Speaker�s Planning Sheet by callmemelo


									                               Speaker’s Planning Sheet

        You can use this planning sheet for individual or group presentations. The easy
way to remember this logical presentation format is, “Tell „em what you‟re gonna tell
„em, tell it to „em, tell „em what you told „em.” For group presentations, your challenge is
to present a seamless product, NOT four or five individual presentations tacked together.
So think about how you‟ll segue from one speaker to the next. There are a lot of
successful ways to arrange the group presentation, too. Some successful groups have
split up a group presentation four ways, one after the other. Still others have done a
round-robin speaker rotation. Use whatever makes sense for what it is your group wants
to do. And remember to rehearse and use visual aids!

       You will give me a full sentence outline before you give your presentation. You
will not read your outline to the audience. If you use must use notes, my guidance is to
PRINT a word or short phrase ONLY per note card. If your notecards contain full
sentences, you will read it to your audience, which is a big time no-go! If you have done
your PowerPoint slideshow correctly (one word or short phrase bullets only), you really
won‟t need notecards.

       You will also see I‟ve put in “notes to the instructor.” This is typically place
where you could ask the audience questions about the material to check on
comprehension. I‟ve also put in slide references to help keep you organized.

        The first part of this planning guide is the skeletal outline. In the second part of
this guide, I will outline a presentation called, “How to Give a Great Presentation.” In
addition, there is a companion PowerPoint “PPT” file that goes with this called
“speaker.ppt.” You can use the file as a sort of template for your presentation.

PART ONE: The Skeletal Presentation Outline (Intro/Body/Conclusion)

I.     Introduction

                A. What is the purpose or problem you want to speak about? You may
gain listener‟s attention through a story, joke, startling statement, quote, reference to
occasion, or reference to listener‟s needs, wants, or interests. This will answer the
listener‟s question, “What‟s in it for me?”

                B. What is your specific objective? As a result of your presentation, what
specifically do you want your audience to do, think, feel, believe?

                  C. Your bottom line, conclusion, recommendation, thesis, focus, or gist of
your speech is:
               D. The _________ main points you will cover to support, prove, or
explain your bottom line are:






NOTE:           Remember to limit your main points to 5 or less in a short speech!

II.     Body of the speech (How will you develop the main points you listed in
        section I. D.?)

                A. My first main point is:


(Support for
  Main Point)          3.


                B. My second main point is:


(Support for
  Main Point)          3.


                C. My third main point is:

(Support for
 Main Point)           3.


                D. My fourth main point is:


(Support for
  Main Point)          3.


                E. My fifth main point is:


(Support for
  Main Point)          3.


III.   In conclusion or wrap-up, you may:

                A. Return or refer to thesis or bottom line:

                B. Put a new spin on thesis or bottom line:

                C. Review main points you discussed in part II:

               D. Leave the audience with something (make startling statement;
challenge; demand action; ask for action; story; joke; refer to audience interests, needs,
wants; refer to occasion, use a quote):

          -Is it COMPLETE?   - Is it CLEAR?

          -Is it COHERENT?   - Is it CORRECT?

          -Is it CONCISE?    - Is it COMPELLING?
PART TWO: A Sample Full Presentation (Intro/Body/Conclusion)
“How to Give a Great Presentation”

* NOTE: This is an example of a full sentence outline that I require before you give
your presentation. DO NOT try to speak off of this outline! You will end up reading it to
your audience. From this full sentence outline, build your PowerPoint slideshow using
one word or short phrase bulleted text. Note where my slide references are placed.
Another hint: if you are teaching a class versus giving a


SLIDE 1: Title
SLIDE 2: What Are Some Things People Fear?

                    A. Making a speech is not an easy thing. In fact, in a recent poll of
adult Americans, making a speech was their NUMBER ONE FEAR! And fear is a
natural thing. If you feel fear before speaking, you are among company. The goal isn‟t to
eliminate the butterflies in the pit of your stomach; it is to get them to fly in formation.

SLIDE 3: You Are Not Alone
SLIDE 4: Objective

                   B. As a result of my presentation, you will be able to organize a
presentation, deliver the presentation, and use training aids like PowerPoint effectively.

                   C. Organization and practice will make anybody a competent public

SLIDE 5: Preview

                  D. Today, I will cover eight main areas: basic speech standards, types
of speeches, methods of delivery, speech organization, the voice, non-verbal
communication, visual aids, and controlling nervousness.

                   A. First, let‟s look at basic speech standards.

SLIDE 6: Basic Speech Standards

                       1. Make direct eye contact. Why? It shows interest and gives
you believability. If you aren‟t believable, you have lost it as a speaker.

                       2. Appear confident. You do this through knowing your subject
inside and out, for one thing.

                    3. Be well rehearsed. It will make you more confident, for one
thing. Remember the 5 P‟s: proper preparation prevents poor performance!

                      4. Move naturally. No need to stay anchored in one spot. Let
your personality come out. How much is too much movement? Anything that distracts
the audience! How will you know? Ask others. Tape yourself giving a speech.

