Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement by gmx42408

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									Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement:
The Washington Experience


presented to
2008 Highway Safety Summit, Boise Idaho


presented by
Lowell M. Porter
Cambridge Systematics, Inc.


May 13, 2008


                              Transportation leadership you can trust.
    Introduction


        Washington’s seat belt use rate

        Project background

        Nighttime usage/death rate comparisons

        Project methodology, goals and evaluation

        Enforcement model

        Project time line



2
    Background

     Washington’s daytime seat belt use rate – 96.4%

     About the same number of people die in fatal crashes
     during the day as at night.

     However, only 15% of the vehicle miles traveled occur at
     night.

     Seat belt use rate in fatal crashes ~ 53%

     Seat belt use rate in nighttime fatal crashes ~ 46%



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    Background

     WA death rate at night is 4 times higher.

     Research shows that unbuckled drivers in WA are some
     of the highest risk taking drivers on the states roadways.

     Therefore, NHTSA and the WA. Traffic Safety Commission
     (WTSC) are conducting a demonstration project to
     research effective nighttime seat belt enforcement and
     the occurrence of other high risk driving behaviors.




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                                                              Observed Seatbelt Use & Vehicle Occupant Death Rates
                                                                                      Washington state, 1986-2005
                                                                                 Occupant deaths per 100 million vehicle-miles traveled
                                                100%                                                                                                                        1.60




                                                                                                          Seatbelt Use Rate                                                 1.45
Percent of motorists observed using seatbelts




                                                                                                                                                                                   Vehicle occupant deaths per 100 million VMT
                                                75%                                                                                                                         1.30




                                                                                                                                                                            1.15




                                                50%                                                                                                                         1.00




                                                                                                     Vehicle Occupant Death Rate                                            0.85




                                                25%                                                                                                                         0.70
                                                       1986     1988      1991      1993         1995         1997         1999           2001         2003          2005

                                                                Observed Seatbelt Use Rate                                          Source: FARS, WSDOT, WTSC
                                                                Vehicle Occupant Death Rate                                       *Seatbelt survey not conducted in 1990
                         5
                                  Washington State Traffic Fatalities, 2001-2005
                                                         by Time of Day

                           1800                                                                 Source: FARS



                           1600


                           1400            1524                                   1576

                           1200
    Number of Fatalities




                           1000


                           800


                           600


                           400


                           200


                             0
                                      6:00 AM- 6:00 PM                       6:00 PM- 6:00 AM
                                                               Time of Day




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                         Contributing Circumstances in WA Fatal Crashes, 1993-2005
                                                                         Unbelted vs Belted Drivers

                                                                         Unbelted Drivers                          Belted Drivers                                                  Source: FARS
    70%



    60%     58.4%



    50%
                                                                                                                                                                                              44.6%

                              38.0%
    40%



    30%


                      18.2%                  18.9%
    20%
                                       15.6%      15.7%
                                                                                                                                                                                     11.6%
                                                                8.2%                                               9.1%
    10%
                                                                                      6.4%                 5.8%                4.8%
                                                                                             4.2%                                     3.4%        2.9%
                                                                         2.5%                                                                            1.4%          1.8% 1.1%
    0%
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             *Signs, signals, officers
                                                                                           Fa
                                       It's Like Night and Day
                          Washington Traffic Fatalities 1993-2005,           By Problem Type

                                   Daytime Fatalities                Nighttime Fatalities                      Source: FARS
    90%


                                                                                                                 77.7%
    80%
                                                                 72.5%
    70%
                                        62.6%                                               62.5%
    60%   56.2%


    50%
                  43.8%

    40%                        37.4%                                            37.5%


    30%                                                 27.5%
                                                                                                       22.3%
    20%


    10%


    0%
            Head-Ons            Run-Off-Road            Impaired Driving           Speeding         Speeding AND Impaired
                                                                                                           Driving


8
          SRS Non-Use by Vehicle Occupants Killed in Washington Crashes
                             1993-2005, Daytime vs Nighttime

                                                                          Source: FARS
    70%
                                                               66.1%


    60%



    50%
                  45.0%

    40%



    30%



    20%



    10%



    0%

                   Day                                         Night
9
 Project Goals

     Determine if the CIOT model can be used effectively to
     increase nighttime seat belt use.

     Determine if this strategy can reduce injury and death
     rates as occurred with daytime enforcement.

     Learn who the unbuckled motorists are and how to most
     effectively change their behavior.

