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Westernization Movement

Westernization Movement in the late economic history is a complete failure of the
movement (Kuo Ting-yee, 1993, pp544-600, Fairbank, code, coil, Wellington KK,
1993, pp428-532, Fairbank, LIU Guang character code, the next volume ) This
movement is the political ideology of the legal system, fundamental changes in the
constraints can not be carried out, so to adhere the Qing government's
political monopoly, there is no judicial independence and protection of the legal
system as Jichu private. And by the people imitate the Western political reform, legal
and economic systems the contrary, the Westernization Movement adhere to
government-run, officials and businessmen co-organized system of Government
Commerce, to imitate the developed countries as a basis for technical and industrial
models. This approach makes the government monopoly industry interests from its
arbitral role to play as an independent third party in conflict with the position, it is
both a referee, another player, thus using the power of its decision to pursue the
interests of their players. Institutionalized state opportunism that makes the
government use its monopoly position to compete for resources with the private sector,
and the suppression of the private sector. The Meiji Restoration, the provisions in the
Constitution only when private property is inviolable, and full copy Britain,
Germany's political, legal and economic systems (but do not give up the
emperor's power, not to engage in virtual ruler Republic), in addition to
business people do not know why matter, the Office had a number of model plants,
the largely state-owned enterprises do not do. Therefore, the Government can play a
fair administration of justice, third party arbitration for law enforcement, the private
sector can flourish together. With the Japanese imitation of patent law, company law,
making the private sector can use the surplus to protect the right to promote the
benefits of Western patents, so Western technology can be widely developed in Japan,
after World War II, the Japanese began to use the patent system a large number of
inventions of new technologies , which makes successful technology right through the
remainder of the private sector, through the purchase of patents the company quickly
turned into a large-scale commercial production. Characteristics of the Westernization
Movement Qing not only the official monopoly of large industries, but also showed
an Official business, collusion. Primary condition for successful businessmen with a
good relationship and get official asylum, Hu Guangyong (see Wellington KK, 1993,
pp482-483, see also pp. 495-512) is a typical example.

Officials and businessmen co-organized Government Commerce is no strict definition
of the concept, on the Steamship Li (1872), Kaiping Mining Bureau (1877), Shanghai
Machine Weaving Bureau (1878), the Lee as officials entrepreneurs, he used the form
of joint stock companies to raise capital from private merchants, the appointment of
contributing money to rank people or semi-official status as a manager, much like the
government has a controlling interest or control over the enterprise. The biggest
problem of these enterprises is the owner of both the formulator of the gaming rules
of government officials, and participate in Youxi is a principal member of the dual
position of conflict of interest that bring the country opportunism Zhiduo Hua, fair
and healthy market order Bu Keneng established, private Enterprises can not be
developed. Government Commerce enterprises in all ills of bureaucracy, nepotism,
widespread, officials misuse of funds, widespread corruption (Wellington KK,
p488-490). Several so-called private railway company examples illustrate, the
Government has been retained to replace the so-called private public company general
office, and other Ganshe the powers of the interference caused by inadequate
corporate governance experience 加上 问题 situation, the Government took the
opportunity to implement nationalization ( Wellington KK, the citation, pp503-509).
Private sector without government interference, such as Mao most vibrant new mill
(Wellington KK, pp509-512).

But with the state-owned enterprises after 1949 compared to the late Qing Dynasty of
Government Commerce business more like a modern enterprise. In particular, the late
Qing government to plan several heavy blows constitutional reform, on January 21,
1904 "Promulgated businessman orders> 9 and <Company
Business Law> 130, 1905, the company registration law enacted in 1906 by
bankruptcy law and patent law, and finally to China's economic system
from the track. 1904-1908 years, the rapid development of the private sector, a total of
272 registered. But the good development trend is the revolution and the ensuing
unrest interrupted Republic of China.

Qing economic history there are a few interesting questions. One of the late
agricultural development and the relationship between the land system, the second
invasion of foreign capitalism on the national economy, and the other is a foreign
invasion (including international treaty regimes, war and concessions) on the Chinese

Qing Dynasty's economy has a dual structure, basic self-sufficiency in
rural areas, coupled with fair trade. Coordination of trade fairs outside the main
comparative advantage based on students low division of labor. Exogenous
comparative advantage is the natural preference for different production conditions or
due to division of labor and trade, and endogenous comparative advantage is the
acquired form of comparative advantage. The absence of the patent system and
protection of private residual rights system, in roundabout production and
technological innovations and inventions and other activities, the division of labor and
large-scale      commercial       production      can    not     develop       (Skinner:
<China's rural market and the social structure> contains
"Journal of Asian Studies "Volume 24, No. 1 (1964)). This
distinctive feature of the rural economy, farmers in the main consumer are
self-produced, very little part of the purchase from the market, so Nongye production
is not specialized He Weiliaoshichang of the Jin Xing (lower division level), few have
Zhuanye production a kind of vegetable, fruit farmers in Europe and America, fewer
large-scale commercial production of hiring for professional farms.

