Immune System • Glossary of the immune system • vaccine • viruses and Bacteria’s • immune system interact Glossary • Helper t cells • b cells • killer t cells • suppresser • Lymphnodes • Thymus • Antibodies • Antigens • memory t cell Macrophages • A type of white blood cell that seeks out and consumes foreign substances,capable of pressing antigens on its surface to other cells of the immune system Helper t cells • A type of white blood cell that initiates an immune response when presented with an antigen B cells • One of the many components of the body’s immune system, a key player in the production of antibodies Killer t cells • A type of white blood cells that seeks out and destroys cells that have already been invaded by a virus or some other substance Suppressor t cells • A subset of t cells that turn off antibody production and other immune responses Lymphnodes • Small bean-shaped organs of the immune system, distributed widely throughout the body and are linked lymphatic Thymus gland • Where t cells learn their job Antibodies • A soluble protein molecule produced and secreted by the b cell in response to an antigen which is capable of binding to that specific antigens Antigens • Any substance that when introduce into the body is recognized by the immune system. Memory t cells • Remembers the virus The Immune System in Action Macrophages • 1. The first cell to defend is the macrophage. The macrophage tears apart a virus and brings it to a helper T cell. If the fragments of the torn virus are recognized by the T cell, they become united. Macrophage=Blue cells Helper T Cells • Once the macrophage and the helper T cell are untied, the Helper T cells let off a chemical. • This chemical stimulates the production of other helper T cell and Killer T cells. Killer T and B Cells • Killer T cells are called in to eliminate other cells. Some of the cells have become infected with the virus, these cells must get rid off them. • The new helper T cells send for B cells. The B cells then produce millions of antibodies. Antibodies • Antibodies are tiny organisms that B cells produce. The antibodies act like little flags for the other cells. They latch onto a virus and the macrophages attack wherever the antibodies tell them to. Result • After a few days of this, assuming that the virus does not overpower , the fighting will be over, and the person will no longer be sick. More Results • After a battle like this, the number of antibodies, B cells, helper and killer T cells, and macrophages are greatly reduced. Memory Cells • Even though most of the other cells have been destroyed, memory T and B cells are left over. It is their job to make sure the next time that this virus enters the body they remember how to defeat it. Viruses • Polio • The Flu • Dengue Fever Polio • Most recorded case of Polio was in 1952- 57,600 people caught Polio. • You can catch Polio from personal contact, waste, or saliva. The Flu • Always putting on new disguises. • Can come from pigs and birds. • Depending on your genes, the Flu is strong enough to kill someone . Dengue Fever • Travels on mosquitoes. • Strong enough to kill someone. • Began in 1780. • Once you get a high temperature your blood vessels start to pop. • Primary carrier of Dengue Fever is the Ades Aegyptic. Bacteria • Tuberculosis • Leptospira • Streptococcus Pyogenes Tuberculosis • TB has killed more than any other virus. • Not visible to the human eye. • Underneath a microscope it looks like a sprinkle. • 2 to 3 million people die each year from TB. • Someone is infected every second. Leptospira • Causes serious diseases in livestock • 268 cases of Leptospira have been recorded in France for the year 2000. • Right now approximately 266 people have Leptospira Streptococcus pyogenes • Caught from contact of mucous from the throat or nose, also from touching sores or wounds on the skin. • About 9,400 people caught Strep throat in 1999. • People who use steroids are more likely to get Strep throat. Sources • Http://www.discovery.com/exp/epi demic/inside.html • http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/ diseaseinfo/groupastreptococcal_g. htm • What are vaccines? • Vaccines are any preparation used as a preventative inoculation. • A vaccine is the weakened form of the disease or virus. This helps the body make antibodies. • How are vaccines made? • Scientists grow the influenza (flu) vaccine in chicken eggs. The egg incubates the virus and then scientists kill the virus and gives it to the patients in a weakened form. • How do vaccines work? • The vaccine is a small weakened or dead dose of the certain virus or disease. The body identifies it and the body makes antibodies so it knows how to beat the real virus. • Vaccines help us everyday. Without vaccines millions of people would die from simple diseases. Vaccines are the reinforcements for our body.