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Greenhouse Gas emissions from biofuel transportation

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					Greenhouse Gas emissions from biofuel transportation Accounting of international biofuels trade in national greenhouse-gas inventories
B Schlamadinger, L. Gustavsson, G. Jungmeier IEA Bioenergy Task 38

Page 1

As of September 2001

www.joanneum.at/ iea-bioenergy-task38

Options
CDM / JI projects Electricity trade Green certificate trade Biomass trade

To be considered
Total emissions of energy systems Site-specific baselines and energy inputs Possible leakage of „auxiliary“ emissions to non-Annex I countries Sinks maximization in Annex I countries as a source of leakage

Transport: GHG emissions depend on:
Transport mode Distance Fuel use Type of fuel shipped (density and dry matter losses)

UNFCCC - Task 38 contributions
6 TractorTruck Train

Primary energy input (%)

5 4 3 2 1 0 0

Boat

Present tech using fossil f

Salix production

Estimated te around 2015 fossil fuels

Estimated te around 2015 biomass-bas

200 400 600 800 1000 Transportation distance (km)

GHG Emissions Bio-Electricity
power plant steam turbine/sewage sludge power plant ICCC/wheat power plant ICCC/short rotation forestry power plant gasification combustion engine /wood chips power plant hot air turbine/wood chips forestry power plant ICCC/wood chips forestry power plant steam turbine/wood chips forestry

without transport transport

3 – 9% of total

0

50

100 150 200 250 300 350

Greenhouse gas emissions [g CO2-eq/kWhel]

Atmospheric flow
Atmosphere
Forest growth Slash Decomposition/combustion of wood consumed Export

Wood production Import

National boundary System boundary

Stock change
Atmosphere
Forest growth Slash Decomposition/combustion of wood consumed Export

Wood production Import

N a tio n a l boundary S ystem boundary

Hypothetical examples
CO2 flow method Stock-change method Case Country A Country B A+B Country A Country B A+B 2 1 3 0 +1 0 ----1 -1 ---0 -1 0 0 -1 ---0 0 ---0 -1

Case 1: Country A manages its forest with no net carbon stock changes and uses 1 unit of harvested wood itself to produce energy. Case 2: Country A manages its forest with no net carbon stock changes and exports 1 unit of harvested wood to country B where it is burned to produce energy. Country B has no forest. Case 3: Country A harvests its forest without regrowing it (deforestation) and exports 1 unit of harvested wood to country B where it is burned to produce energy.

Criteria for evaluating approaches
Accuracy Simplicity Scale Independence Precedence
Incentives


				
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