THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF ANTHROPOLOGY Lesson Plans A. Introduction to Course 1. Distribute course rationale/introduction/syllabus and go over with students 2. Distribute and go over classroom policies/procedures/grading 3. Introduce and explain the Semester Project to students 4. Distribute texts and go over/explain use of supplementary materials 5. Administer pretest (Cultural Facts and Myths, etc.) and use as a basis for class discussion B. Nature and Scope – Anthropology and Culture 1. Assign students to read pages 1-10 (down to “Applied Anthropology”). Then, relate to the students the two stories about Lucy and the Mbuti Pygmies presented on attached “Lesson 1”. Have students brainstorm to determine what disciplines are required to study these two topics. To conclude the brainstorming session, have students arrive at a concise definition of anthropology (#2 under procedure). 2. Distribute Handout 1 (attached) and have students complete parts A and B, using information from the above reading assignment. Afterwards, ask students if they need any clarifications, and tell them that they will be referring to these disciplines in more detail throughout the course. 3. Distribute Handout 2 and have students complete. Have them share their graphic organizers with the class (or in small groups). 4. Use Handout 3 as a quiz to measure students’ understanding of the areas of study involved in the various disciplines. 5. Have students read the remainder of Chapter 1 (pp. 10-12). Then as a class read the two Research Frontiers boxes on p. 6 and p. 8 as illustrations of Applied Anthropology. Reinforce the importance of the “holistic” approach that anthropology takes. 6. Assign 1 of the 3 “Internet Exercises” (their choice) on the science of Anthropology (from Ninth Edition). 7. As a class, read about the Nacirema on page 192. Use attached entire Nacire ma reading for student reactions and insights. Read information on descriptions of ethnocentris m, cultural relativism, subcultures, and learning. Discuss these concepts. 8. Refer students to the selection, “Types of Research in Cultural Anthropology” on pages 235-240 in text for information on fieldwork techniques. Discuss the participant-observation method in fieldwork with the aid of the attached OHT and tell students they will be using this method later in the course. Again distinguish between ethnography and ethnology. Bring into this discussion the values ethnohistory and cross- cultural research. 9. Assign the Inte rnet Exercise #4 on page 207 of Ninth Edition. Each student should identify five cultures. 10. Distribute Handout 5 from pages 13-14 of Center for Learning book. Students should study the terms in Part A (take time to clarify any misunderstandings). Then assign Part B for students to complete individually. Collect and grade. 11. As a concluding activity for this part of the unit, do the group activity outlined in the Center for Learning book: a. Distribute Handout 4 on pages 11-12 b. In small groups, have students respond to the questions in the cultural column of the scenario presented on p. 11. c. Have each group report its answers to the class and discuss/record on board or overhead (suggested responses are found on p. 9-10) d. Assign Part B, to be completed in the original groups. Again have students report out and record the responses of the various groups. e. Collect and grade. 12. Show the film, “The Nature of Anthropology” – develop a plan and/or worksheet for this film, which summarizes and reinforces the information learned in this unit. 13. Tell students that because archaeology is a source of physical evidence for both cultural and biological anthropologists, the remaining segment of this unit will deal with archaeological methods and techniques. The below activities can be supplemented with a fieldtrip to an actual site, including active participation (either teacher-generated or independent project). Also, look to incorporate the CD-ROM, “The Archaeological Detective” into the equation. a. Distribute copies of the reading packets created from the book, Archaeology as a resource of information for students. At this time, distinguish between the 2 main types of archaeological evidence – artifacts and fossils. b. Have students read pages 8-9 and pages 67-70 of handout. Use this information along with attached notes to summarize methods discussed. Clarify students’ understanding of vocabulary terms on pages 8 and 67. Use information from attached notes and the pamphlet, “An Introduction to Methods and Techniques in Archaeology” to elaborate on methods and procedures. c. As a class, read pages 72-73 and discuss/explain. Introduce the importance of “in situ” in the excavation of sites. d. Finally, have students read