Three Westernization Movement Westernization Movement in the late economic history is a complete failure of the movement (Kuo Ting-yee, 1993, pp544-600, Fairbank, code, coil, Wellington KK, 1993, pp428-532, Fairbank, LIU Guang character code, the next volume ) This movement is the political ideology of the legal system, fundamental changes in the constraints can not be carried out, so to adhere the Qing government&#39;s political monopoly, there is no judicial independence and protection of the legal system as Jichu private. And by the people imitate the Western political reform, legal and economic systems the contrary, the Westernization Movement adhere to government-run, officials and businessmen co-organized system of Government Commerce, to imitate the developed countries as a basis for technical and industrial models. This approach makes the government monopoly industry interests from its arbitral role to play as an independent third party in conflict with the position, it is both a referee, another player, thus using the power of its decision to pursue the interests of their players. Institutionalized state opportunism that makes the government use its monopoly position to compete for resources with the private sector, and the suppression of the private sector. The Meiji Restoration, the provisions in the Constitution only when private property is inviolable, and full copy Britain, Germany&#39;s political, legal and economic systems (but do not give up the emperor&#39;s power, not to engage in virtual ruler Republic), in addition to business people do not know why matter, the Office had a number of model plants, the largely state-owned enterprises do not do. Therefore, the Government can play a fair administration of justice, third party arbitration for law enforcement, the private sector can flourish together. With the Japanese imitation of patent law, company law, making the private sector can use the surplus to protect the right to promote the benefits of Western patents, so Western technology can be widely developed in Japan, after World War II, the Japanese began to use the patent system a large number of inventions of new technologies , which makes successful technology right through the remainder of the private sector, through the purchase of patents the company quickly turned into a large-scale commercial production. Characteristics of the Westernization Movement Qing not only the official monopoly of large industries, but also showed an Official business, collusion. Primary condition for successful businessmen with a good relationship and get official asylum, Hu Guangyong (see Wellington KK, 1993, pp482-483, see also pp. 495-512) is a typical example. Officials and businessmen co-organized Government Commerce is no strict definition of the concept, on the Steamship Li (1872), Kaiping Mining Bureau (1877), Shanghai Machine Weaving Bureau (1878), the Lee as officials entrepreneurs, he used the form of joint stock companies to raise capital from private merchants, the appointment of contributing money to rank people or semi-official status as a manager, much like the government has a controlling interest or control over the enterprise. The biggest problem of these enterprises is the owner of both the formulator of the gaming rules of government officials, and participate in Youxi is a principal member of the dual position of conflict of interest that bring the country opportunism Zhiduo Hua, fair and healthy market order Bu Keneng established, private Enterprises can not be developed. Government Commerce enterprises in all ills of bureaucracy, nepotism, widespread, officials misuse of funds, widespread corruption (Wellington KK, p488-490). Several so-called private railway company examples illustrate, the Government has been retained to replace the so-called private public company general office, and other Ganshe the powers of the interference caused by inadequate corporate governance experience 加上 问题 situation, the Government took the opportunity to implement nationalization ( Wellington KK, the citation, pp503-509). Private sector without government interference, such as Mao most vibrant new mill (Wellington KK, pp509-512). But with the state-owned enterprises after 1949 compared to the late Qing Dynasty of Government Commerce business more like a modern enterprise. In particular, the late Qing government to plan several heavy blows constitutional reform, on January 21, 1904 &quot;Promulgated businessman orders&gt; 9 and &lt;Company Business Law&gt; 130, 1905, the company registration law enacted in 1906 by bankruptcy law and patent law, and finally to China&#39;s economic system from the track. 