                   B. What kinds of speeches can you make? There are three basic

SLIDE 7: Types of Speeches

                          1. The speech to entertain. Would you have any occasion to
make an “entertaining” speech in a business, educational, or military setting? Certainly.
A roast, a farewell, a retirement…. You can come up with others, I‟m sure. And it is a
good idea to use elements of entertainment in any kind of speech. You can tell a joke or
story (as long as it is in good taste and makes a point) or just have an entertaining way
about you.

                      2. The speech to persuade. Once again, you can probably think
of any number of occasions where you can make a persuasive speech. How about
convincing a group of executives to buy your product or service? Convince your boss to
spend money on equipment? I bet you can think of others. You all know the importance
of “bottom line up front” in writing and speaking? That is, get to your point quickly,
don‟t waste your reader‟s or writer‟s time. Well, in some persuasive situations, getting to
the point quickly isn‟t a good thing! When should you lead up to the bottom line (getting
to yes)? When you know your audience is hostile to you or your proposition!

                       3. The speech to inform. This is by far the most common kind of
general speech purpose. Teaching or training would come under this heading, too, with
the following difference. In teaching or training, you would ask more questions of your
audience, or students. In a speech to inform, you wouldn‟t ask the audience questions in
the body of the presentation. You would ask if the audience had questions of you at the

                    C. So how do you deliver the presentation? There are four methods I
will discuss; one is the clearly the best way.

SLIDE 8: Methods of Delivery

                            1. The impromptu. No. Never ever give an impromptu.
This is a “seat of the pants, I‟m going to let my audience figure it out” way of speaking.
If you are practiced and organized, you won‟t be giving an impromptu. Now, I use the
impromptu, or unrehearsed, speech in a classroom setting to teach “think on your feet”
skills. But do not use this method for your speeches!

                         2. Next, is reading the speech. Why would this be another
method to avoid? If you read the speech, you can‟t make eye contact. How can you tell
whether you are being understood? If you read your speech, you antagonize the
audience. They figure you must not know the subject and you are wasting their time. DO

                            3. The third method is memorizing the speech. At least this
speaker is looking at the audience, although it may be a far away stare, as if the speaker is
reading off a teleprompter. What happens if somebody in the audience asks a question?
What happens if the speaker gets lost or pressured? The “teleprompter” goes off and the
speaker is lost, babbling like an idiot in front of the audience. DO NOT MEMORIZE
YOUR SPEECH! However, you should know enough of the first thirty seconds or so of
the speech to do it without notes. The same goes for the conclusion.

                          4. Finally, the extemporaneous presentation. This is how
you should deliver your speech. You are relaxed, confident, well rehearsed, and move
naturally. You speech is organized following the basic intro/body/conclusion format.
Your visual aids are readable without a lot of text. You make impartial eye contact
throughout the speech. You may use notes, but usually only need to glance at your
slideshow to keep organized. THIS IS THE WAY YOU PRESENT!
                    D. How should you organize your presentation? In ancient Greece,
one of the goals of becoming a good citizen was to learn how to speak well. These
ancient ones taught us the importance of speech organization. Tell „em what you‟re
going to tell „em, tell it to „em, tell „em what you told „em is the best way to remember

SLIDE 9: The Introduction

                           1. First, tell „em what you‟re gonna tell „em, or the

Take no more than about ten percent of the total speech to get their attention, state your
bottom line or objective, relate the importance of the topic to the audience, and preview
the main points you will cover in the body of the presentation.

                           2. Secondly, tell it to „em, or the body.

SLIDE 10: The Body

This is the bulk of your presentation. You can organize the main points you previewed in
the introduction in a number of ways: logical step-by-step, most important to least
important, compare-contrast, problem-solution.

                           3. Finally, tell „em what you told „em, or the conclusion.

SLIDE 11: The Conclusion

Here, you will take less than ten percent of the total speech time to review the main points
you covered in the body, remind the audience of your bottom line, ask for any questions,
and wrap it up with a joke, story, illustration, or call for action.

                E. Using your voice effectively.

SLIDE 12: Using Your Voice
SLIDE 13: Voice

                             1. Here, we are looking at the quality, pitch, volume,
inflection, rate of deliver, enunciation, and elimination of speech ticks.
                           2. The main thing here is if it irritates the audience or is a
distracter, don‟t do it. Once again, ask others how you are doing. Or, better yet,
videotape yourself and review the tape! The tape doesn‟t lie.

                          3. You can teach yourself to project a confident voice. The
ancient Greeks, legend has it, trained strong voices by practicing their speeches with
pebbles in their mouths over the rush of the Aegean Sea!

SLIDE 14: Enunciation

                           4. If you have enunciation problems, practice OVER
pronouncing words.

SLIDE 15: Control Speech Ticks

                            5. If you use annoying speech ticks like “you know, ah, um,
like” you can eliminate the behavior by recognizing you have a speech tick, then teaching
yourself to think of the “tick” as a burp. Instead of burping, close your mouth, wait for
the feeling to pass, and continue on! After a few times, you can eliminate the tick.
Really! It works.