pages 13-16 so that they become familiar with archaeological specialists. Review and discuss. e. Show the video, “Jamestown Rediscovery” as an example of the value and methodology of archaeology. f. Using the attached plan as a guide have students complete the simulation, “The Archaeological Detective” CD-ROM. This should be done in the library. Allow students one class period to work in the library on the “Who Am I?” simulation part of “The Archaeological Detective.” See attached guide for sequence of simulation. Speakers need to attached to computers in library for this activity. Have students copy material accumulated in the “computer notebook” as a basis for grading. g. Introduce the independent activities on archaeology (attached). Students should select and complete 2 of the 4 activities. Collect and grade. h. As a concluding activity for this segment, introduce and do the Bushman Site Map activity in small groups. 1. Distribute site maps and attach large copy of map to wall/board 2. Distribute 3 pages of interpretation sheets to groups and explain. Emphasize that archaeologists don’t just jump to unsupported conclusions, but rather base all (tentative) conclusions and hypotheses on real evidence found at sites (or more accurately, combinations of evidence). 3. Make sure students understand the map key, scale, numbers on artifacts, and the meaning of post molds (as well as soil stains in general). 4. Have groups study maps and fill in interpretation sheets- which will be graded on basis of how detailed their conclusions are and how well those conclusions are supported by the physical evidence. Accuracy is a secondary crite rion. 5. Have students compare findings/conclusions/hypotheses. Collect and grade interpretation sheets. 6. Bring closure to the activity by revealing the group who occupied the site – possibly by showing the silent filmstrip and providing own narration. 14. TEST ON NATURE AND SCOPE OF ARCHAEOLOGY BIOLOGICAL (PHYSICAL) ANTHROPOLOGY A. Introduction to Evolution 1. Use the attached information from page 23 of the Center for Learning book to introduce the concept of cosmic time, the "big bang" theory, and that the ideas of evolution and creationism are not necessarily mutually exclusive. 2. Have students do the cosmic calendar activity, using Handouts 10 A and B. Go over students' calendars and then follow up by distributing the (attached) geological time scale. 3. Place the definition for biological evolution on the board (or OHT) and ask students to brainstorm what is being defined. In the ensuing discussion, include definitions for species and speciation. 4. As a class, read pages 16-18 in the text. In the process, clarify the contributions of: Carl Sagan Big Bang theory Linnaeus taxonomy Lamarck species evolve purposely (acquired character Cuvier theory of catastrophism istics) Lyell uniformitarianism (stratigraphy) Darwin theory of natural selection 5. Prepare an OHT of the taxonomy of living things that includes man's place in each taxon (classification). 6. Show Part 1 of the video, “Evolution.” This segment of the video traces the history of scientific development of the idea of evolution outlined in pp. 16-18 above (#4). B. Theories of Evolution 1. Using Handout 11 (a and b) from the Center for Learning book, summarize the ideas of Lamarck and Darwin. Assign students to read pages 18-20 in the text (natural selection) and refer to the attached notes to elaborate on and clarify Darwin's theory. 2. Show Part 2 of the video, "Evolution” as an enrichment activity. This segment discusses the roles of mutation, natural selction, and adaptation in the evolutionary process. Then distribute Handout 12 from the Center for Learning book. Use this as a “quiz” of students’ understanding of Darwinian evolution. 3. To provide support for Darwin's theory, have students read about and briefly lecture on Mendel's experiments on genetics and his subsequent conclusions, using information from pages 20-30 in the text. Students should define appropriate vocabulary terms (from pages 10-12 in Study Guide). 4. The box on pages 28-29 of the text, "Do We Need to Fear Genetic Engineering" may be of special interest to students. Provide opportunity for extra credit by having students read this selection and the respond to Question #3 on page 13 of the Study Guide. 5. At this point, consider showing the video, Inherit the Wind" from the library and/or have students read the article on the Kansas law regarding the teaching of evolution in the classroom. 6. Assign the Internet Exercise #1 or #3 on page 32 of Ninth Edition. 