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Renewable Energy- The Potential of Biomass

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					Renewable Energy: The Potential of Biomass - Sustainability, Rural Environment and Enterprise
Professor Adrian McDonald University of Leeds
with contributions by Dr Keith Pitcher, First Renewables

University of Leeds

This presentation will be placed on the School of Geography Web Site
www.geog.leeds.ac.uk

University of Leeds

The Content
 

A Reminder about A Levels Drivers and Policy for Renewables
– World

– Europe – UK
– Local


Arbre The Project
University of Leeds

Just One Mark More


Most of you will have a mark between 45 and 67. Although it varies from year to year, 45 might make an ‘E’ and 67 an ‘A’.

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Thus 66 is a ‘B’, as is 66.9 and 66.99 So only about 5 marks is the width of a grade!!!!

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So 20% of you here only need one more mark for a higher grade.

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The Drivers
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Climate Change and Global Warming Kyoto Commitments 20% CO2 reduction by 2010 Limited Options:
– Transport or Power – Onshore wind, Offshore wind, Biofuel
University of Leeds

 

Renewable Energy Development in Europe
The driving forces in Europe are:
      

World-wide concerns about CO2 levels, post Kyoto Desire to increase the share of indigenous energy fuels Desire to reduce the fossil fuel use, especially imports Need to use surplus land effectively Need to promote clean and efficient energy technologies Need to bring employment into rural agricultural sectors Wish to see sustainable regional development

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European Policies for Renewable Energy
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European Union White Paper 1998 – need identified to accelerate renewables – doubling of current use of 6% by 2010 – biomass a key role European Directive on Renewable Energy – equiv. to 22.1% electricity supply by 2010 – adopted by Commission & Parliament, becomes law summer 2001 – national targets (not legally binding), guaranteed access to grids, 4 year period to set up + 7 years to implement harmonisation Strong European Kyoto obligation drive to double energy greenhouse to reduce basket of from renewables, with higher targets later gases
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UK Policies for Renewable Energy
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Domestic goal of reducing CO2 emissions by 20% by 2010 New & Renewable Energy – 10% target by 2010 (50 TWh) – obligation on supply companies – 3p/kWh buyout price – additional support for emerging technologies MAFF National Biomass Energy Strategy & New Rural Development Programme – 125,000 hectares energy crops target - £5m per year grants for establishment Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution – sustainable energy policy paramount – developmentUniversity of Leedsenvironment in parallel of energy and

Local Drivers

  

Setaside Farm Forestry Grants
Sludge Disposal Non Fossil Fuel Obligation Premiums



Company Diversification

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Market Penetration in the EU of Renewable Energies by 2020 using Best Practice Policies
228 Mtoe - 12% of energy supply
EC’s TERES report

Energy Crops 31% Residues 15% Wastes 25% Hydro 13% Wind 4% Solar 5% Others 7%

University of Leeds

Percentage Share of Renewable Energy Sources in Gross Inland Energy Consumption
Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Portugal Spain Sweden United Kingdom European Union Source: EUROSTAT
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1990 22.1 1.0 6.3 18.9 6.4 1.7 7.1 1.6 5.3 1.3 1.3 17.6 6.7 24.7 0.5 5.0

1995 24.3 1.0 7.3 21.3 7.1 1.8 7.3 2.0 5.5 1.4 1.4 15.7 5.7 25.4 0.7 5.3

In 2000 2% of electricity supply

ARBRE - The Project
       

A sustainable electricity generator with renewable fuel Fuelled by forest residues and new willow coppices The wood produces a clean gas for combined cycle plant Being built at Eggborough, near Selby, in North Yorkshire Completion date was expected end 1999 Completed 2001 – 2002 depends on definition but….. 85% FRL, 10 % TPS , 5% Royal Schelde c. £30 m capital invested, with THERMIE and DTI support

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Generating Plant Process
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Wood is delivered as chips, weighed & sampled, offloaded to covered store and dried using waste heat from the plant The chips are gasified and cleaned in the plant The gas is compressed for use in a combined cycle generation set The site will export 8 MW to the local grid, enough for the domestic electricity needs of 33,000 people 20 direct full time operational jobs are created at site, with similar numbers in the fuel supply chain Local people are represented on the liaison committee

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Process Schematic
Gas clean up - tar cracker - wet scrubber

Gasifier

Dryer

Store

Gas flows Gas turbine Boiler Electricity
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Heat Wood fuels Steam turbine

Gas Turbine

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ARBRE 1 - Eggborough

Short Rotation Coppices
A new crop for growers  SRCs may be planted on different types of soils  Plant in spring, cutback in autumn & harvest every 3 yrs  Planting density 15,000 per ha with 6 varieties of willow •Contracts with growers are for 15 Planting of SRC (ha) Cumulative total years, to match NFFO 2000 1800 •Planting grants are obtained 1600 from WGS 1400 1200 •MAFF have secured 1000 supplementary payments to WGS 800 for ARBRE 600