SLIDE 16: Non-Verbal Communication

                 F. Non-verbal communication is important for speakers and their
audience. Both send out non-verbal signals, whether they know it or not!

SLIDE 17: Things to Remember

                         1. The audience makes decisions on whether to believe the
speaker based on the non-verbal signals the speaker sends out. To catch those signals, the
speaker has to make eye contact with the audience. That way, the speaker knows what
has worked and what hasn‟t worked so well and can adjust the speech accordingly.

                           2. When the verbal message conflicts with the non-verbal
signal, people will believe the non-verbal signal every time! (SPEAKER NOTE:
demonstrate this by saying how glad you are to be in class and how excited you are about
the subject… but do not make eye contact, act bored, and scattered. Then, ask the
audience what you said. They will tell you what you said NON-VERBALLY!)

                         3. So now you know the importance of the non-verbal signals
you give out. Make sure your verbal and non-verbal signals match!

                   G. Building better visual aids. Let‟s illustrate our speech. This is
the “pizzazz, or the steak‟s sizzle, part.
SLIDE 18: Visual Aids

                          1. Why use visuals? Keeps the speaker on track. Lets the
audience know what is important. Anytime you can hit more than one sense, you increase
the chance that the audience will remember and learn.

                             2. What are appropriate visual aids? If you are talking about
an object, the object itself is a good visual. Overhead slides CAN be fine if they look
professional and are done with a software program like PowerPoint. 35mm slides? The
problem here is you have to turn the lights off… how can you see the audience?
Projecting a slideshow made with PowerPoint on a large television monitor or through a
“LightPro-like” projection system works best.

SLIDE 19: Building Better Visuals

                           3. Some tips on building better slides:

                              a. Use a minimalist approach with text. The less text on
your slides the better. No more than seven lines per slide.

                          b. Prefer sans serif fonts like Arial versus a serif font like
Times New Roman. Arial-type fonts are easier to read.

                               c. Use as large a font size as possible. Don‟t make your
audience squint to read!

                               d. Use a light background with dark text or vice versa.

SLIDE 20: Better Visuals, cont’

                                e. Consider “animating” the text bullets (one point appears
after another by left clicking the mouse button)

                               f. Use appropriate and interesting graphics. If the graphics
are unreadable, but still important, consider using hand-outs.

                                g. Use sound selectively on your slides. What seems
interesting the first time can be quite an annoyance after slide three or four!

                           4. As a start, here is a list of slides to build your presentation

                               a. Title slide
                              b. Motivator

                              c. Learning objective or bottom line

                              d. Preview of main points

                              e. Enough slides to cover the main body of your

                              f. Review of main points covered in the body

                              g. Ask for audience questions

                              h. Wrap-up statement, call to action, story, joke,
concluding remark

                    H. Controlling Nervousness

SLIDE 21: Nervousness

                           1. Some is natural, normal, and helpful: shows you care

                           2. Overcome excessive nervousness through:

                           3. Form a proper mental attitude: visualize success

                           4. Prepare for eye contact in first 30 and last 30 seconds

                           5. Be thoroughly prepared

                           6. Tell a story

                           7. S-L-O-W down!

III.   Conclusion

                   A. As a result of my presentation, I hope you now will be able to
organize a presentation, deliver the presentation, and use training aids like PowerPoint

                    B. Good speakers are not necessarily born; they can be made.
SLIDE 22: Review

                  C. I covered seven areas: basic speech standards, types of speeches,
methods of delivery, speech organization, the voice, non-verbal communication, and
visual aids

                     D. So… how do you become a better speaker? Know you‟re not alone
if you feel afraid, and remember it‟s a lot like getting directions to Carnegie Hall…. You

SLIDE 23: Any Questions?
                              Speaker Evaluation Sheet

Speaker:                                                   Date:__________________
Critic:                                                    Subject:________________

                        (For each item, circle the best response)
                          (1=Poor, 3=Adequate, 5=Excellent)


       A.   Limited Topic?                          1      2        3   4     5
       B.   Knowledge of Subject?                   1      2        3   4     5
       C.   Original/Imaginative?                   1      2        3   4     5
       D.   Enough Support?                         1      2        3   4     5
       E.   Within Time Limit?                      1      2        3   4     5
       F.   Visual Aids?                            1      2        3   4     5


       A. Intro? Body? Conclusion?                  1      2        3   4     5
       B. Logical Development?                      1      2        3   4     5
       C. Main Points Develop Thesis?               1      2        3   4     5


       A. Appropriate to Audience,                  1      2        3   4     5
             Speaker, and Subject?
       B. Grammatically Correct?                    1      2        3   4     5


       A.   Appropriate Non-Verbal Gestures?        1      2        3   4     5
       B.   Good Eye Contact?                       1      2        3   4     5
       C.   Vocal Qualities?                        1      2        3   4     5
       D.   Enthusiastic?                           1      2        3   4     5

*****OVERALL EFFECTIVENESS:                         1      2        3   4     5
(Were you Persuaded, Informed, Entertained?)


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