7. Distribute the attached Handout on other theories on the origin and evolution of life on earth (Oparinism/Chardinism/Panspermiaism). Read these as a class and get students' reaction to and reflections on them. 8. To bring closure to this section, show the video, "The Mysterious Origins of Man" from the library. Have students write a paragraph that reflects their attitudes and reactions regarding the ideas presented in the video. 9. Prepare a test on the theories presented consisting of the attached quiz plus pages 10-12 (in matching form) and 14-16 of the Study Guide. C. Primates and Their Characte ristics 1. Distribute copies of the glossary terms and comprehension questions related to pages 35-39 of the text (pages 19-22 in the Study Guide). Then share with students the information in "Notes to Teacher" from page 35 of the Center for Learning book. 2. Have students read about the physical and behavioral characteristics primates have in common on pages 35-39 of text and respond to questions on the above handout (pp. 19-22). 3. Distribute “Classification of Primates” sheet (p. 38 of Center for Learning book). As a class read pages 39-40 in the text, which explains this taxonomy. 4. Distribute the “Primate Charts” from pages 41-42 of the Center for Learning book. Students should study the chart as well as additional information on primates found in pages 40-48 of the text. Have students complete the blank column on the chart for humans based on information from pages 48-50 in the text. They should then answer the summary questions (from page 43 of Center for Learning book. 5. Bring closure to this section by having students define glossary terms (from pages 19-22 of the Study Guide) based on information in the remainder of the chapter. Collect and grade. 6. Internet Exercise – Assign #3 on page 50 of Ninth Edition. 7. Extra Credit – Offer students the opportunity to complete the Case Study outline (p.44 of Center for Learning book) for appropriate articles (i.e., Scientific American, etc.). 8. As a Quiz for this section, use Handout 18 from Center for Learning book (pages 55-58). D. Primate Evolution 1. Have students read “The Emergence of Primates” on pages 60-64 of the text. They should write a paragraph comparing the arboreal theory with Cartmill’s visual predation theory. They should then write a second paragraph that addresses question #1 on page 31 of the Study Guide. 2. Briefly review how fossils are formed and what we can learn from them by reading aloud pages 56-58 in the text. 3. Distribute copies of reading selections from Archaeology booklet. Students should read how fossils become buried and preserved (through page 56). Introduce experiment involving various preservation conditions and offer to students as extra creditactivity. 4. Have students construct a chart listing and describing various dating techniques in two columns – relative and absolute methods. They should get the information for the chart from the following sources: Pp. 80-83 in Archaeology handout Pp. 58-60 in Origins…. Book Pp. 58-60 in text 5. Tell students that, in the interest of time, we are not going to focus on the pre- Miocene primates. Simply project the attached OHT depicting the pre- Pleistocene primates and review with students. Then, have them read about the Miocene anthropoids on pages 66-70 of the text and identify/describe in writing the following species: Proconsul Kenyapithecus Sivapithecus Dryopithecus Gigantopithecus Ramapithecus (Vol. 1 of Richard Leakey video series) They should then read “What Happened to Gigantopithecus” in the box on pages 68-69 and respond to question #2 on page 31 of the Study Guide. 6. Show Volume 1 of “The Making of Mankind” (Richard Leakey series) to reinforce information on fossils and Miocene primates. 7. Use pages 32-34 of the Study Guide as a summary worksheet/quiz. E. Form and Function – Comparative Anatomy 1. Students should read, “How to Know and Ancestor When You Find One” on pages 25-28 of Origins of Humanness book. They should then complete the related chart activity outlined on pages 29-35. 2. As a class, read the introduction to “Form and Function” on pages 37-38 of Origins. Assign individual students to read about and report on the various anatomical characteristics and their functions. Discuss and elaborate as students report out. Conclude this activity by reading alo ud the summary on pages 42-43. 3. At this point, consider the activity described on pages 61-67 in Origins (see attached). 4. To focus on perhaps the most far-reaching combination of anatomical- behavioral developments in becoming human (bipedalism), have stud ents read about and identify the 8 theories suggested for habitual bipedalism in “Will the Primate With Culture Please Stand Up” on pages 82-86 of Origins. Consider having the students do an abbreviated version of the related activity outlined on page 87. 