1904-1908 years, the rapid development of the private sector, a total of 272 registered. But the good development trend is the revolution and the ensuing unrest interrupted Republic of China. Qing economic history there are a few interesting questions. One of the late agricultural development and the relationship between the land system, the second invasion of foreign capitalism on the national economy, and the other is a foreign invasion (including international treaty regimes, war and concessions) on the Chinese economy. Qing Dynasty&#39;s economy has a dual structure, basic self-sufficiency in rural areas, coupled with fair trade. Coordination of trade fairs outside the main comparative advantage based on students low division of labor. Exogenous comparative advantage is the natural preference for different production conditions or due to division of labor and trade, and endogenous comparative advantage is the acquired form of comparative advantage. The absence of the patent system and protection of private residual rights system, in roundabout production and technological innovations and inventions and other activities, the division of labor and large-scale commercial production can not develop (Skinner: &lt;China&#39;s rural market and the social structure&gt; contains &quot;Journal of Asian Studies &quot;Volume 24, No. 1 (1964)). This distinctive feature of the rural economy, farmers in the main consumer are self-produced, very little part of the purchase from the market, so Nongye production is not specialized He Weiliaoshichang of the Jin Xing (lower division level), few have Zhuanye production a kind of vegetable, fruit farmers in Europe and America, fewer large-scale commercial production of hiring for professional farms. As represented by Xiaokai Inframarginal analysis literature (see, for example, Yang, 2001) pointed out that economic development is a division of evolution. When the economic system behind the transaction efficiency is low, the society will in the self-sufficient state, then there is no division of labor between agriculture and industry, self-sufficiency in production of various products for each natural person. With the improvement of transaction efficiency, self-sufficiency of natural persons will differentiate into specialized farmers, the workers, thereby increasing productivity. This division of labor driven by the evolution of the improvement of traffic conditions, system improvement, and development of the city. Many scholars have pointed out, not produce surplus agricultural products led to the city, but urbanization leads to a variety of professional specialized in the production of agricultural and farm machinery products roundabout there, and thus increase the agricultural productivity of the remaining increase of agricultural products. Therefore, the backwardness of agriculture is the Qing Dynasty government, opportunistic behavior and did not protect patents and corporate created by the system of private property, not private ownership of land caused by the invasion and foreign industry. Qing Dynasty&#39;s land system has been well developed, in 1887 the Qing Dynasty official land records show that in North China and Manchuria, in addition to private civil lands, there are a lot of flag fields, Farming and Huangzhuang, they are against property and the consequences of war. To the late nineteenth century, strict protection of private property mainly in the private field and the privileged land tax rate differences. Another official, and the emperor still has not been copied without any judicial process their land and other property, privileges, also said the government was capable of violating the property of the &quot;residual rights&quot;, although the Government in time of peace and reason do not often use such privileges. Privileged class does not often use such privileges as evidence, relying on violations of property, robbery is evil, and the trend of land annexed Not obvious, and therefore distribution of land ownership to the average than Europe and the United States. Few officials, Fushen, have official business background has a mu of land monopoly example. About 50% of the farmers as tenants, and some farmers, money rent has emerged acre cash rent for the land of 5-10%, quite a modern state in meeting the currency market rent levels. Rent in kind accounted for about 50% of the harvest (Feuerwerker, chap :1870-1911 economic trends in Late Imperial China, Fairbank, LIU Guang series, 1993, scroll down) that is divided into rent system had been proved to be an economist The system is not conducive to economic development, because the tenants did not get him to work all the marginal revenue generated, the production hit the enthusiasm of the 1970s, but the economics of information developed shows that farmers in the measure to the high level of transaction costs, and production of non- certainty, we have risk-sharing and improve the motivation of both hard conflict, when the low output occurs, starting from the risk-sharing, landlord tenant should not be a great punishment, but to provide incentives to consider, when the landlord is not high yield on tenant should be punished. When the tenant&#39;s work effort is difficult to measure, production risk is very high, rent is the dilemma of the conflict into the most effective compromise. Therefore, in a free contract system into spontaneous rent system is kind of efficient land system (see Stiglitz, 1977, Zhang Wuchang in 1976, Zhang Wuchang also found to abolish the system of land reform into rent the negative impact on economic development experience evidence). Feuerwerker, the first citation noted that the distribution of land ownership in China is not more concentrated than in the United States at the time, but the Qing government violations of the privileges of class and privilege of the property may be one reason why the land market is underdeveloped. Although the civil spontaneous common land sales and leasing, but the law can not effectively protect the