400 200
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 pre 1997 2002

0

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Environmental Assessment
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Mandatory for certain projects, optional for others

– (see DoE Good Practice Guide 1995)
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Ensures that technical and environmental aspects developed in parallel Need necessary Site selection becoming of increasing importance Scoping agreement with planning authority Reduces likelihood of unfounded objections Builds consensus between interested parties

University of Leeds

Short Rotation Coppice Environmental
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Land Use SRC is robust and it can be grown on agricultural land, reclamation sites and old mining spoil heaps that are currently desolate. Digested sewage sludges are applied to improve the nutrient status and over time will improve the soil and regenerate the land. Biodiversity SRC creates a mix of wildlife habitats in the plantations and the headlands. In particular songbirds and warblers are found in high numbers. SRC supports the highest number of invertebrates of all types of woodland.

University of Leeds

Wood Fuel Supply - Forestry
 

Forestry residues come from Forest Enterprise (East England)

Other supplies are being sourced from forests in the Yorkshire region - 3 contracts have been agreed



12,000 tonnes of woodchips & 1,000 tonnes of SRW have been

stockpiled


Transportation systems are being examined for bringing wood
chips

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Wood Fuel Supply - Transportation


The main forestry sources are Kielder, Thetford and North York Moors
Transportation systems are being examined for bringing wood chips: – by road, using back to back journeys – by train

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Planning permission has been gained for the construction of a new railhead at Eggborough. Support for funding has been made to the DETR.

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Plant Impacts
Noise  Emissions  Flares  Landscape  Ash


University of Leeds

Fuel Impacts
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Transport Carbon Balance Monoculture Security

   

Pests Metals Leaching Restoration

University of Leeds

Short Rotation Coppice Environmental Benefits
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Land Use SRC can be grown on agricultural land, brownfield/ reclamation sites and old mining spoil heaps that are currently desolate. Digested sewage sludges can be applied to improve the nutrient and organic status which over time will improve the soil and regenerate the land. Biodiversity SRC creates a mix of wildlife habitats in the plantations and the headlands. In particular, songbirds and warblers are found in high numbers. SRC supports the highest number of invertebrates of all types of woodland.

University of Leeds

Coppice Planting Rods
University of Leeds

SRC Planting
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Coppice after 2 weeks
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Coppice after 3 months
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Coppice harvesting
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SRC Harvesting University of Leeds

European Role
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Clarity and robustness of targets - EC to lead AND police Level the playing field for renewables, viz historic subsidies to other fuels Fuel flexibility is essential

Direct subsidies ($ million/yr)

12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Fossil Fuels Nuclear Energy Renewables

Source: Greenpeace

University of Leeds

New & Renewable Energy by 2010
85% availability

Waste

Biomass

50% availability 30% availability

90% availability

1 GW each installed capacity

On-shore Wind
12 10

Off-shore Wind
10% @ 2010

RES-E % (UK)

8 6 4 2 0 5% @ 2003

Renewable energy capacity must be built 8x faster than in last decade
20 10

90

92

94

96

98

00

02

04

06 20

19

19

19

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19

20

20

20

University of Leeds

20

08

Summary - The Way Forward
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Key drivers for renewables include:
• • • diversity and security of supply CO2 reductions industrial/agricultural job opportunities

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10% from renewables is a credible and achievable target Biomass and offshore wind are key opportunities, with 35 - 40 biomass plants and 10 -20 wind farms needed by 2010 ARBRE is the first commercial biomass example and FRL wish to develop 350 MW plus offshore wind by 2010 The benefits include
• • clean and sustainable energy with CO2 reductions leadership, market scale, profit and job creation



University of Leeds

Future Biomass Projects been identified throughout Areas have
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the UK that can grow SRC Each of the next Second Generation projects will be 35+MW – each requiring 7 - 8000 ha SRC – some will be located in areas that are predominately grassland – each supplying 100,000 people – each fuelled from mix of willow, forestry and clean wood South Yorkshire and Somerset offer good potential Part of regeneration programmes Develops sustainable local economy Permanent full time jobs

– operations + maintenance (20) & fuel (20) – (+ shorter term construction)
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Second Generation ARBRE - Layout

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Arbre Outline
   

Gasification Plant producing 8MW net Fuelled by coppice or wood residues Next station 35 – 50 MW 5 new stations

University of Leeds

But

BUT
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For the moment Project Arbre has been shut down! Kelda group sold First Renewables and the new company seeks profitability immediately.

It is expected that it will be reopened on purchase by a more far sighted company.

University of Leeds

DETR Environment for Renewables
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The EU has a binding target to reduce CO2 levels and renewables have a vital role to play The 10% UK target for renewables demonstrates a national need It is clear that that these will be interim targets, with a drive to produce energy in a more sustainable manner Regional targets may be a useful mechanism in translating national need to regional contributions Renewables produce energy in a more dispersed manner and by smaller scale projects compared to fossil fuel generation The planning regime must be consistent and recognise the contributions that individual renewables projects make in achieving overall targets

University of Leeds


				
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