5. Show “Giant Strides” (Pt. 2 of Apeman series) 6. The evolution and importance of language is discussed in “A Rose by Any Other Name” on pages 92-94 of Origins. Have students complete an adaptation of the related worksheets (attached) while reading. Discuss and/or collect. 7. Show “All in the Mind” (Pt. 3 of Apeman series) 8. Conclude this section by having students read about the concept of feedback and its role in human evolution in “Brains, Tools and Society” (pages 100- 103) and then complete Activity #10 on pages 103-104 (attached), either individually or in groups. Collect and grade. F. The Evolution of Hominids and Homo Sapiens 1. Distribute the worksheet, “Hominid Nomenclature” and have students complete. 2. Distribute copies of page 11 from Origins and have students complete while reading “The Search for Our Ancestors” on pages 1-9. Go over students’ work, using the attached OHT. 3. In order to have the students understand the environmental conditions that existed during the Pleistocene epoch (when the more recent hominids evolved), students should read “The Pleistocene” on pages 46-52 of Origins while completing the (attached) worksheet. Go over the worksheet with students and elaborate/clarify, including student responses to the questions on page 53 (attached). 4. Following the procedures outlined on pages 93-94 of the Center for Learning book, have students complete the 2 map activities involving Hominid sites in Africa and Eurasia, as well as the summary worksheet on pages 95-101. Use map OHT”s to reinforce this activity (see attached) 5. Prepare students for their summary investigation of Hominid evolution by: Identifying the 4 species/stages of Hominid development Showing the brain/skull OHT’s of the 4 species, overlapping them to demonstrate trends Having students read “Tools R Us” on pages 109-111 of Origins and then showing the OHT of tools evolution and brainstorming with students on major trends (see attached). 6. Distribute Handout 20 from pages 63-67 in Cente r for Learning book. Students should read the 5 selections and respond to the related questions. Students should then summarize their findings, using Handout 21 from page 68. *Inform students that additional information on these specimens can be found on pages 80-86 of the text. . 7. Conduct the summary investigation of Hominid evolution through the various tool traditions by following the procedures outlined in the attached “Fossil Man Worksheet Sequence” and the following: Products: “Ardipithecus and the Australopithecines” “The Hominids: A Review” (pp. 103-108 in C. for L.) Fossil Man Summary Worksheets Resources: Fossil and Culture cards (see attached pairings) Skull casts Videos: Leakey series, Vols. 3, 4, 5 Ape Man series Primal Man, Parts I and 2 Clan of the Cave Bear Quest for Fire What Happened to the Neanderthals? Readings: Australopithecines – pp. 75-87 in text Hh/He – pp. 87-95 in text; pp. 126-129 in Origins Neanderthals – pp. 102-107 in text; pp. 135-139 in Origins Hss (Cro-Magnon) – pp. 107-116 in text; pp. 147-153 in Origins 8. Internet Exercise – Have students do #3 on page 90 of Ninth Edition 9. To bring conclusion and closure to this investigation of Hominid evolution, use the following procedure: Have students read “Research Frontiers” on pages 110-111 of text on the “out-of-Africa” theory Share “Notes to Teacher” from page 111 in the Center for Learning book with students. Then have them read and complete Lesson 18 on the “Out- of-Africa v. Multiregional theories of human evolution (pp. 111-118). 10. If time allows, have students read about “Systems” on pages 158-168 in Origins (omitting activities). Discuss. Test – see pages 35-50 in Study Guide and existing (attached) tests. G. Human Variation and Race 1. Place the definition of race on the board and break it down into its four basic components (see attached notes). 2. Tell students that race is a product, therefore, of natural selection and that the various racial characteristics involve 4 basic responses to the natural environment: see attached notes. 3. Distribute copies of the vocabulary terms from pages 52-53 of Study Guide. 4. Have students read about the role of genetics in human variation on pages 126-128 in the text and define appropriate terms on the vocabulary sheet. Discuss and clarify. 5. Students should then read about “Physical Variation in Human Populations” on pages 128-137 and again define related terms. Discuss. 6. Finally, have students read about “Race and Racism” in remainder of chapter and define the remaining terms. As a class, read “Current Issues” box on pages 142-143 on I.Q. scores and discuss. 7. Show the video, “Race: The World’s Most Dangerous Myth.” Discuss. 8. Internet Exercise – Have students do #1 on page 132 of Ninth Edition. Quiz – See pages 55-58 in Study Guide.
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