As represented by Xiaokai Inframarginal analysis literature (see, for example, Yang,
2001) pointed out that economic development is a division of evolution. When the
economic system behind the transaction efficiency is low, the society will in the
self-sufficient state, then there is no division of labor between agriculture and industry,
self-sufficiency in production of various products for each natural person. With the
improvement of transaction efficiency, self-sufficiency of natural persons will
differentiate into specialized farmers, the workers, thereby increasing productivity.
This division of labor driven by the evolution of the improvement of traffic conditions,
system improvement, and development of the city. Many scholars have pointed out,
not produce surplus agricultural products led to the city, but urbanization leads to a
variety of professional specialized in the production of agricultural and farm
machinery products roundabout there, and thus increase the agricultural productivity
of the remaining increase of agricultural products.

Therefore, the backwardness of agriculture is the Qing Dynasty government,
opportunistic behavior and did not protect patents and corporate created by the system
of private property, not private ownership of land caused by the invasion and foreign
industry. Qing Dynasty's land system has been well developed, in 1887 the
Qing Dynasty official land records show that in North China and Manchuria, in
addition to private civil lands, there are a lot of flag fields, Farming and Huangzhuang,
they are against property and the consequences of war. To the late nineteenth century,
strict protection of private property mainly in the private field and the privileged land
tax rate differences. Another official, and the emperor still has not been copied
without any judicial process their land and other property, privileges, also said the
government was capable of violating the property of the "residual
rights", although the Government in time of peace and reason do not often
use such privileges. Privileged class does not often use such privileges as evidence,
relying on violations of property, robbery is evil, and the trend of land annexed

Not obvious, and therefore distribution of land ownership to the average than Europe
and the United States. Few officials, Fushen, have official business background has a
mu of land monopoly example. About 50% of the farmers as tenants, and some
farmers, money rent has emerged acre cash rent for the land of 5-10%, quite a modern
state in meeting the currency market rent levels. Rent in kind accounted for about
50% of the harvest (Feuerwerker, chap :1870-1911 economic trends in Late Imperial
China, Fairbank, LIU Guang series, 1993, scroll down) that is divided into rent
system had been proved to be an economist The system is not conducive to economic
development, because the tenants did not get him to work all the marginal revenue
generated, the production hit the enthusiasm of the 1970s, but the economics of
information developed shows that farmers in the measure to the high level of
transaction costs, and production of non- certainty, we have risk-sharing and improve
the motivation of both hard conflict, when the low output occurs, starting from the
risk-sharing, landlord tenant should not be a great punishment, but to provide
incentives to consider, when the landlord is not high yield on tenant should be
punished. When the tenant's work effort is difficult to measure, production
risk is very high, rent is the dilemma of the conflict into the most effective
compromise. Therefore, in a free contract system into spontaneous rent system is kind
of efficient land system (see Stiglitz, 1977, Zhang Wuchang in 1976, Zhang Wuchang
also found to abolish the system of land reform into rent the negative impact on
economic development experience evidence). Feuerwerker, the first citation noted that
the distribution of land ownership in China is not more concentrated than in the
United States at the time, but the Qing government violations of the privileges of class
and privilege of the property may be one reason why the land market is
underdeveloped. Although the civil spontaneous common land sales and leasing, but
the law can not effectively protect the private ownership of land lease transactions are
not in violation of the legal protection of land property rights system is developed,
such as the right to redeem the original price of land has been sold the right is a
similar common law has not been equitable principles, evolution to a free opportunity
to buy out the ownership of the system, which was once the land disputes and the
Qing Dynasty is an important source of homicide. Upward Feuerwerker a professional
paper also pointed out that although the land rent system of field agents sign of
well-developed, but the local gentry, landlords and official collusion also use this
system will be transferred to the tenant of land tax. It should also be considered as
private ownership of a bad Chinese characteristics, rich and official collusion, the
formation of the privileged class, draw political monopoly rents to the poor. Therefore,
the late Qing dynasty's land system is not a major impediment to economic
development, but the political monopoly of the ruling class, making the legal system,
economic system can not effectively protect private property (especially intellectual
property and private residual rights) is the main economic development obstacles.
This makes the transaction efficiency is low, the low level of division of labor in rural
areas, and thus low productivity.

