"Re Feminine Gender in Arabic"
Re: Feminine Gender in Arabic Re: Feminine Gender in Arabic Source: http://sci.tech−archive.net/Archive/sci.lang/2005−10/msg00976.html • From: "Yusuf B Gursey" <ybg@xxxxxxxxxxxx> • Date: 24 Oct 2005 00:18:57 −0700 Dr. Jamshid Ibrahim wrote: > Feminine gender in Arabic is not as easy as it appears. The most > productive suffix is no doubt ta: ´ marbu:Ta. But other end markers > can also occur. > > I. Words which add a fem. Marker: > 1. Ta:´marbu:Ta > − Words which end with this fem. marker are all feminine except for > some male names like: Khalifa, `Arafa. Some other masculine words in > plural add this marker without acquiring fem. gender: `asa:titha: don't use a: for ta' marbuta. a: deneoes the long vowel don't use ` for hamza, as it isued for `ayn . ' is used for hamza. don't use th for dhal; dh is used for the voiced interdental, th for the unvoiced. > lecturers, ma:rra: passers−by, Saya:dila: chemists well, 'asa:ti*dh*a(t) is today used more for "professors" and Saya:dila(t) "pharmacists" (although for earlier times it was arguabely overlaping with "chemists") > − Collective nouns denote a certain genus like: animals, plants, > materials: Their corresponding specimens are fem. Formed by ta:´ > marbu:Ta: baTTa : a duck, shajara: a tree. > − Feminine Nisba for abstract nouns: Imka:niyya: possibility > > 2. Alif maqSura can sometimes show fem. gender as in "thikra: use *dh*ikra" > remembrance. What about other nouns ending with this marker? nouns & adjectives in the pattern fa3la" (when not a plural) fi3la" and fu3la" are feminine, as well as other nouns and Re: Feminine Gender in Arabic 1 Re: Feminine Gender in Arabic adjectives that end in −a" (un−nunated) or −a: provided that it is not part of the root, or for some other reason refer to men, are feminine. this doe snot apply to the nunated alif maqsura. see Wright I p. 179 > > 3. Words ending with Alif and Hamza as with colours: Hamra: ´, > sama:´: sky. What about other nouns ending with this marker? nouns of the pattern fa3la:'(u) are feminine. so are other nouns and adjectives ending in −a:'(u) provided they are not plurals (of men) or for some reason refer to men. see Wright I p. 179 sama:'(un) is not of that pattern and triptote, and can be masc. or feminine. > > II. Unmarked words > 1. All names of cities and most countries: Baghda:d, Surya: actually it is su:riya(t) in official or semi−official syrian or pan−arab usage, but the alternative su:riy(y)a: is common in print outside of Syria. su:riya(t) appears in the arabic NT, probably from earlier christian literature. in the 1870's with the reorganization of the Ottoman provinces, the truncated Damascus province was renamed su^riye <swryh> in turkish, for arabic su:riya(t) <swry(t)> the reason given by Wright is that such words as madi:na(t) "city" are feminine. al−3ira:q(u) (Iraq), lubna:n(u) (Lebanon), al−'urdunn(u) (Jordan), al−su:da:n(u) (the Sudan), al−ma*gh*rib(u) (Morocco) are masculine (Dickens & Watson) al−yaman(u) may be masc. or fem., (D & W) al−*sh*a'm(u) "Greater Syria" is masc. acc. to Wright I remember having read al−ma*ghrib(u) with fem. adjectives. Re: Feminine Gender in Arabic 2 Re: Feminine Gender in Arabic > 2. Parts of the body which exist in pairs: yad > 3. Words denoting feminines: ´umm: mother, ´ukht: sister, Ha:mil: > pregnant > 4. A few words like: ´arD: earth, Harb: war, shams: sun *sh*ams / al−*sh*ams was a goddess in pre−islamic arabia, that's why. > > III. Some words are of dual gender with no difference in meaning: > Ba:b "door", ri:H: wind. When words are not marked people often use > the masculine gender even if the words are feminine. This is a small > group of words! soemtimes the feminine gender refers to the class of things or concepts they are included (see Wright) > > IV. Pronouns > Personal: hiya, hunna > Demonstrative: ha:thihi ha:*dh*ihi > > V. Plurals > − Words which refer to industrial products add the plural suffix a:t as > with the plural forms of the sound plural: sayyara − sayyara:t, sayya:ra(t) − sayya:ra:t > mudarrisa − mudarrisa:t. huh? mudarrisa(t) is a female teacher or instructor. so far they have not been replaced by robots and I don't think the quality of teacher's colleges have sunk so low that they be labeled "industrial products" :) inanimate objects (or irrational beings) get either a broken plural or the sound fem. plural −a:t . so for verbal nouns etc. . Old Classical Arabic contains a few examples of non−human sound masculine plurals, AFAIK suriving from an earlier stage of the language. > − inanimates in plural are all treated as singular with fem. gender. > Can somebody provide the reasons? perhaps because broken plurals were originally collectives, the feminine gender distinguishes them from other nouns. Re: Feminine Gender in Arabic 3 Re: Feminine Gender in Arabic in Old Classical Arabic (pre−10th cent. CE) plurals of inanimate objects recieved broken plural adjectives, if not available, with the sound fem. pl. −a:t . this persisted somewhat with with color adjectives (pl. fu3l(un) ). this is still used by some archaicizing authors and in some phrases or descriptions harkening back to ancient times. see C. Holes "Modern Arabic ..." (p. 202 − 203) also apperently surviving in some arabian bedouin colloquials. > > Regards > Jamshid . • Follow−Ups: ♦ Re: Feminine Gender in Arabic ◊ From: Peter T. Daniels ♦ Re: Feminine Gender in Arabic ◊ From: Ruud Harmsen ♦ Re: Feminine Gender in Arabic ◊ From: Dr. Jamshid Ibrahim • References: ♦ Feminine Gender in Arabic ◊ From: Dr. Jamshid Ibrahim • Prev by Date: Re: Absence of /closed−o/ • Next by Date: Re: The Trinity Principle in Arabic • Previous by thread: Re: Feminine Gender in Arabic • Next by thread: Re: Feminine Gender in Arabic • Index(es): ♦ Date ♦ Thread Re: Feminine Gender in Arabic 4