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					                                              SOILS 468
                                    GRIZZLY BEAR RECOVERY ZONES

Five grizzly bear recovery zones are scattered across the Northern Rockies in the United States. In this
exercise, you will examine where the recovery zones are in relation to public lands. You will first add the
recovery zones to ArcMap, then symbolize and label them.

Turn in this worksheet as well as the PDF files described below.

A1. Preparing data. (Note section A3 before completing this section)
First you will have to make the data easily usable.
     1. Copy the GrizzlyBear folder from \\cahe9345\ClassData\Soils468\Data in your folder.
     2. Open ArcCatalog and navigate to your \GrizzlyBear folder.
     3. Create a new file geodatabase called GB.gdb.
     4. Navigate to ArcToolbox/ Conversion Tools/To Geodatabase/Feature class to Geodatabase
         (multiple) tool.
     5. In ArcCatalog expand the trees for all coverages and drag all the appropriate polygon or point
         feature classes to the input features of the tool. Put your GB.gdb in output geodatabase .OK.
     6. Navigate to ArcToolbox/ Conversion Tools/To Geodatabase/Table to Geodatabase. Expand the
         shapefile tree and bring the two tables in that folder to GB geodatabase.
     7. Now you have all your useful data in GB.gdb. Now, only the ‘miwalb27 polygon feature class’ has
         the spatial reference defined in this geodatabase. The other data layers share this spatial
         reference, but the information has been lost. Set the spatial reference for all the other feature
         classes in GB according to ‘miwalb27’ (ArcToolbox/Samples/Data
         Management/Projections/Batch Define Projection). Use the same projection for Grizzly
         Bear/shapefiles/ GRIZONE and WYNATFOR shapefiles too.

A2. Visualize grizzly bear recovery zones.

   1. Start ArcMap and add the feature classes, miwalb, nf, natpk, wynatpk from GB.mdb and
      wynatfor.shp and grizzone.shp from /Grizzly Bear/shapefiles to a map. The resulting view shows
      much of the national park and forestland in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming. In the Table of
      Contents rename grizzone to Grizzly Recovery Zones, and the other layers to more descriptive
      names. Use a transparent cross hatch to overlay the Grizzly Recovery Zones on the public lands
   2. Open the attribute table for the feature class miwalb. The state names are missing from the
      STATE_NAME field. Start the editor and add the appropriate state names. (Ask the instructor if
      you are not familiar with these states.)
   3. Identify the grizzly zones and label them with their appropriate names.
   4. Create a layout showing the recovery zones. Export this map as a PDF file to your data folder.
   5. Briefly describe what you have done in this exercise.

A3. To minimize confusion, I recommend changing the names of these feature classes to something
more appropriate. Following is a table to show the file names and what they mean. You may call them
whatever you wish. However, throughout the exercise they are referred to as their original name, so
noting the new name below may be helpful. Do Not use spaces when you rename.
Feature class         What it is…..                                       Your name
cye                   Cabinet-Yaak Recovery Area
cypre85               Bear sightings 1985
cypre94               Bear sightings 1994
histo75               Montana Wild Lands 1975
histo40               Montana Wild Lands 1940
idnatpks              Idaho National Parks
idnatfor              Idaho National Forests
miwalb27              States (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming)
mtname                Names of Montana features
natpk                 Montana National Parks
nf                    Montana National Forests
rless                 Montana Wild Lands 1995
wynatpk               Wyoming National Parks
wynatfor              Wyoming National Forests
grizone               Grizzly Recovery Zone

B. Analyze grizzly bear recovery zones.
You will add acreage information for the recovery zones by adding a new field, then calculating its
values. You will add a table containing bear counts and join it to the existing table. Finally, you will make
a dot density map to show the relative number of bears in each recovery zone.

   1. Add two new fields to Grizzly Recovery Zones. Name the fields Acres and Bear_milac. Open
      Attribute Table/Options/Add Field/Acres/Float/OK.
   2. Calculate the acreage in each recovery zone. Area of recovery zones is given as square meters in
      the Area field. Use the conversion factor 0.0002471 to calculate acres and fill the Acres field.
   3. Find the largest recovery zone. If calculated correctly, the table shows ___________________ as
      the largest recovery zone, with ________________ acres.
   4. Find the total number of recovery zone acres. The total acreage allocated to grizzly recovery is
   5. Add the table named griznum. This table contains the estimated number of bears in each
      recovery zone. Obtaining actual counts of grizzly bears presents special problems, not the least of
      which is tracking one of North America’s most secretive carnivores across remote mountainous
      terrain. Hair sampling stations have been designed to help with this problem.

