"Shoals Marine Laboratory Archaeology Underwater DRAFT"
Shoals Marine Laboratory Archaeology Underwater DRAFT Dr. Niall Brady (PhD Cornell 1997), Archaeologist e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Title: Maritime and Underwater Archaeology: introducing Cultural History as experienced in a Maritime context Target Audience: Undergraduate/Graduate students/CPD Mature students who are seeking an advanced introductory course that includes active fieldwork. Pre-requisites: Open to all majors of college undergraduates. For those who wish to SCUBA dive; must have Nationally recognized Open-water SCUBA certification, and approved diver application (see SML website). Snorkeling will be part of the course for all who pass the snorkel test. Overview: As a special interest area, Maritime Archaeology explores the development of humankind by exposing and examining the cultural artefacts that our ancestors have left us throughout the coastal zone, both along the foreshore and underwater. Coastal settlements, midden deposits and shipwreck sites are perhaps the more obvious indicators of this rich material assemblage, while island communities invariably combine all three elements to present exceptionally important case studies for research. This course outlines the development of Maritime Archaeology as it has emerged from more traditional terrestrial archaeology and the still-young discipline of Underwater Archaeology. Today, such archaeology is also intrinsically integrated with environmental/biological science and with GIS approaches to data recording. Remote-sensing technology (including Side-scan Sonar) have come to enhance the survey capabilities of all projects and permit unprecedented access to the seabed. As its primary examples, the course focuses on the archaeology of the Isles of Shoals within the Gulf of Maine; it also conducts onsite survey and site investigations to create an in-depth archaeological and historical study of the Isles. Students will participate in active fieldwork, which will include foreshore study and underwater exploration, the results of which will lay the basis for a long-term analysis of the archaeological potential that surrounds the islands on and under water. Rationale: SML sponsored courses in Underwater Archaeology in the late 1980s- 90s. During this time, a useful body of information was assembled that highlighted the archaeological potential of the Isles both in terms of its underwater environment and, in association with related land-based work, its terrestrial environment. The data that was acquired satisfied the immediate needs of providing an undergraduate teaching facility. In the intervening decade since the course was taught on Appledore, the subject area has witnessed dramatic development, in terms of the techniques deployed as well as the intellectual understanding of what the data Maritime Archaeology Proposal, SML. Niall Brady, Nov 2007, 1 of 5 reveals. Interestingly, US-based students now have to travel to Europe to find a teaching environment for this field. SML continues to provide an ideal learning environment for Maritime Archaeology. During the seventeenth century, the islands were used as an important base of operations for the North Atlantic cod fishing industry, and middens (rubbish heaps) survive on the seabed at Smuttynose/Gosport Harbour from this period. The middens have never been scientifically mapped or investigated, and they present an ideal opportunity to advance our understanding of the commercial fishery operations that made the islands an important facility at this time. The investigation of the middens and their association with the remnants of the land-based structures would present an important contribution to a subject area that is too often examined exclusively from a European perspective. It is also the case that the Isles witnessed the wrecking of many ocean- going and more locally-based vessels over the years. Records of these dramatic and often tragic events are preserved in the archives of Portsmouth Museum, but it is the case that few actual wrecksites have been identified around the Isles. The challenge remains to discover new wrecksites, and the deployment of state-of-the-art surveying equipment, such as side-scan sonar, would help to resolve this matter. Such deployment would also serve as an ideal teaching environment to address the growing island-wide interest in GIS mapping and position-fixing using satellite technology. While the data acquired would serve the archaeological class directly, it would also be of interest and benefit to a wide range of marine scientists, since it records in great detail the underlying geology as well as patterns of deposition/erosion, etc. that are exposed on the dynamic seabed. In the same vein, the archaeological class would benefit from island- based specialists who pursue such areas a marine flow dynamics, geology, and natural growth patterns in terms of plant life and fish stock since all of these agencies have a bearing on understanding how the archaeological imprint has survived or might survive. In conclusion, it is probable that there is now a renewed market for SML to tap into in terms of maritime archaeological enthusiasts. The subject area has experienced significant development over the last decade, and more than ever is integrated closely with marine scientific approaches in the widest sense. There is consequently a natural meeting ground between archaeologists and natural scientists, and SML would be a most appropriate venue for this meeting of the minds. If the subject was presented previously as an undergraduate teaching program, there is merit today in taking it to a more advanced level, where the work conducted would be part of a longterm scientific research project that