes of
Fig. 2: Removing the plow zone at site 38GR1. (SCIAA photo by Lezlie Mills Barker)        rectangular shape, general size, and
                                                                                          length to width measurements, as the
existed. What remained was a                  Woodland component is also present          two features contained no skeletal
number of postholes, oval pits, two           at 38GR1. Another conventional              remains or grave goods.
possible graves, and a rock-filled            radiocarbon date of 5630 +/- 40 BP              In the spring of 2005,
hearth that had been dug deep                 from an auger test made in the              investigations shifted across the
enough by the prehistoric inhabitants         bottom of a 2004 backhoe trench at a        South Saluda River to a terrace site
to have intruded into lighter colored         depth of 240 cm below surface               38PN35. Geoarcahaeological
sediment beneath the area disturbed           suggests the presence of a buried           investigations, involving ground-
by the plow zone. In general, the             Archaic Period component.                   penetrating radar and auger testing,
preservation of features at this site is          An impressive array of postholes        were conducted to better understand
consistent with that exhibited at the         were defined and mapped at 38GR1.           the landforms on which the site is
Warren Wilson site investigated by            Analysis of the postholes indicates         located and the site formation
Dickens in 1976.                              the presence of mainly partial              processes. Other geophysical
    As the features were mapped
and excavated, charcoal samples
were collected for radiocarbon
dating. The two possible graves,
Features 7 and 53, produced
conventional radiocarbon ages of 880
+/- 50 BP and 730 +/- 40 BP,
respectively, whereas a burned post,
Feature 143, returned a conventional
radiocarbon age of 660 +/- BP. These
dates confirmed that these were
Pisgah features. In contrast, the rock-
filled hearth returned a conventional
radiocarbon age of 2950 +/- 40 BP. A
charcoal sample taken from a
backhoe trench excavated in 2004
from the level into which the Pisgah
features intruded provided a
conventional radiocarbon age of 3080
+/- 40 BP. These two ages establish
that a Terminal Archaic/Early                 Fig. 3: Fran Knight mapping features at 38GR1. (SCIAA photo by Tommy Charles)

  4                                                                                          Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005
Fig. 4: Postholes of possible Pisgah structure at 38PN1. (SCIAA photo by Lezlie Mills Barker)

investigations conducted during the            beneath. The Archaic components                  excavations at 38PN35 were
course of study at 38PN35 included             have produced numerous diagnostic                submitted for radiocarbon dating.
magnetometry, and magnetic                     bifaces and features. Features include           Six samples returned conventional
susceptibility, which were used to             rock circles, arcs, and clusters, rock-          radiocarbon ages ranging between
characterize the magnetic signatures           filled, and dark-stained organic rich            4850 +/- 60 BP and 6190 +/- 50 BP.
of features and strata. Two small              sediment-filled pits.                            The six dates are among the few ever
blocks, one begun in 2004,                         Eight charcoal samples recovered             obtained from Middle and Late
measuring 5 X 2 meters and 2 X 2               from the spring and summer 2005                  Archaic sites on South Carolina’s
meters, were opened and hand
excavated. The plow zone of
approximately 20 centimeters at
38PN35 was shallower than at
38GR1. The average size of the
pottery sherds recovered from the
surface and plow zone at 38PN35
were also on average four times
larger than at 38GR1, indicating less
intensive cultivation. But as with
38GR1, Woodland Period
components of 38PN35 appear to be
confined mainly to the plow zone.
Below the plow zone are relatively
undisturbed deposits containing a
stratified sequence of Archaic Period
strata, with a Late Archaic
component on top, and a well-
defined Middle Archaic component               Fig. 5: Lamar Nelson, Jeff Catlin, and Roger Lindsay auger testing at site 38PN35. (SCIAA
                                               photo by Tommy Charles)

Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005                                                                                                       5
                                                                                                           in prehistoric
                                                                                                           reconstruction. Faunal
                                                                                                           remains are few, due to
                                                                                                           poor preservation in the
                                                                                                           sites acidic soils. The
                                                                                                           surviving faunal remains
                                                                                                           consist of fragments of
                                                                                                           calcined bone that may be
                                                                                                           too small for meaningful
                                                                                                                Work will continue at
                                                                                                           38GR1 and 38PN35
                                                                                                           beginning in October of
                                                                                                           2005 with the following
                                                                                                           goals. At 38GR1, an
                                                                                                           attempt will be made to
                                                                                                           expose the rest of the
                                                                                                           postholes for the large
                                                                                                           structure identified earlier
Fig. 6: Late Archaic rock features at site 38PN35. (SCIAA photo by Tommy Charles)
                                                                                                           this year. If it proves to be
Piedmont and are a much needed               fragments from 38PN35, feature 38.               as large as expected, then the area
addition to our radiocarbon                  That feature returned a date of 1020             interior to the posts will be opened
database and understanding of the            +/- 50 BP from wood charcoal. The                and excavated in hopes that any
areas culture chronology. The two            remains will be analyzed by an                   internal features might yield clues as
other samples returned conventional          ethnobotanist to examine prehistoric             to the structure’s function. A series
radiocarbon ages of 830 +/- 40 BP            plant use, plant domestication, times            of deep tests across the terraces and
and 1020 +/- 50 BP, documenting the          and seasons of occupations, and aid              flood plain will also be excavated to
Late Woodland features, which
intruded into the upper Archaic
strata. The 1020 +/- 50 BP date
derives from a feature containing
several segments of carbonized
sticks and other plant remains
incompletely consumed as fuel.
     Our research design calls for
processing by water flotation.
Flotation permits the capture of
small-scale remains, especially plant
and animal remains but also micro-
debitage, that otherwise would be
lost by screening through 1/4" mesh.
Over 200 bags of fill from features
and several proveniences of interest
have been collected from 38GR1 and
38PN35 to date. Flotation of these
samples is nearing completion.
Carbonized plant remains are
abundant and diverse. We
recovered two carbonized maize cob           Fig. 7: Volunteers Lezlie Mills Barker, Ronald Rich, Mike Bramlett, and Terry Ferguson (to
                                             right). (SCIAA photo by Tommy Charles)