       Note that grizzlies are numerous only in the larger recovery zones, the Northern Continental
       Divide and Greater Yellowstone. Grizzlies are not currently found in the Bitterroot Mountains-
       Central Idaho area, where they were exterminated in the late 1950's. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife
       Service is considering reintroducing them there.

   6. Join the bear count data to the recovery zones data and calculate bear density. Join the Grizzone
      and Griznum tables. In edit mode, calculate Bear_milac by [Estimated]*1,000,000/[Acres].
      If the calculation worked correctly, ___________________________ should appear as the most
      densely populated recovery zone, as it has _______________ bears per million acres.
   7. Display relative bear densities using a dot density map (more bears = more dots). Prepare a
      layout and export your map as a PDF file to your data folder.

   8. Explain briefly what you accomplished in this exercise.

C. Determine habitat loss in a grizzly bear recovery zone.

   1. In ArcMap, Add the CYE, HISTO40, HISTO75, and RLESS layers.
   2. The last 3 of the layers above have two common types of wildland, r = roadless, and w =
      wilderness. Roadless stands for lands that have no roads, but are subject to future development
      pressures. Wilderness lands do not have roads and are protected from development. Make these
      types (only) show up in the table of contents with appropriate colors and labels.
   3. Create a table to store analysis results. This table will be used to examine the spatial
      relationships between the three wildland layers over time. In ArcCatalog, create a new table in
      your Geodatabase, add the fields TimePeriod (text), Wild_Acres (double), WLSighting (double),
      and NonWLSight (double).
   4. Populate your new table with Time Period dates by opening the table in ArcMap and start
      editing. Enter 1940, 1975, 1995 on three different lines under TimePeriod.

   Determine the change in wilderness acres over time.
   1. Use the intersect tool on each of the wildland layers with the Cabinet-Yak Recovery Zone. The
      area has some private inholdings that should not be included in the analysis.
   2. Analyze the changes in acres of wildlands in the Cabinet-Yaak Recovery Zone from 1940 to 1995.
      In order to do this you will need to create an Acres field (double) in each of the 3 new intersected
      layers and calculate the acres in each as you did in Part B #2.
   3. How many acres of public land were in the Cabinet-Yaak Recovery Zone in
      1940?______________________, 1975?__________________,
   4. Enter these values into your table under Wild_Acres for the appropriate year.
   5. Create a graph from your table showing the change in Acres of Wildlands over time. Put the
      graph on your layout and export as a PDF file.

D. Relate grizzly bear sightings to loss of roadless lands.

   1. Open Cabinet-Yaak Recovery Area, Bear Sightings 1985, Bear Sightings 1994 and the 1975 and
      1995 clipped wild land feature classes from part C in ArcMap.
   2. Determine the relationship between grizzly bear sightings and roadless/wild lands.
       a. Determine the number of Grizzly bears sighted in 1985 within 1000 m of the 1975 wild lands
          (roadless and wilderness) area. Do not include the private inholdings of the Cabinet-Yaak.
          Each sighting is a separate record in the attribute table. Of the 340 sightings that year, how
          many sightings were within 1000 m of the lands called roadless _________? How many
       were within 1000 m of true wilderness _______?
    b. Do the same for 1994 sightings and 1995 wild land data. Of the 241 sightings, how many
       were within the roadless criteria? ______, wilderness criteria? ________.
    c. Summarize what happened to sightings in the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness area over this

3. Often, several bears were observed at each sighting, determine the number of bears observed in
   1985 and 1994 within and outside of the wildland areas. Record these numbers in the table
   created in part C under the WLSighting and NonWLSight. Briefly summarize your findings.

4. Have any of these bears been sighted close to Montana cities? Use the near tool in the proximity
   toolbox (Analysis Tools). List the city and the distance to the closest bear in 1985 and 1994.

5. Determine the home range of Bear 106. Bear number 106 appears numerous times in the
   attribute table for CYPRE94. Use the query builder to highlight all the sightings of Bear 106.
   Create a layout that presents this information and export it as a PDF file.