Parasite Evaluation and Control - Dr Steve Hart by AmnaKhan

VIEWS: 122 PAGES: 58

									Internal Parasite Evaluation and Control

Steve Hart American Institute for Goat Research Langston University
E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

E. Kika De la Garza American Institute for Goat Research
• • • • • • Research Program 25 Nutrition 20 Vegetation Mgt. 15 Parasites 10 Economics 5 0 Carcass Quality

2001

2002

2003 Articles

2004 Abstracts

2005

2006 (In press)

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Extension Program
• Field Day April 29, 2007 at Langston University • Mini Field Day February in NE and SW OK • Buck Test with OMGA May-Aug
600 500 400 300 200 100 0
20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Extension Workshops
• • • • • • Nutrition Birthing Goat Management Parasites Artificial Insemination Contact your county agent

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Fencing Garden

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Web Site WWW2.luresext.edu

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Topics
• • • • Parasite life cycle Management to prevent parasites Dewormer resistance Developing a workable parasite control program

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Roundworms
• Barber pole worm, Haemonchus contortus- feeds on blood in abomasum, causes anemia, poor performance and death

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Barberpole Worm

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

• Barber pole worms in the abomasum
E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Roundworms
• Bankrupt worm, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, feeds on mucus in small intestine, diarrhea, reduced appetite, poor performance • Brown stomach worm, Teledorsagia circumcincta or Ostertagia, feeds on gastric glands, causes diarrhea, reduced appetite, poor performance
E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Worm life cycle
• Life cycle is very important to understand so you know some actions to take to reduce worm problems and also, why some environmental conditions or management practices increase worm problems so that you can be alert for parasite problems

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Life Cycle 2
• Egg in feces from animal falls to ground • Requires warmth 50+F and humidity to hatch to first stage larvae, abbreviated L-1 in 1-6 days • Winter parasites are less of a problem • Dry hot summer parasites are less of a problem

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

•

Roundworm egg

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Life Cycle 3
• Direct sunlight can heat fecal pellet to 155 F and sterilize pellet • Diatomaceous earth helps pellet to dry out? • Shade trees and tall, dense grass increase humidity and shade fecal pellets from the sun

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Life Cycle 4
• L-1 eats bacteria in feces and grows, molts (sheds skin like a snake) and becomes L-2 • L-1 and L2 are subject to dying by drying out. Heat and low humidity will kill them in the pellet

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Life Cycle
• L-2 eats bacteria in feces and grows and molts to L-3. However, the cuticle (skin) is not shed, so the L-3 has 2 layers of cuticle. This makes the L-3 much more resistant to drying out.

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

• Note how the old cuticle is surrounding the L3 stage • This means the L3 can’t feed and must rely on stored metabolites or energy to survive
E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Life Cycle 5
• However, the L-3 cannot eat, because his mouth is covered. He must live off his stored reserves. He can only live about 30-60 days in hot weather or 120-240 days in cool weather.

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Life Cycle 6
• Takes about 6-14 days from fresh fecal pellet to L-3 • The L-3 must escape from the fecal pellet to infect an animal • The L-3 can only live a few weeks inside a fecal pellet

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Life Cycle 7
• Pellet must be broken up by rain (2 inches in a months time) and then the larva scoots on a film of water (from rain or dew) 2-3 inches up forage or he may scoot under a fallen leaf or other debris. • Close grazing or goats picking up debris infects goats. Browsing goats pick up few larvae
E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

• L3 larvae caught in a dew droplet on a stem of grass
E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Life Cycle 8
• Maybe only 3-10% of eggs end up as L-3 larvae on forage. • L-3 must be eaten by goat or sheep to continue development • L-3 inside goat leaves its sheath and molts to L-4. • L-4 can enter suspended animation called hypobiosis or arrested form
E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Life Cycle 9
• Arrested form of L-4 does not stimulate animal’s immune system and often requires a higher dose of dewormer • Barber pole worm eggs and larvae are killed by freezing it overwinters as arrested L-4 and survives hot dry summers as an L-4 in the goat • Otherwise L-4 molts to L-5 which is adolescent which develops ovaries and uterus and then molts to an adult which lays thousands of eggs per day
E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Immune Response
• Good nutrition stimulates immune system • Can select goats for low fecal egg counts • Other diseases which depress immune system (e.g. coccidiosis) can cause increased worm problems