  6                                                                                              Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005
examine geoarchaeological attributes      Michael C. Murray Joins Maritime
and document the locations and
depths of any buried prehistoric          Research Division Staff as the New
cultural components. The test results     Manager of the Sport diver
should be invaluable in planning
long-term research, not only at the
                                          Archaeological Management Program
two sites currently under                 (SCDAMP)
investigation but also for developing     By Christopher Amer
models for site development and           The South Carolina Institute of
location across the Upstate. At           Archaeology and Anthropology has a       underwater archaeology projects in
38PN35, excavations will be               new manager of the Sport Diver           the late 1990s. Notably, these include
expanded in an attempt to find in         Archaeological Management                the “Aucilla River Prehistory Project”
context the elusive fiber-tempered        Program (SDAMP). Michael Murray,         in Florida and the excavation of a 17th
pottery that was found in a surface       most recently of Tallahassee, Florida,   century Dutch shipwreck known as
collection at this site in 2004. Fiber-   joined the Maritime Research             the “Monti Christi Pipewreck”
tempered ceramics have not been           Division in September of 2005.           located off the northern coast of the
previously documented so far north             Prior to coming to South            Dominican Republic.
or west and away from the Savannah        Carolina, Michael spent six months           Michael brings to SCIAA a wide
River drainage in South Carolina.         as a Senior Archaeological Database      range of experience in the areas of
    As always, we welcome visitors,       Analyst for the Florida Master Site      technical diving, professional
volunteer workers, and financial          File and four months teaching            seamanship, GIS database work,
support. Should you wish to visit or      onboard the traditional schooners        shipwreck excavation, and
participate in the excavations or to      Spirit of Massachusetts and Westward,    experiential education onboard
support this research you may             as Second Mate and Marine Science        nautical school ships.
contact the following persons:            Educator respectively.                       He seeks to continue with the
Tommy Charles, South Carolina                 Michael received a Bachelor of       successes that SDAMP has gained
Institute of Archaeology and              Science degree in Anthropology from      and expand the program into new
Anthropology, 1321 Pendleton Street,      the University of Idaho and a            and exciting areas. Michael will
Columbia, SC 29208, (803) 777-8170,       Master’s degree in Maritime              strive to forge new relationships that; Dr. Terry Ferguson,      Archaeology from the University of       will give divers and others within
Wofford College, 429 N. Church St.,       Southampton in the U.K. While in         South Carolina’s maritime
Spartanburg, SC 29303-3663, (864)         Great Britain, he was actively           community a better understanding
597-4527,;         involved with the Nautical               and appreciation of our state’s
Frances R. Knight, 22 Colgate             Archaeology Society in Portsmouth        maritime heritage.
Avenue, Greenville, SC 29617,             on their Dive With; Dr. Brian        a Purpose (DWAP)
Siegel, Furman University,                initiative to create
Department of Sociology, 3300             a program that
Poinsett Highway, Greenville, SC          teaches
29613-0476, (864) 294-3304,               recreational divers                       how to record
     Funding for these investigations     submerged
is provided by a grant from the           cultural resources
Archaeological Research Trust, The        for archaeological
South Carolina Institute of               purposes.
Archaeology and Anthropology,                  He also
Wofford College, and contributions        served as an
from private citizens, and we greatly     archaeological
thank all of the above for their          assistant on a
support.                                  variety of
                                          terrestrial and

Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005                                                                                         7
Fortification Search at Ninety Six National Historic Site
By Stanley South
In the summer of 2005, assisted by        conducted between May and August            Project Objectives
Chester DePratter, James Legg, and        2005.                                            As the end of the 1971 project
Michael Stoner, we completed a                                                        approached, part of my crew was
fortification search project at Ninety    Background                                  working on reconstructing the
Six National Historic Site, assisted by       In 1970, the Star Fort Historical       earthen embankments of
USC student volunteer, Laura Litwer.      Commission and other donors                 Revolutionary War Holmes’ Fort,
The project, which was funded by the      worked with Bruce Ezell and the             captured by Light Horse “Harry” Lee
Archaeological Research Trust and         South Carolina Institute of                 on June 18, 1871 (South 1970a, Figure
SCIAA, was to relocate two bastions       Archaeology and Anthropology to             4). Another part of the crew was
of a fort I found in the last days of     help fulfill the dream of the site          backfilling the many exploratory
three expeditions I conducted at the      becoming a National Historic Site in        trenches used to locate the various
site in 1970 and 1971.                    the Department of the Interior under        fortification ditches and features.
      The current project was an          National Park Service management.           While that was going on, I had other
attempt to relocate those bastions,       That dream was realized in 1976.            workers following a stockade ditch at
which I interpret as a fort built in      (Those archaeological projects              the south edge of the town of Ninety
1776 to defend against a possible         revealed and mapped 15 forts and            Six because I wanted to determine
attack by Cherokee Indians. The           fortification features dating from          whether it was a clue to yet another
second goal of the project was to cut     1751 to 1781). These were                   fortification (South 1972b, Figure 19).
slot-trenches to locate and map           documented in published reports,            It was on the last few days of the
fortification ditches dug by the          which included 15 maps on file at           project when I cut slot-trenches
British in 1780 and 1781 to defend the    SCIAA (South 2003b).                        trying to locate the extent of that
town against an attack by American            In the years following my work          ditch but had trouble finding it in the
General Nathanael Greene. The fort        (South 1970a, 1970b, 1971, 1972a-c,         slots I dug in the woods. Then, we
bastions I had seen in 1971 were not      1973), historians wrote about the site      luckily found postholes for a small
found, but the exploration of the fort    (Cann 1996), archaeologists came and        bastion.
ditches at the southeast corner of the    examined various parts of it using a              Excited by this discovery, we cut
town produced interesting details of      variety of methods (Holschlag and           slot trenches to the north, still having
the archaeological map lying beneath      Rodeffer 1977; Prentice 2002, Prentice      little luck finding a ditch to follow.
the grassy field and topsoil the          and Nettles 2003), and I summarized         Then, in the woods, at a point
visitor views on the site today.          my work there (2005:239-265).               parallel with the north fortification
                                               In 2005, I received a permit (NISI     ditches of the town, we found a
Historical Note                           05-001) from the U.S. Department of         second set of postholes forming a
    Ninety Six National Historic Site     the Interior, through the office of         small diamond-shaped bastion.
in Greenwood County, South                Regional Archaeologist Bennie C.            There was no time left for mapping
Carolina, is located two miles south      Keel at the National Park Service,
of the present town of Ninety Six. It     Southeastern
is the site of many forts and             Archaeological
fortification features, dug during the    Center to conduct
French and Indian War and the             excavation of
American Revolution, dating from          exploratory slot
1751 to 1781. American General            trenches at Ninety
Nathanael Greene besieged the Royal       Six National Historic
Provencal force defending the town        Site. In the following
under Lt. Col. John Harris Cruger,        sections, I
from May 22 to June 19, 1781 (South       summarize the
1972b, Figure 16). The story told here    Ninety Six
is of the archaeological explorations     fortification search     Fig. 1: Michael Stoner, James Legg, and Chester DePratter
                                          project.                 excavating Slot 155. (SCIAA photo by Stanley South)