private ownership of land lease transactions are not in violation of the legal protection of land property rights system is developed, such as the right to redeem the original price of land has been sold the right is a similar common law has not been equitable principles, evolution to a free opportunity to buy out the ownership of the system, which was once the land disputes and the Qing Dynasty is an important source of homicide. Upward Feuerwerker a professional paper also pointed out that although the land rent system of field agents sign of well-developed, but the local gentry, landlords and official collusion also use this system will be transferred to the tenant of land tax. It should also be considered as private ownership of a bad Chinese characteristics, rich and official collusion, the formation of the privileged class, draw political monopoly rents to the poor. Therefore, the late Qing dynasty&#39;s land system is not a major impediment to economic development, but the political monopoly of the ruling class, making the legal system, economic system can not effectively protect private property (especially intellectual property and private residual rights) is the main economic development obstacles. This makes the transaction efficiency is low, the low level of division of labor in rural areas, and thus low productivity. Compared with rural areas, China&#39;s cities have well-developed primitive capitalism. Written by John King Fairbank (1993, on the volume, the first chapter), the late Qing population, stimulating the commercial development of the so-called commercial development is the division of labor, according to Wen Mei (Wen, 1996) theoretical model, population growth will stimulate the development of the division of labor and productivity progress, Qing original development of capitalism in the cities so that banks, credit unions, guilds and trade associations the emergence and development, and improve the status of the merchant. Division of labor is characterized by the development of a high professional level career professional to replace those with low levels of employment, and some production in the roundabout will replace the highly specialized professional production equipment is not dependent on a circuitous career. Modern factory system, all within the highly specialized textile weaving industry professional to replace hand-spinning is such a process. This process and the contemporary process of globalization, people are forced from the old to the new professional career the same situation. However, due to the late Qing various legal and economic systems are not developed, transport conditions are very poor, so the industrial restructuring process was not too fast but too slow in comparison with Europe, the United States and Japan. Feuerwerker (1993, pp25-40) recorded two complaints, the process of economic restructuring expense of artisans complain imperialist aggression, and the new industrialists complained that China&#39;s self-sufficiency economy to make their new business expansion too slow. Skinner (1965) and Feuerwerker (1963, lower volumes, the first chapter, pp.53-63) recorded the following facts, as the transport efficiency is low, so China is not divided into tens of thousands of transactions each local market, Therefore, only small parts of the division of labor market development, and can not form a national market and the corresponding division of the national high level. Therefore, only the coordination of coastal cities neighboring region division, the division of labor can not become a national network of trade centers. This widening gap between coastal and inland revenue, but also to the development of the coastal city of big business restricted. This is reflected in the original founder of the company soon discovered that the local market saturation and falling profits. Qing Dynasty insurance market does not exist, the Government&#39;s welfare policies do not exist, so it can not use the insurance market and social insurance to reduce costs caused by industrial restructuring. This is one reason why social instability. Feuerwerker (pp.73-83) also pointed out that the cause behind the Qing government system for the promotion of transportation, justice, law enforcement and improve transaction efficiency of public spending, well below the European and American countries, this is a backward economy at that time the Qing Dynasty the main reason. As foreign companies have relatively good foreign institutions and treaties to protect their rights, but the Chinese government did not protect their own business the legal system of private property, so does the Chinese private sector has faced unfair competition issues, but this inequality source is not a foreign company, but the backwardness of their own system of government. Finally, the author describes Fairbank (1993, on the volume, Chapter 5), Xu and Jordan (1993, second volume, Chapter 2) of the unequal treaties, foreign aggression and domestic settlements system, some of the readers not familiar with the account. First of all, many of the Qing Dynasty Qing government and foreign conflicts largely Qing government disgraced itself, in which the Boxer incident is a typical example. Empress Dowager Cixi of the incident against the background of repression after the Hundred Days Reform in China and