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Life Cycle 11
• When goat are lactating, immune system is suppressed and does not fight parasites. Arrested L-4 larvae acquired during the fall all mature simultaneously in the spring during lactation. Rationale for deworming before kidding

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Barber Pole Worm
• Dominant species in warm climates • Produces 1-6,000 eggs/day • Develops dewormer resistance more rapidly than other species because of 3 wk generation interval.

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Symptoms of Barber Pole Worm
• Barber pole worm consumes 1-5 drops of blood per day. 1,000 nearly a pint of blood in a week. • Causes anemia (low red blood cell number), hypoproteinemia (low blood protein), edema and ultimately death • Blood is normally 36% red blood cells • Deworm when 20% red blood cells • Goat is at death’s door at 8% red blood cells • Coccidiosis, liver flukes, and lice can cause anemia
Langston University

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Symptoms of Barber Pole Worm
• Look at color of mucous membranesunder lower eyelid, gums, inside vulva. Dark pink color is good, pale watery color indicates anemia • Make a habit of noticing animals with white around eyes • Bottle jaw, a collection of fluid (edema) under the lower jaw
E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Symptom of Barber Pole Worm
• Fecal egg counts are the best measure of barber pole worm infection, reflecting the number of mature worms in the goat. Takes 1-3 weeks from L-3 to egg laying adult-it is possible to accumulate enough worms to have anemia and fecal egg count not yet increased. Is rare.

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Dewormer Action Families
• All members of an action family share the same mode of action despite there being several members in the same family • Only 3 broad spectrum families available • Benzamidoles • Levamisole and Morantel/Pyrantel • Avermectins/Milbemycins
E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Benzamidoles
• fenbendazole (Panacur, Safeguard) oxfendazole (Synanthic) • albendazole (Valbazen) also kills flukes • All kill eggs, lungworms and tapeworms • Greatest level of dewormer resistance because of long history of use

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Levamisole Morantel/Pyrantel
• Levamisole (Tramisol, Levasole,Prohibit) • Morantel/Pyrantel (Rumatel, Positive Pellet Dewormer) • Basically only effective against roundworms

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Avermectins/Milbemycins
• • • • • Ivermectin (Ivomec) Dormectrin (Dectomax) Eprinomectin (Eprinex) Moxidectin (Cydectin) long residual effect Effective against roundworms, sucking lice and mange

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Use of Dewormers
• Few are approved for use in goats • Use 1.5 times the sheep dose because goats have faster rate of passage and larger livers to metabolize the drug • Administer orally back behind tongue so they go to the rumen

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Use of Dewormers
• Do not return to same pasture but send to new uncontaminated pasture • Observe withdrawal period before selling goat • Pour-on works poorly in goats • Dewormers should not be injected

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Dewormer Resistance
• An effective dewormer will reduce fecal egg counts by 95 % 7-14 days after giving the dewormer • Fecal Egg Count before deworming 1,000 eggs per gram • 10 days after deworming 200 eggs per gram = 80% fecal egg count reduction

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Langston -ivermectin
June 4 1550 0 0 200 2100 0 400 0 950 1300 2200 100 Mean
E (Kika) de la Garza

June 11 2100 0 0 600 850 0 200 0 0 450 750 50 416 Langston University Reduction 43%

733

American Institute for Goat Research

Oklahoma Farm FECR %
• • • • • • • • • • Farm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 IVM VAL LEV CYD 12 87 98 37 88 99 7 67 99 63 85 92 55 99 100 46 42 98 41 91 0 97 69 74 94
Langston University