  8                                                                                     Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005
the bastions, and I expected I would       fort as having been erected, not in             priority, along with the more
be returning in a few months to            1776, but in 1780, by Col. Cruger, who          extensive, Haldane-ordered, 10 to 14-
expose and map them. I tied                added 95 feet to the south side of the          foot wide dry fortification ditches in
flagging tape to the trees and bushes      two-bastioned stockade fort. An                 various parts of the town of Ninety
around the bastions to locate them         observer states that: “Colonel Cruger           Six. This second priority focused on
when I returned, but that never            has enclosed the Court House & some             the southeast corner of the
happened. Thirty-four years later, I       other Houses that joined it within a            fortification ditches around the town.
was still bothered by not having           square stockade, flanked by                     The research was designed to
mapped those two bastions!                 Blockhouses” (Cornwallis Papers, 50/            provide the visiting public a more
                                           11/1, F220, Letter from Wemyss to               complete picture of what happened
The Interpretation of                      Cornwallis, October 29, 1780,                   at that nationally significant site,
Fortifications on the East                 Greenwood County Library, BPRO,).               allowing interpretive exhibits to
Side of Ninety Six                              In December 1780, Lt. Henry                more effectively communicate to the
    On July 1, 1776, the Cherokee          Haldane inspected Cruger’s stockade             public the valuable information from
Indians “poured down upon the              and ordered more extensive works,               the archaeological map that still lies
frontiers of South Carolina;               including a star-shaped redoubt on              buried beneath the grassy surface of
massacreing all persons who fell into      the northeast of the town and a so-             the site the visitor now sees.
their power.” The people crowded           called stockade (that archaeology
together and “ran into little stockade     proved to be a stockaded hornwork               Project Funding
forts, for momentary preservation”         [Holmes’ Fort] ) on the high ground                 It was on this interpretation that
(Drayton 1821: II, 339, 341). Another      on the west. These works included               I requested and received from the
source revealed that: “Ninety Six,         the excavation of a 10- to 14-foot wide         Archaeological Research Trust, and
previous to the war, had been                                                              from Jonathan Leader, Interim
slightly fortified for defense against                                                     Director for the South Carolina
the incursions of the neighbouring                                                         Institute of Archaeology and
Indians.“ “This stockade was still                                                         Anthropology, a total of $10,484
standing…” on June 22, 1780, when                                                          (exclusive of salaries for me and
British troops occupied Ninety Six.                                                        Chester DePratter) to attempt to
(Johnson 1822:138-139). “These                                                             relocate those once-seen 1776
works were considerably                                                                    bastions, and to cut slot trenches to
strengthened after the arrival of the                                                      follow the Cruger and Haldane
                                           Fig. 2: Clovis projectile point found in Slot
British troops” (Lee 1812).                159. (SCIAA photo by Stanley South)             fortification ditches at the southeast
     On one of my maps of the                                                              corner of the town. The
fortifications I found around the          dry ditch and parapet around the                archaeological project was a joint
town of Ninety Six (South, 1972b,          town (MacKenzie 1787:143; South                 endeavor by the National Park
Figure 19), I show a little two-           1970a, Figure 3, 1972b, Figure 19).             Service, the State of South Carolina
bastioned fort measuring 190 X 220         When Lt. Haldane left to return to              through the University and SCIAA
feet. It had been intruded-upon by a       being Cornwallis’ Aide de Camp, Col.            (contributing the salary for South
later ten-foot-wide fortification ditch.   Cruger was then responsible for                 and DePratter to the effort).
Based on the above references to the       carrying out the more extensive
strengthening of the 1776 fort by the      works ordered by Haldane. In this               Leadership and Visitors
British, I interpreted this ditch as       project, I refer to the stockade fort               The two-to-three-week
representing “The Stockade Fort of         ditch as that of Col. Cruger and the            expedition was led by me, assisted
1776,” which was incorporated into         wider fortification ditch as being a            by Chester DePratter, James Legg,
Lt. John Harris Cruger’s 1780              Haldane-ordered defensive work.                 and Michael Stoner––all highly
defenses around the town                                                                   experienced and respected
     However, an alternative               Project Goals                                   archaeologists. Volunteers from the
interpretation of these fortifications         I was interested in relocating the          National Historic Sites and Parks and
is shown on another map (South             1776 anti-Cherokee fort bastions I saw          from the National Forest Service,
1970b, Figure 3), on which I indicate      in 1971. The 220 X 285-foot Cruger              assisted with the research. Visitors
the square, 190 X 220 foot stockade        stockade of 1780 was the second

Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005                                                                                                9
were welcomed to the project while        we cut a number of slot trenches on          underway, Al Goodyear was at
excavation was underway, and I            the east side of the Charlestown             Allendale searching for Clovis and
explained to a number of individuals      Road, in “Area B,” but did not find          Pre-Clovis evidence there (Goodyear
and groups what was going on and          the stockade trench or the southeast         et. al. 1990; Wormington 1957). As
pointed out the evidence being            bastion I saw in 1971 (Fig. 1). What         James Legg was cleaning the side of
revealed. One of these groups was a       we did find was that refuse from the         Slot 159 in Area B, located south of
field trip sponsored by the               late 18th and early 19th century was         the fortified area of the town, a
Archaeological Society of South           deposited in Area B by those living          Clovis point fell from the profile into
Carolina at the site. Full cooperation    there, south of the fortified area, after    the slot (Fig. 2). This bonus
and assistance from the Ninety Six        the Revolutionary War. Ceramics,             discovery demonstrated that others
National Park Services’ Chief Park        iron pot fragments, window glass,            had lived there ten thousand years
Ranger, Eric Williams, and his staff      wine bottle, and other bottle glass,         earlier than the Ninety Six period of
helped make the project a success.        were discarded there more than in            occupation in which we were
                                          any other area of the site. As slot-         interested. This was an interesting
Project Time Frame                        digging progressed, though we did            artifact, but not one connected with
      Two to three weeks were             not sift the soil from the slots, we         the later occupation of the Ninety Six
planned for the project, but field        made an extra effort to recover metal        site. I later told Al that if he wanted
work covered several weeks from           objects from trench fill through James       to find evidence for Clovis he might
May 23 through August 11, with a          Legg’s use of a metal detector to            want to try his luck at Ninety Six!
return project to reveal Col. Cruger’s    recover nails and a few other metal
northeast stockade bastion planned        objects.                                     A Flèche Trench Is
for the fall (see the enclosed map,            At the time I saw the two               Discovered
and Figure 3 in my 1970a report in        bastions in 1971, I marked their                 However, in Area C, Slot 168, we
SCIAA Research Manuscript #9) .           location with flagging tape tied to          found a 3 X 10 foot trench, Feature
The necessary laboratory work of          trees and bushes around each bastion         169, which James cut a section
cataloging the artifacts onto a           under the plan to return within three        through, and found it was three feet
spreadsheet has been carried out,         months for an upcoming project, the          deep (Fig. 3). James Legg made a
with a total of 365 artifacts being       funding for which had been                   profile drawing of the trench. The
included in my Carolina Artifact          promised by Bruce Ezell, but that            profile is like the one illustrated in
Pattern analysis (South 1977, 2002:       funding did not materialize. In              Diderot’s Pictorial Encyclopedia 1763
83-140). Final report writing is          hindsight I should have put a rebar          ([1959] Plate 80) (Fig. 4). At first I
currently underway and hopefully          or some other marker to identify the         thought this feature might be an
will be published in the fall. The        location of each bastion, but I didn’t.      observation trench for General
artifacts will be turned over to the      So, I had to depend on my memory             Greene to keep informed of comings
National Park Service, Southeastern       of where the bastions had been found         and goings at the southeast corner of
Archeological Center, for processing      in the woods, and,                           the fortifications around the town of
and curation.                             although we dug a
                                          total of 75 slots in
Publicity                                 the current project
    Several articles on the fort-search   (not all of which
research project appeared in the local    were dug
Ninety Six newspaper The Star and         searching for the
Beacon.                                   1776 fort), we did
                                          not find the
Summary of the                            bastions.
Archaeological Findings
    By cutting several slot trenches,     A Clovis Point
we located the stockade ditch I had       Is Discovered
seen in 1971 coming from the gut at           While our
the south side of the town site in the    expedition at           Fig. 3: James Legg's excavated profile of the flèche ditch in
area I designated as “Area A.” Then       Ninety Six was          Area C. (SCIAA photo by Stanley South)