abroad that have lost the legitimacy of the leadership, she&#39;s the wrong mentality to become internal events triggered Boxer. At that time the Chinese Government adheres to the tradition of freedom of association are not allowed to civil, as independent of the official church of the Qing Dynasty, the threat of political and ideological monopoly, so attempts to use the Boxers persecution of the Church and foreigners. Empress a traditional anti-repression of civic associations, to support the Boxers attacked the foreign legations, the frantic violence and foreign, which have been internationally recognized as criminal acts, which lead to interference in the coalition countries, the Empress Dowager Cixi who committed this crime, the key factors are men on the restoration of foreign support Guangxu Emperor angered by rumors, so this event is essentially suppressed Guangxu Emperor Empress lose heart after the reform and the legitimacy of the crisis, rather than a simple foreign aggression against China. Therefore these cases the negative impact on economic development can not be simply attributed to the imperialist aggression against the negative impact of China&#39;s economic development. Qing treaties with foreign conflict in a system in fact has a positive impact on the Chinese economy. Treaty system, the Western concept of rule of law and the rules of the game in the bargaining among the participants the concept of equality into China, so that the Qing government lost its privileged status of government restrictions, in particular, to break the treaty system, the official monopoly on the business and infringe any private merchants require the Qing government to the tax system fair and transparent. British consular jurisdiction under the request at that time also has its progressive. China was not a rule of law, no British consular jurisdiction, then the British people and businessmen in China, no personal security, and justice protection. The British colony of Hong Kong is not in the concession and the administration of justice by the government, but by the independent of both government and the defense told the independent jury consisting mainly determined by the local people guilty of innocence, which is different from Europe and China, the common law where statute . Of course, from the fair, the British requested personal and property security, and protection of judicial independence and impartiality should be applied to the Chinese people, but the sovereignty of the Qing Dynasty before the British could only fight for the rights to the British people should have a . Through concession, the British local government, independent and impartial administration of justice, this system indeed benefit the Chinese people. China&#39;s Kuomintang, the Communist Party, who have had to rely on the Church of consular jurisdiction to protect their human rights concessions. British concessions in China, the basic implementation of local self-government, not by the British Government, but elected by the residents of local agencies Concession Concession governance. However, local self-government institutions elections (UC) because of the electoral law on the rights of property and the amount of taxes or rent restrictions on the eligibility of foreign residents account for only about one-tenth of the total (see Feaer, Werker, pp.128-208) This concession of the British judicial, taxation, public finance management for the Chinese people to learn modern political, economic, judicial system the best materials. Modern urban public finance system, public facilities, architectural styles are seriously affected, especially the British Concession Concession provides an independent judiciary, local self-government, equality before the law from the income property is inviolable, freedom of association, freedom of belief, freedom of speech, corporate set up auto-registration example is China&#39;s development is very positive meaning. Unfortunately, after the chaos in the revolutionary movement, the system of concession and not the Chinese system of learning. Fairbank also recorded the first citation British club system in the concession system, how to increase freedom of association was used to overcome the Chinese community in the management of public affairs, born of the free-rider mentality. And concessions related to China&#39;s customs system. Many have alleged past historical evidence of the Qing Dynasty betrayal is right for the Customs and outsiders, in fact, this accusation is inaccurate propaganda. Hart Qing Customs is managed by the British, but he is an employee, as the Qing government, the exercise of his powers. His management of not only the rapid modernization of China Customs, and the customs to become the most efficient, least corrupt Qing bureaucracy. He assured that the treaty regime of restrictions on tariff rates, thus facilitating free trade and fair tax, he also guaranteed using efficient management and the system as the Qing government of substantial tax revenues. Liu, management of customs that Hart&#39;s greatest contribution to the promotion of China&#39;s commercial development, to eliminate corrupt officials under the Qing corrupt customs disruption (see Liu, 1993, Fairbank series, the volume Chapter self-strengthening exercise: guided surgery in Western technology, pp566-570).