seeks to reveal the complex human imprint that has developed on the Isles. A starting point for such research is the seventeenth-century fish processing chapter. Maritime Archaeology Proposal, SML. Niall Brady, Nov 2007, 2 of 5 Primary Instructor: Niall Brady is a graduate of University College Dublin (BA in Archaeology and Geography 1983, MA in Archaeology 1986) and received his PhD from Cornell in 1997 (Medieval Studies). He assisted in teaching the Underwater Archaeology courses at SML during the 1990s. Since returning to Ireland in 1997, he has set up The Archaeological Diving Company (www.adco-ie.com), which has become Ireland’s primary underwater archaeological company. In returning to SML, Niall is able to share his experience in developing and championing a commercial archaeological company that has conducted numerous surveys as well as some significant underwater excavation projects. Since 2002, Niall has also been project director of the Discovery Programme’s Medieval Rural Settlement Project (MRSP) (www.discoveryprogramme.ie). The Programme is Ireland’s primary archaeological research institution, and is tasked with exploring questions and areas of Ireland’s cultural heritage that have remained poorly researched or neglected. The MRSP (2002-8) is contributing significant new insight to the manner in which daily life was lived in the Irish countryside during the period c. 1100-1650 AD. A series of monographs is underway to bring the findings to completion. Niall lectures widely in Europe and North America, and has published extensively. Provisional Schedule: In general: each day would be divided in two, with class-work occupying one half and site work occupying the other half, weather and tides permitting. Lectures would last 50 minutes with a discussion period to follow for 30 minutes. Dive sessions would run for 4 hours, between mobilization, site work, and demobilization. Fieldwork sessions would run for 3 hours. The majority of the instruction would be conducted by Niall Brady (NB). Island-support would be required in terms of equipment provision (Powerpoint projector); dive assistance (safety diver on standby and general equipment provisions); boat support assistance. External support to be sought from Klein Systems Ltd to provide instruction in and deployment of side-scan sonar survey unit. External support also to be sought from Portsmouth Museum and Naval Shipyard in terms of providing guided tours of respective resources and archives, if weather proves foul on-island. Course Grade: Grade allocation will be based on a combination of in-class/on-site engagement (20%); in-class test (20%); and open-book written assignment (60%). The in-class test will run for one hour and be based on a series of multiple-choice questions and mini-discussions. The open- book assignment will be based on individual reading assignments that examine a series of different excavation/project reports, which will be handed out on Day 2. Maritime Archaeology Proposal, SML. Niall Brady, Nov 2007, 3 of 5 Day Item Requirements/Logistics -1* • Mobilization to Island • NB arrives on site; liaises with other faculty; prepares the teaching environment 0* • Students arrive on Island, p.m. • • Course Outline presentation and • NB (instructor), review Powerpoint Projector • Lecture 1: Introduction to • NB (instructor), Maritime Archaeology Powerpoint Projector 1 • Dive 1: Health and Safety check • NB, JC, other island dive assessors, boat safety support • Lecture 2: Material Culture I & • NB (instructor), II: artefacts & monuments Powerpoint Projector • Audio-Visual 1: documentary on • NB (instructor), aspects of maritime archaeology Powerpoint Projector 2 • Fieldtrip 1: Walking Tour of • NB, other available island Appledore Island as an instructors who might like archaeological maritime to participate in terms of landscape the natural environment • Dive 2: Introduction to • NB, boat & dive safety Smuttynose/Gosport Harbour support and its underwater middens • Lecture 4: A history of • NB (instructor), shipbuilding from earliest times Powerpoint Projector to 1800 • Allocation of class assignments • NB 3 • Dive 3: Survey of • NB, boat & dive safety Smuttynose/Gosport Harbour support Middens, 1 • Lab 1: Artefact Conservation • NB (instructor), techniques Powerpoint Projector • Audio-Visual 2: documentary on • NB (instructor), aspects of maritime archaeology Powerpoint Projector 4a** • Lecture 5: Remote-sensing • NB (instructor), techniques in Archaeology Powerpoint Projector • Dive 4: Survey of • NB, boat & dive safety Smuttynose/Gosport Harbour support Middens, 2 • Audio-Visual 3: documentary on • NB (instructor), aspects of maritime archaeology Powerpoint Projector 4b** • Lecture 5: Introduction to Side- • Gary Kozack, Klein scan Sonar survey Systems Ltd. • Fieldtrip 2: Side-scan Sonar • Gary Kozack, Klein survey around the Isles Systems Ltd & JV Kingsbury • Night dive, Appledore • NB, boat & dive safety support 5 • Dive 5: Excavation of • NB, boat & dive safety Smuttynose/Gosport Harbour support Midden, 1 • Demobilize dive site and dive Maritime Archaeology Proposal, SML. Niall Brady, Nov 2007, 4 of 5 Day Item Requirements/Logistics equipment • Laboratory 2: Preparing the • NB Smuttynose/Gosport Harbour /Project Archive • Lecture 8: Maritime • NB (instructor), Archaeology and the Legislation Powerpoint Projector • Lecture 9: Making a career and Maritime Archaeology • Assignments due; In-class test • NB • Party • 6 • Demobilization and leave • Appledore 7 • Niall leaves Appledore once • class equipment has been stored * will conform to Island protocols ** variation on Day 4 is due to the possibility that Gary Kozack might be available to give presentations to the classY Maritime Archaeology Proposal, SML. Niall Brady, Nov 2007, 5 of 5