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Dewormer Resistance
• Biggest threat to the goat industry in the near future 3-5 years • Means we will have to rely on techniques other than dewormers to control worms • Knowledge about dewormer resistance and management to control parsites has doubled in the last 10 years and your vet may not be up to date

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Management to Reduce Parasite Problems
• • • • • 1. Stocking rates < 2 hd/ acre 2. Grazing cattle or horses with goats 3. Don’t graze close to ground 4. Haymaking or tillage 5. Pasture rotation with 6 or more weeks rest • 6. Browse or animals eating off ground

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Concept for Selective Treatment
• All goats do not carry the same worm burden. Some goats are more resistant to worms than others. We should deworm only those goats that need it. The goats that didn’t get dewormed will have susceptible worms to dilute the resistant worms of the animals that were dewormed.
E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Distribution of FEC in Goat Herds
20000 16000

46 Million 66%

230 M 33%

FEC

12000 8000 4000 0
4000

Treating high 33% Greatly Reduces Daily Pasture Contamination With Eggs

33% of Goats

80% of Eggs
Over 1 Month: Pasture Contamination Reduced By: 5.7 Billion Eggs
Langston University

3000

FEC

2000

1000

0

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Individual Goats

Selective Treatment Protocol
• Examine each goat individually every 3 weeks during the warm season. • Use eye color chart to determine those that are anemic and need dewormed. • Deworm and record the animal’s number. • Requires training to understand and implement concept. • Method is called FAMACHA
E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Consequences of Selective Treatment
• Reduces rate of development of dewormer resistance • Culling goats that need dewormed the most increases resistance of goat herd to parasites and reduces number of infective larvae on a pasture (from eggs hatching)

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Alternative Dewormer Research
• With the development of dewormer resistance, the goat industry may find itself without an effective drug dewormer. There is an increasing amount of dewormer research on alternatives so that we do have some way to control worms when this happens. • Two studies at Langston have shown that Sericia lespedeza is effective at controlling worms in goats.
E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Effect of Sericea lespedeza on FEC (egg/g) in Spanish wether goats

6000

5000

4000

Eggs/g

Pasture
3000

Pasture

2000

1000

Lespede za
0 1 2 3 4

Lespedeza
5 6 7 8

0

10 Oct. Nov.

15 Oct.

20 Oct.

25 Oct.

1 Nov.

5 Nov.

10

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Effect of Sericea lespedeza on Egg Production and Development
• • • • • • Item Grass Sericea __________________________________ FEC 2722 956 Eggs/d, 1000 1730 450 Hatch % 99 58 Larvae/10g feces 2518 126

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Alternative Dewormer Research
• • • • • Capsules of copper wires Protein supplementation Trace mineral boluses Herbal dewormers Garlic, wormwood fennel, ginger

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Risk Factors for Parasites
• • • • • • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Warm weather Two inches of rain in a month Grazing pastures short High stocking rates Thin animals Animals in lactation Long residence on a pasture
Langston University

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Planning a Parasite Control Program
• 1. Monitor parasite problems with fecal egg counts or eye scores • 2. When you have a parasite problem determine why and change parts of management that you can • 3. Only use dewormer when necessary • 4. Deworm only animals that need it • 5. Cull wormy animals
E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Planning a Parasite Control Program
• 6. Deworm new animals coming on your place with 2 classes of dewormer • 7. Notice eye mucous membrane color when you check animals • 8. Use good nutrition

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Langston Parasite Workshop
• • • • • Parasite life cycle and management Dewormers, resistance and proper use Eye color scores (includes hands-on) How to do your own fecal egg counts Schedule one in your area by working with your County Agent to contact me

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University

Conclusion
• If you plan to stay in the goat business for the long term, you need to put more thought into how we raise our goats so we can reduce worm problems with management and only use dewormers when necessary.

E (Kika) de la Garza

American Institute for Goat Research

Langston University


								
To top