 10                                                                                       Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005
Ninety Six, because the profile           D) the 14-foot wide 2.5-foot deep         defensive ditch along the east side of
suggested that the defensive mound        fortification ditch dug in 1781 along     the town (Fig. 6). This wide
of dirt (parapet) was on the town         the east side of the town (Fig. 5).       fortification ditch also simply ended
side of the trench. My thinking           This fortification ditch was located      about two-thirds of the way toward
changed, however, when I found that       30 feet east from, and parallel to,       the south from its junction with the
Greene had said that the British          Cruger’s stockade ditch. We then          covered way to the Star Fort (Area
fortifications around the town            followed the 10-foot wide south           D). I suspected this may have
included several flèches, or double-      fortification ditch, also in Area D, at   indicated a gateway through the
sided arrow-shaped trenches (ours         the southeast corner of the town.         curtain at the junction with a
was a single trench ten feet long). We         These defensive ditches were         southeast bastion (such as was seen
took photos and James made a              ordered dug by Lt.. Haldane (in           at Ft. Moultrie) (South 1974: 26, Fig.
profile drawing of Feature 169            December 1780). Haldane was an            2). To check this hypothesis Mike
(Tarleton 1787: 499; Mackenzie 1787:      engineer sent by Cornwallis to            Stoner cut slots to reveal the ditch,
142-143).                                 inspect Cruger’s defenses around the      but it was not seen.
     Under the hypothesis that            town. Apparently, Lt. Haldane                  More exploration of this
perhaps other such ten-foot military      didn’t think Col. Cruger’s defenses       southeast fort corner is needed to
ditches may have been aligned with        were adequate to hold off General         resolve what caused both the south
Feature 169, I cut a number of slots to   Greene’s army, so he ordered              and the east fortification ditches to
attempt to locate another one (Area       (recommended?) in December 1780,          end, leaving a 70-foot wide space at
C), but no other was found in that        that Col. Cruger (some room for           the corner. One possibility is that a
exploratory process.                      speculation as to the conversation        structure such as a barn or house was
                                          there relative to the rank of the         located here, which was used as a
The Search at the Southeast               officers involved), build (early in       ready-made bastion. Another
Corner of the Town                        1781) the Star Fort on the northeast      possibility is that a blockhouse was
Fortifications                            side of the town and the Holmes’          erected here, but discovery of that
    At this point in the excavation       Fort horn work I found on the high        type bastion can only be determined
process, Professor Terry Ferguson         ground to the west. He also ordered       by opening a block excavation in the
from Wofford College arrived to test      the 10-to-14-foot wide ditch to be        area between the end of the east and
some of his subsurface radar              dug in other areas around the town,       south fortification ditches at this
equipment and Feature 169 was an          and from the town to the Star Fort,       southeast corner of the fortified town.
ideal subsurface trench feature for       all of which were successful in                This project has allowed us to
this purpose. I have not yet learned      holding Greene at bay for 28 days in      discover and delineate only a part of
the results of this experimental          1781––thanks to Haldane’s orders          the remarkable archaeological map
process, which was also tried in the      and Cruger’s efforts to fulfill them.     lying beneath the grassy surface the
grassy area where the town stockade           At the southeast corner of the        visitor sees while visiting the 1780-81
was located.                              town, slot trenching revealed the         town site of Ninety Six today. A vast
     However, once I became               south fortification ditch made a dog-     quantity of that archaeological map is
frustrated at not finding the bastions,   leg jog of a bastion, which allowed       yet to be revealed and interpreted to
I turned to the second goal of the        covering fire down the ditch in case      the visitor through on-site exhibits
project, which was searching for          of attack against the southeast           tightly anchored in the original
what happened at the southeast            entrance to the town on the               archaeological record. When I
corner of the fortifications around the   Charleston Road. Then, instead of         fundraise for more work at Ninety
town (Area D). Here we had more           making a large bastion at the             Six, I hope to be involved in such
success. We followed (cutting slots),     southeast corner, as was the case at      activity at the town site in the future.
photographed and mapped, the ditch        the southwest corner of the town,               The artifacts, maps, photographs,
for the east side of the 220 X 285-foot   which was my expectation, the ditch       drawings, field log, and slot data
stockade (including Cruger’s 95-foot      curved to make a much smaller-than-       sheets, etc., will be turned over to
addition).                                expected mini-bastion and then            Regional Archaeologist Bennie Keel
     Our next step was for Michael        ended (Area D).                           when my final report is completed.
Stoner and volunteer Laura Litwer to          Meanwhile, Michael Stoner and
cut slots to follow and reveal (in Area   volunteer Laura Litwer, revealed the

Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005                                                                                         11
Georgetown County Marsh Middens and Clam Shell
By Chester DePratter
As a part of my continuing interest in      clam shell middens, oysters                      middens contain very few bones,
the clam shell middens found in the         (Crassostrea virginica), ponderous arks          indicating that hunting was not a
marshes of Georgetown County, I am          (Noetia ponderosa), cross-barred                 major activity associated with
currently working with the Florida          venus clams (Chione cancellata),                 accumulation of these middens.
Museum of Natural History on a              banded tulip (Fasciiolaria tulipa),                  Our excavations into the clam
project that will allow us to better        Atlantic ribbed mussels (Geukensia               middens disclosed that they all
interpret the origin and history            demissa), and stout razor clams                  contain dense, lensed deposits of ash
of those middens as well as                                                                           separated by lenses of clean
other sites in the area that                                                                          shell. At the present time, we
contain clam shells.                                                                                  do not know if the Indians
     To date, James Legg and I                                                                        were using heat to open the
have visited 25 clam shell                                                                            clams or if they were using
middens located between                                                                               heat to dry or smoke the clams
Winyaw Bay and Murrells                                                                               so they could be transported
Inlet on the northern South                                                                           elsewhere for consumption,
Carolina coast. We have made                                                                          but there were certainly
transit shot maps of 13 of those                                                                      extensive fires burning on the
sites, and we have excavated                                                                          summits of these clam middens
test units in 12 of them.                                                                             during their accumulation.
Radiocarbon samples will be                                                                               Based on what we know
submitted from three of these                                                                         so far, it appears that these
sites. It is apparent from the                                                                        clam middens were primarily
locations and position of these                                                                       extraction stations used by
sites relative to present sea                                                                         people who were intensively
level that at least some of them                                                                      harvesting clams, though
may be 4,500 or more years                                                                            occasionally other species were
old. Others contain pottery in                                                                        gathered as well. They contain
their upper levels that                                                                               very few, if any artifacts. We
indicates that they are less                                                                          have found no stone tools or
than 1,000 years old.                                                                                 flakes (even though all
                                   Fig. 1: James Legg in deep excavation of Murrells Inlet shell
     These clam shell middens      midden. (SCIAA photo by Chester DePratter)                         middens are eroded with
are different from most known                                                                         abundant exposed surfaces)
middens along the southeast U.S.            (Tagelus plebeius) are among the most                  and only occasional pottery
coast. Most noticeably, they are all        common inclusions.                               sherds. They do not contain food
composed primarily of shells of hard            The clam middens differ from                 bone except as rare, incidental
clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), which        the more typical oyster middens in               inclusions.
are the same clam species that we           another major way. Typical oyster                     Given that collecting clams was
consume today in seafood                    shell middens nearly always contain              the primary focus of the middens’
restaurants. More typical coastal           an abundance of food bones                       inhabitants, a logical question
middens are composed primarily of           including those of large mammals                 concerns whether this collecting
oyster shells with many other species       (deer, raccoon, opossum, etc.),                  activity was confined to a particular
also present including knobbed and          reptiles (mainly turtles), birds                 season of the year or were the
channeled whelks, hard clams, razor         (turkey, ducks, plus a wide variety of           middens used for the same activity
clam, Atlantic ribbed mussels, marsh        other species), and fish in great                throughout the year? This question
periwinkles, and other less common          abundance and variety. The                       can be readily addressed by looking
species. In the Georgetown County           Georgetown County clam shell                     at the growth rings in the clam shells.

 12                                                                                                Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005
                                                                                                clams only during a particular season
                                                                                                of the year or whether they were
                                                                                                collecting clams year round. Also, by
                                                                                                looking at the size of the clams from
                                                                                                the individual sites and from the
                                                                                                various levels within sites, it should
                                                                                                be possible to determine if the
                                                                                                Indians were over-harvesting the
                                                                                                clam beds at various times in the past
                                                                                                or whether they were rotating their
                                                                                                collecting from bed to bed to keep
                                                                                                from stressing local populations.
                                                                                                    My clam gathering trips to Club
                                                                                                House Creek began in March 2005,
Fig. 2: Kalla DePratter collecting clam sample from Club House Creek; Litchfield Beach          and will continue until February
is in background. (SCIAA photo by Chester DePratter)
                                                                                                2006, by which time we will have a
     As clams grow, they put down              analyzed by my colleagues in this                sample of clams spanning an entire
growth rings in their shells, much             project, Dr. Douglas Jones, Director             year. My daughter, Kalla DePratter,
like the rings that chart the growth of        of the museum, and Irvy Quitmyer,                has been my capable field assistant
trees. Clams can be sliced                     Senior Biological Scientist in the               on most of the collecting trips to date.
longitudinally to expose the growth            museum’s Environmental                           The clam collecting project has been
rings with the last ring indicating            Archaeology Laboratory. With a                   supported by Bob Mimms, owner of
when the shell was collected/killed.           year’s worth of clams in hand, they              the Litchfield Beach Fish House.
But those rings can only be                    will be able to chart the growth                      Between now and February
interpreted through comparison of              patterns of clams from Club House                2006, I will be working to find the
the patterning of those rings to a             Creek. By comparing our                          funds necessary to complete the
modern sample. We know from                    archeological specimens to the                   analysis of the archaeological clam
previous studies of clam growth in             modern sample, it will be possible to            collection. For more information
Virginia that maximum growth there             determine the season during which                about this project or to make a tax-
(represented by abundant and widely            the excavated specimens were                     deductible donation, please contact
spaced growth rings) occurs in the             collected.                                       me directly at SCIAA by email:
summer, while in Florida samples,                   The results of this work will      or by phone (803)
maximum growth occurs in the                   allow us to say whether the Indians              777-8170.
winter. Since our Georgetown                   were going to the coast to collect
middens fall between these two
extremes, neither of these growth
models can be used to interpret the
collection date for the shells in our
Georgetown County sites.
     To remedy this problem, I collect
a sample of live clams from a portion
of Club House Creek behind
Litchfield Beach once a month. This
collecting is done under a permit
from the S.C. Department of Natural
Resources, because that marsh is
closed to shellfish harvesting due to
pollution from various sources. The
shells of these clams are shipped to
the Florida Museum of Natural                  Fig. 3: Chester DePratter (right) with Dr. Doug Jones (left) and Irvy Quitmyer (center) of the
History where they will be cut and             Florida Museum of Natural History. (SCIAA photo by James Legg)

Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005                                                                                                        13
Upcoming Santa Elena Field Projects                                                          two hundred foot at least,
                                                                                             compleately covered with Palmeta-
By Chester DePratter
                                                                                             leaves, the wal-plate being twelve
After several years during which we                  In late winter 2006, we will be         foot high, or thereabouts, and within
did no fieldwork at the Spanish                 working in the moat of Fort San              lodging Rooms and forms.” Based
colonial Santa Elena site on Parris             Felipe to investigate some human             on our shovel testing survey of 1995,
Island, Stanley South and I have                remains we found there in 1997. The          we know where the concentration of
obtained funds from the U.S. Marine             bones were tossed in the Spanish             late 17th century Indian pottery is
Corps to conduct four field projects            moat as it was being filled in the           located on the site, so we are going to
there over the next year and a half.            1570s or 1580s, and we suspect that          do some testing in that area to see if
These projects will allow us to                 they may belong to some of the               we can find evidence of this large
investigate new parts of the site as            French crew of Le Prince, who were           structure.
well as to complete research on the             rounded up, questioned, then put to               The final project, which we will
pottery kiln we discovered there in             death at Santa Elena between 1577            start in summer 2006, involves
1993.                                           and 1580. Dr. Matthew Williamson, a          continued excavations in the vicinity
     Perhaps the most important                 forensic anthropologist at Georgia           of the Spanish pottery kiln we
project will involve preliminary                Southern University, will be                 discovered near the present golf
testing along the shoreline in                  conducting the analysis of whatever          course clubhouse in 1993. With the
anticipation of bank stabilization.             remains we find. For now the bones           newly obtained funds, we will
Since the site was abandoned in 1587,           will be left in place, but once we           investigate an area near the kiln that
approximately 125 to 150 feet of the            know the extent of the deposit, we           could contain a well (none found
shoreline (including parts of at least          will find funds to return to do more         around the kiln to date), the potter’s
two forts) has been lost to erosion.            work in this part of the moat.               house, or perhaps even the potter’s
Now the U.S. Army Corps of                           Early in the spring of 2006, we         waster dump. We will also do some
Engineers has been hired to produce             will be digging in the old eighth            additional testing in a sinkhole
a stabilization plan, and we will               fairway in a search for an Indian            located near the kiln that may have
provide input to that plan based on             council house seen by William Hilton         been the source of clay for the potter,
what we know of the site’s                      when he was there in 1663. Hilton            as well as a source of water and
archaeology based on more than 25               visited Parris Island as part of his         perhaps even served as a place for
years of excavations. The new                   search for a place for Barbadian             disposal of kiln waster material.
research, to be done in fall 2005, will         colonists to settle along the southeast      Available funds will support these
involve looking at several areas along          U.S. coast. He visited the Indian            various excavations as well as
the shoreline to assist in planning for         town of “St. Ellens” where he found          completion of a final report on the
the stabilization of this National              a large council house in the shape of        kiln and its contents as well as all
Historical Landmark site.                       a “Dove-house” that was “round,              excavations in the area surrounding
                                                                                                  Stan and I look forward to
                                                                                             resuming work at Santa Elena. As
                                                                                             always, our work there will be open
                                                                                             to the public. The Parris Island
                                                                                             Museum will have a new Santa Elena
                                                                                             exhibit completed by the end of the
                                                                                             year, so be sure to go see that exhibit
                                                                                             when you come to visit our
                                                                                             excavations. For details concerning
                                                                                             the excavations, call Chester
                                                                                             DePratter at SCIAA by email at
                                                                                    or by phone (803)
Excavations in the vicinity of the Santa Elena pottery kiln (SCIAA photo by Stanley South,

 14                                                                                            Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005
Military Sites Program Follows in the Footsteps of
Lieutenant Anthony Allaire
By Steven D. Smith

Anthony Allaire was a lieutenant in        associated with the two sites, thereby    was the likely location of the initial
the Loyal American Regiment and            confirming their precise physical         British skirmish line. Civil War
attached to Major Patrick Ferguson’s       location.                                 artifacts and a 19th century house site
Corps during the American                       The Battle of Cooswahatchie was      were found, but nothing from the
Revolution. Allaire kept a diary of        fought on May 3, 1779. With the           Revolutionary War.
his march with the Corps through           continuing stalemate in the north, the        The effort to find Fort Balfour
South Carolina to Kings Mountain,          British decided to turn to the            was more successful. The exact
where Ferguson was killed and              southern colonies in hopes that           construction date of Fort Balfour has
Allaire was captured. Through a            loyalists there would support the         not been determined, but it was
series of unrelated contracts and          effort to suppress the revolution. In     probably after British Lord Balfour
grants in 2004, James Legg and             December 1778, the British entered        became commandant at Charleston
myself of the Institute’s Military Sites   Georgia and fought a number of            in the fall of 1780. In April of 1781,
Program have found ourselves along         battles there. In early 1779, the         Colonel William Harden was
following Allaire’s route, conducting      Americans under General Benjamin          detached by Francis Marion with
archaeological research into               Lincoln advanced against Augusta,         about 70 or 80 men to operate against
Revolutionary War battlefields and         leaving British Major General             the British south of Charleston. They
camps.                                     Augustine Prevost an opening to           captured a post at Red Hill near the
     Ferguson’s Corps marched out          move against Charleston by crossing       present day Saltketcher Bridge on
of Savannah on Sunday, March 5,            the Savannah River. Opposing him          Highway 17. They then proceeded
1780. On Monday, the 13th, Allaire         was General William Moultrie with         south to the bridge where they
wrote that “We took up our ground          two Continental Regiments.                skirmished against British cavalry.
at dusk, at Coosawhatchie Bridge,          Moultrie was camped at Tullifinny         On April 14, they pressed south
where the Rebels opposed our troops        Hill in present day Jasper County,        along or near present day U.S. 17 to
last May and got defeated.” In the         with Colonel John Laurens at              Pocataligo, where Fort Balfour was
fall of 2004, the Lowcountry Council       Coosawhatchie––the same location as       located. Harden was able to
of Governments (LCOG), Yemassee,           modern day Coosawhatchie.                 convince the fort’s occupants that he
South Carolina, provided funds to          Laurens, against orders, crossed the      had enough men to take the fort, and
the Military Sites Program for             river and skirmished with the             loyalists inside the fort surrendered.
locating the Coosawhatchie                 advancing British, numbering some         Two British officers had been
battlefield, at Coosawhatchie, and         2,400 men. He was quickly forced          captured at a nearby tavern a short
Revolutionary War Fort Balfour at          back across the river and back to         time before.
Pocataligo. This effort was in             Tullifiny Hill. After the battle,             Primary sources and maps
support of the LCOG’s on-going             morale was so low General Moultrie        related to Fort Balfour narrowed the
development of a “Lowcountry               decided to retreat toward Charleston.     search region to the one square-mile
Revolutionary War Trail,” a 22.5 mile          Our efforts to find the battlefield   area around the modern location
scenic and historic trail through          were not successful. Several days of      known as Pocataligo. This area can
Beaufort, Colleton, Hampton, and           metal detecting determined that           be defined as from Pocataligo Creek
Jasper counties, highlighting events       development of the town after the         Bridge east to the intersection of U.S.
and sites associated with the              battle and fill along the banks have      21 and U.S. 17, and on both sides of
American Revolution. The specific          obliterated the battlefield. The          that road. Today, the road is a four
goal of the project was to conduct an      closest the team came to finding          lane highway, and it is obvious that
archaeological survey to locate            anything was at a two-acre field          this modern road has taken out many
artifacts or features that were            along a ridge line in the town that       historic features. Based on the

Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005                                                                                         15
historic accounts, the location with          metal detecting survey, a number of             strongly points to this area being the
the greatest potential was near the           Civil War period minie balls and                location of the fort. The musket balls
Pocataligo River. There the fort              other artifacts were recovered. The             and English half penny were very
could have covered the river, the             Civil War military artifacts were               likely to have been lost or fired
road, and the intersection. A Family          quite interesting to the survey team,           during the fort’s occupation by the
Worship Center is located there               but were not the goal of the project.           British. Most likely, the exact
today. However, beside the center             However, the team also found two                location of the fort is the church
was a wooded area of about one acre.          unfired musket balls used in the                property or underneath the modern
This area has had not only modern             British Brown Bess musket, two                  four-lane highway. If so, it must be
disturbances, including abandoned             smaller balls (one unfired, one fired)          said that modern development
cars, but was also greatly disturbed          either for an 18th century pistol or            cannot be totally blamed for the fort’s
by Civil War activities. The                  rifle, a carved musket ball of                  loss, as the extensive Confederate
Confederate Army constructed an               unknown caliber, and an English                 earthworks probably destroyed the
extensive network of batteries and            King George (either II or III) half-            archaeological remains of the fort
lines in the area to protect the              penny. While the recovery of these              long before modern construction.
Charleston to Savannah Railroad.              Revolutionary War artifacts is not                   Back in March 1780, Lieut.
Today, remnants of these lines still          100% proof that we have found Fort              Allaire and Ferguson’s Corps left
exist on both sides of the modern             Balfour, the combined historical,               Coosawatchie and marched for
highway. As a result of a thorough            map, and archaeological evidence                Charleston. They marched to the

   Fig. 1: James Legg drawing profile of Fort Motte ditch. (SCIAA photo by Steven D. Smith)

 16                                                                                             Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005
Saltketcher, and most likely passed       deep ditch and parapet. Americans          several days in late September.
by where Fort Balfour would be            under the command of Brigadier             While sending out patrols through
built. Once on the outskirts of           General Francis Marion, the Swamp          the surrounding area, Major
Charleston they participated in its       Fox, and Lieutenant Colonel Henry          Ferguson proclaimed to the
capture in May 1780. In early June,       Lee lay siege to the fort from May 6,      Overmountain men that if they did
they started north into the               1781 until May 12 when the fort was        not come in to surrender, he would
backcountry. For four days they           captured. The site is famous for its       march over the mountains and hang
camped at Colonel William                 history and legends, including stories     them. This did not sit well with the
Thompson’s plantation, called             of the gallantry of Mrs. Motte, who        Overmountain men, who gathered at
Belleville, near the strategic ferry      supposedly provided the arrows to          Sycamore Shoals and, crossing the
crossing at McCord’s Ferry on the         set fire to the house in order to get      mountains themselves, came after
Congaree. Thompson’s Belleville           the British to surrender. The siege        Ferguson. Eventually, the Corps was
plantation house was later fortified      was significant as part of the summer      surrounded at Kings Mountain,
by the British and in February of         of 1781 American offensive that            South Carolina, and suffered a major
1781, Colonel Thomas Sumter, the          broke the British hold on the              defeat; Patrick Ferguson was killed.
Gamecock, attempted to capture the        backcountry.                               Allaire was captured but, after being
fort. He failed, but only a month              The archaeological work               marched to Gilbert Town again, he
later, the British abandoned Belleville   included a systematic metal detector       later escaped to make his way to
and moved their post about a mile         survey to locate the camps and             Charleston.
north to Rebecca Motte’s house, and       plantation features. The survey                 During the summer of 2004, the
built Fort Motte.                         discovered many musket and rifle           Military Sites Program was awarded
     The Military Sites Program has       balls indicating the firing positions of   another ABPP grant to assist
conducted investigations at both          both sides. The entire fort was also       Thomason and Associates, Inc. in an
sites. In August of 2002, I conducted     found and recorded. A series of            archaeological survey to prepare a
a site visit and documentation of         trenches were excavated across the         National Register nomination for
Belleville for the American Battlefield   fort site that revealed the seven-foot     Gilbert town. With the help of a local
Protection Program’s (ABPP)               deep ditch that surrounded the             relic collector, Mr. Dale Williams, the
Revolutionary War Study. The exact        house. James Legg excavated a 1.5          team was able to locate several
location of the fort is not known but     meter-wide trench across the ditch to      archaeological sites associated with
two artifact scatters provide some        draw a profile (Fig. 1). There were        Gilbert Town including the probable
evidence of its general location.         numerous other features inside the         site of the tavern, a cemetery, and
Meanwhile, in the fall of 2004, James     fort ditch that promise exciting future    several outbuildings. But certainly
Legg and I conducted a metal              excavations. Beyond the fort, the          the most exciting site found was
detecting survey and excavations at       metal detector survey discovered           Ferguson’s camp. The camp was not
Fort Motte, again funded by the           several sites that appear to be the        located where one would first
ABPP.                                     firing positions of American soldiers      believe. Interestingly, the camp was
     Fort Motte was the plantation        and possibly Colonel Henry Lee’s           located on the hill side opposite hill
home of Mrs. Rebecca Motte,               camp. The site is a treasure of            to Gilbert Town, and on a fairly steep
fortified by the British in the spring    information, and it is hoped that I        slope, reminiscent of the topography
of 1781 after they abandoned              will be able to return.                    at Kings Mountain. It would appear
Belleville. Forts Balfour, Belleville,         During those June days in 1780        that Ferguson chose hillsides as his
and Motte were in fact, all plantation    when Ferguson’s Corps camped at            campsite of choice, which may have
homes, fortified as British posts.        Belleville, no one knew that so much       offered protection from enemies and
Located on a high prominence              warfare would occur there only a           if we may be permitted, perhaps was
overlooking the Congaree River, Fort      year later. The Corps continued to         reminiscent of his Scottish homeland.
Motte served, like Belleville, as a       march north up to Congaree Stores          While there was no intention of
depot for British supply convoys          (West Columbia), and Ninety Six.           following in the footsteps of
between Charleston and Ninety Six         Eventually, the Corps would march          Lieutenant Anthony Allaire over the
or Camden. Fort Motte consisted of        into North Carolina and camp at            last year, the Military Sites Program
Mrs. Motte’s home, surrounded by a        Gilbert Town (near Rutherfordton for       hopes that future opportunities will
                                                                                     allow us to, again, cross his path.

Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005                                                                                         17
Archaeological Society of South Carolina
32nd Annual Conference on South Carolina Archaeology
By Nena Powell Rice, Local Arrangements

The 32nd Annual Conference on South
Carolina Archaeology is sponsored
by the Archaeological Society of
South Carolina (ASSC) and will be
held on Saturday, February 18, 2006
in Gambrell Hall Auditorium from
9:00 AM to 5:00 PM. There will be a
lunch session featuring several
speakers. The banquet will be held at
the Clarion Town House on Gervais
Street starting with a cocktail
gathering from 5:00 to 6:30 PM. The
banquet will begin at 6:30 to 9:00 PM.
Dr. Lawrence Babits, who is Director
of the Maritime Archaeology
program at East Carolina University,
will be our banquet speaker this year.
It will be geared to a more
professional/serious amateur              Dr Lawrence Babits. (Photo courtesy of Dr. Babits)
audience. The title of his talk will be
                                          Powell Rice, SC Institute of
"Fort Dobbs on the Carolina Frontier                                                    Archaeology in the New World,
                                          Archaeology and Anthropology,
Revisited." There will be chairs set                                                    Archaeology, and the Maryland
                                          1321 Pendleton Street, Columbia, SC
up for those of you who do not wish                                                     Historical Magazine. He is the co-editor
to eat but do want to hear the talk. If                                                 of Maritime Archaeology: A Reader of
                                               For further information, please
you want to give a paper, please                                                        Substantive and Theoretical
                                          contact Nena Powell Rice, Treasurer
contact Jean Guilleux                                                                   Contributions (1998) with Hans van
                                          at or 803-777-8170 (843) 298-                                                     Tilburg and Underwater Archaeology
1638 Cell or Catherine Shumpert                                                         (1998) with Ryan Harris and Cathy
Long (770)                                                      Fach. He has received a number of
722-7730 Home.                                                                          grants including the Julianton
                                          Bio of Dr. Lawrence Babits
    Also, on Friday, February 17, Dr.                                                   Plantation Matching Grants (1989-
                                              Larry Babits has extensive
Babits will give a public lecture in                                                    1992) and Survey and Planning
                                          experience in military and
Gambrell Hall Auditorium at 3:00                                                        Grants from the North Carolina
                                          plantation archaeology and is a
PM. This will be geared for a general                                                   Department of Cultural Resources
                                          specialist in maritime material
audience. The title of this talk will                                                   (1993, 1994). He was the McCann-
                                          culture and military history. His
be, The Great Escape––Tunnel Dick                                                       Taggert Lecturer for the American
                                          publications include numerous site
and POW Memories.                                                                       Institute of Archaeology in 1995.
                                          reports including the Archaeological
     Registration for the conference is                                                 Babits teaches classes at East Carolina
                                          Survey of the Western Shore of the
$10 ($5/students/seniors), lunch is                                                     University's Program in Maritime
                                          Pungo River from Wades Point to
$8, and the banquet is $20. The                                                         History and Underwater Archaeology
                                          Woodstock Point (1995). He is the
deadline for pre-registration is                                                        in method and theory of nautical
                                          author of A Devil of a Whipping: The
Monday, February 13, 2006. Please                                                       archaeology, material culture studies,
                                          Battle of Cowpens (1998), Cowpens
make checks payable to:                                                                 small boat documentation, and field
                                          Battlefield––A Walking Guide (1993),
Archaeological Society of South                                                         schools.
                                          and articles in Documentary
Carolina (ASSC) and send to: Nena

 18                                                                                            Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005
Archaeological Research Trust
                          YOUR GIFTS CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE!

         The Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology welcomes gifts of any kind and amount.
         These gifts would be used to defray operating expenses such as this publication, as well as
         support ongoing research, projects, and outreach in furtherance of its mission. Thank you so
         much! The following lists some of our more pressing needs:

         One Handheld GPS Unit                                                     $350
         Radiocarbon Dating Cost Per Sample                                        $600
         Marine Remote Sensing Surveys in S.C. Waters One Week                     $1,200
         Upgraded Magnetometer Software                                            $2,500
         Upgraded Computers to Operate the Remote Sensing Equipment                $5,000
         Three 20-page issues of Legacy for one year (Circulation 6,000)           $7,500
         Total Station Electronic Survey Equipment                                 $10,000
         Publication of book on South Carolina Archaeology                         $20,000
         Enclosure to Protect Rock Art Center in Pickens County                    $30,000

                                         To make a gift, please send to:
                                 SC Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology
                                          University of South Carolina
                                              1321 Pendleton Street
                                              Columbia, SC 29101

                   *Make checks payable to: USC Educational Foundation

         If you would like to leave the Institute in your will or have other questions,
         please contact: Nena Powell Rice at or (803) 777-8170.

Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 3, December 2005                                                                    19
South Carolina State Tribes Finally Recognized
By Jonathan Leader

State recognition was recently
granted to several state tribes and
nations. This was the result of
several years of hard work by the
Office of the State Archaeologist, the
Commission for Minority Affairs
(CFMA), and several South Carolina
tribes and nations who worked
together on the Governors Ad Hoc
Committee on Native American
Affairs. Their recommended changes
to the enabling act of the
Commission for Minority Affairs to
permit the recognition of and
assistance to State Tribes, Groups and         Chief Harold Hatcher, Waccamaw Tribe (on right),, and Dr. Jonathan Leader, S.C. State
Special Interest Organizations was             Archaeologist, shake hands after the historic vote recognizing the Waccamaw Tribe as the
                                               first state recognized tribe. (Photo courtesy of The State newspaper)
signed in to law by Governor Sanford
in 2003. The regulations governing             successful tribes to receive state             who they’ve always been and who
the process were signed on                     recognition were the Waccamaw                  they’ve always been told they
September 24, 2004. The newly                  Tribe and the Pee Dee Tribe of Upper           couldn’t be.” Dr. Will Goins, CEO of
founded State Recognition Advisory             South Carolina. The Eastern                    the ECSIUT, commented “It is the
Committee of the CFMA met for the              Cherokee, Southern Iroquois and                most significant thing South Carolina
first time shortly thereafter to take up       United Tribes of South Carolina                has done for Native American Indian
the implementation of the                      (ECSIUT) and the Wassmassaw Tribe              people in 300 years.” Chief Carolyn
recognition regulations. The                   of Varnertown were recognized as               Chavis Bolton of the Pee Dee Indian
committee was comprised of Ms                  Groups. This designation is only               Tribe simply said, “I don’t have to
Janey Davis, Director of CFMA, Dr.             somewhat less stringent than that              prove who I am anymore.”
Jonathan Leader, SC State                      required for state tribe recognition.               In future issues of Legacy, the
Archaeologist, and Dr. Blair Rudes,               As was reported by The State                Office of the State Archaeologist will
distinguished linguist of American             newspaper, Chief Hatcher of the                provide the names of the tribes,
Indian languages at UNC-Charlotte.             Waccamaw thanked the                           nations, groups, and organizations
Several organizations went through             commissioners and stated that state            that have achieved state recognition
the rigorous process and were                  recognition helped his tribal                  as they journey through the
carefully vetted. The first two                members because “… it legitimized,             regulatory cycle.

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