     Measure the impact this project has on other high risk
     driving behaviors and the frequency at which other
     criminal offenses are identified.


10
 Enforcement Strategy




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                                         Stationary patrols:
     Strategic Plan:

 Three statewide mobilizations:

      $300,000 for law enforcement
      overtime grants

      $300,000 for publicity:
       •   $270,000 media air buy
       •   $30,000 print materials and
           road signs

      Campaign dates:
       •   May, 2007
       •   October, 2007
       •   May, 2008

      Evaluation by Dunlap &
      Associates



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     Activities to date:
     May, 2007 mobilization:
        • 77 law enforcement
          agencies participated
        • Media coverage was
          extensive
        • Editorial boards proved
          fruitful
        • Variable message road
          signs:
            − Rented 30
            − WSDOT put message on
              150 freeway signs
            − Pop up signs used by
              law enforcement.



13
     October Mobilization                    T.V. PSA:


       •   51 law enforcement agencies
           participated
            − More recruitment efforts are
              underway
            − We competed with hunting
              season
       •   Media coverage was still
           extensive
       •   Preliminary data shows people
           noticed the message


       Sustained enforcement efforts in
         three counties between
         mobilizations.




14
 Results:
      May 2007                                    October 2007
     5,715 hours worked                           5,362 hours worked

     10,380 total contacts                        7,517 total contacts

     6,756 total tickets                          5,322 total tickets

     4,671 seat belt and child car seat tickets   3,948 seat belt and child car seat tickets

     144 DUIs                                     83 DUIs

     66 “other alcohol”                           35 “other alcohol”

     115 drug offenses                            78 drug offenses

     176 aggressive & reckless                    57 aggressive & reckless

     59 felony warrants & arrests                 64 felony warrants & arrests

     123 “other criminal arrests”                 110 “other criminal arrests”

     141 misdemeanor warrants                     134 misdemeanor warrants

     530 suspended/revoked                        282 suspended/revoked

     973 uninsured                                478 uninsured

     8 stolen cars                                4 stolen cars

15   1,393 vehicle violations                     510 vehicle violations
      Results:
     comparisons with other campaigns


      More seat belt tickets per officer contact

      More criminal interdiction than daytime seat belt patrols

      Good value for the grant dollars

      Public support

      Need to constantly promote among law enforcement




16
     Evaluation components:                       Observational surveys


      Seat belt tickets (day vs. night)

      Observational surveys (day and
      night)

      Knowledge and awareness opinion
      surveys

      Intercept surveys

      With tickets: an analysis of driving
      and criminal histories of people
      who drive unbuckled at night.
       •   Are there more high risk drivers in
           this group of unbuckled drivers v.s.
           daytime unbuckleds.




17
 Future plans:

     Maintain high daytime seat belt
     use (96.4%)

     Sustained enforcement:
      •   3 counties in between
          mobilizations

     May, 2008 statewide
     mobilization                      Insert law enforcement
                                             Photo here
     Recruit law enforcement
     involvement

     On-going analysis of results




18
           Washington Fatalities Involving Speeding or Impaired Drivers, 2002-2007
                     Through September 30th, By Year and Percent of All Fatalities
                    Fatalities shown inside bars,Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System

     65%
                                                                                    64.4%



           62.2%
                                             61.7%
                          61.1%

                                                                 59.6%
     60%



                                                                                              57.1%


           312             276                272                 285                315      242
     55%




     50%
           2002           2003                2004               2005                2006     2007


19
 Summary of 2007 Fatality-Reduction Factors

     FACTOR                 2007 (vs. 2002-2006 Avg)
     Speeding-involved fatalities                      -18.2%

     Impaired driver-involved fatalities               -22.9%

     August fatalities                                 -21.8%

     September fatalities                              -21.8%

     Motor vehicle occupant fatalities                 -11.9%

     Nighttime Fatalities (6pm-5:59 am)                -17.3%

     Highway-related fatalities                        - 4.8%

     County road-related fatalities                    - 22.8%

     Male fatalities                                   - 9.3%

     Female fatalities                                 - 13.3%

     Restraint Use by MV Occ fatalities May-August     +17.98%


     Analysis for all years includes data for January 1 - September 30 only owing to
     preliminary and incomplete data for 2007.

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     Questions




21
     Contact Information:


          Lowell Porter

      Cambridge Systematics

       lporter@camsys.com

          253-439-0585




       WTSC web page:
         wtsc.wa.gov

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