Compared with rural areas, China's cities have well-developed primitive
capitalism. Written by John King Fairbank (1993, on the volume, the first chapter),
the late Qing population, stimulating the commercial development of the so-called
commercial development is the division of labor, according to Wen Mei (Wen, 1996)
theoretical model, population growth will stimulate the development of the division of
labor and productivity progress, Qing original development of capitalism in the cities
so that banks, credit unions, guilds and trade associations the emergence and
development, and improve the status of the merchant. Division of labor is
characterized by the development of a high professional level career professional to
replace those with low levels of employment, and some production in the roundabout
will replace the highly specialized professional production equipment is not
dependent on a circuitous career. Modern factory system, all within the highly
specialized textile weaving industry professional to replace hand-spinning is such a
process. This process and the contemporary process of globalization, people are
forced from the old to the new professional career the same situation. However, due to
the late Qing various legal and economic systems are not developed, transport
conditions are very poor, so the industrial restructuring process was not too fast but
too slow in comparison with Europe, the United States and Japan. Feuerwerker (1993,
pp25-40) recorded two complaints, the process of economic restructuring expense of
artisans complain imperialist aggression, and the new industrialists complained that
China's self-sufficiency economy to make their new business expansion
too slow. Skinner (1965) and Feuerwerker (1963, lower volumes, the first chapter,
pp.53-63) recorded the following facts, as the transport efficiency is low, so China is
not divided into tens of thousands of transactions each local market, Therefore, only
small parts of the division of labor market development, and can not form a national
market and the corresponding division of the national high level. Therefore, only the
coordination of coastal cities neighboring region division, the division of labor can
not become a national network of trade centers. This widening gap between coastal
and inland revenue, but also to the development of the coastal city of big business
restricted. This is reflected in the original founder of the company soon discovered
that the local market saturation and falling profits. Qing Dynasty insurance market
does not exist, the Government's welfare policies do not exist, so it can not
use the insurance market and social insurance to reduce costs caused by industrial
restructuring. This is one reason why social instability. Feuerwerker (pp.73-83) also
pointed out that the cause behind the Qing government system for the promotion of
transportation, justice, law enforcement and improve transaction efficiency of public
spending, well below the European and American countries, this is a backward
economy at that time the Qing Dynasty the main reason. As foreign companies have
relatively good foreign institutions and treaties to protect their rights, but the Chinese
government did not protect their own business the legal system of private property, so
does the Chinese private sector has faced unfair competition issues, but this inequality
source is not a foreign company, but the backwardness of their own system of

Finally, the author describes Fairbank (1993, on the volume, Chapter 5), Xu and
Jordan (1993, second volume, Chapter 2) of the unequal treaties, foreign aggression
and domestic settlements system, some of the readers not familiar with the account.
First of all, many of the Qing Dynasty Qing government and foreign conflicts largely
Qing government disgraced itself, in which the Boxer incident is a typical example.
Empress Dowager Cixi of the incident against the background of repression after the
Hundred Days Reform in China and abroad that have lost the legitimacy of the
leadership, she's the wrong mentality to become internal events triggered
Boxer. At that time the Chinese Government adheres to the tradition of freedom of
association are not allowed to civil, as independent of the official church of the Qing
Dynasty, the threat of political and ideological monopoly, so attempts to use the
Boxers persecution of the Church and foreigners. Empress a traditional
anti-repression of civic associations, to support the Boxers attacked the foreign
legations, the frantic violence and foreign, which have been internationally recognized
as criminal acts, which lead to interference in the coalition countries, the Empress
Dowager Cixi who committed this crime, the key factors are men on the restoration of
foreign support Guangxu Emperor angered by rumors, so this event is essentially
suppressed Guangxu Emperor Empress lose heart after the reform and the legitimacy
of the crisis, rather than a simple foreign aggression against China. Therefore these
cases the negative impact on economic development can not be simply attributed to
the imperialist aggression against the negative impact of China's economic

Qing treaties with foreign conflict in a system in fact has a positive impact on the
Chinese economy. Treaty system, the Western concept of rule of law and the rules of
the game in the bargaining among the participants the concept of equality into China,
so that the Qing government lost its privileged status of government restrictions, in
particular, to break the treaty system, the official monopoly on the business and
infringe any private merchants require the Qing government to the tax system fair and
transparent. British consular jurisdiction under the request at that time also has its
progressive. China was not a rule of law, no British consular jurisdiction, then the
British people and businessmen in China, no personal security, and justice protection.
The British colony of Hong Kong is not in the concession and the administration of
justice by the government, but by the independent of both government and the defense
told the independent jury consisting mainly determined by the local people guilty of
innocence, which is different from Europe and China, the common law where statute .
Of course, from the fair, the British requested personal and property security, and
protection of judicial independence and impartiality should be applied to the Chinese
people, but the sovereignty of the Qing Dynasty before the British could only fight for
the rights to the British people should have a . Through concession, the British local
government, independent and impartial administration of justice, this system indeed
benefit the Chinese people. China's Kuomintang, the Communist Party,
who have had to rely on the Church of consular jurisdiction to protect their human
rights concessions. British concessions in China, the basic implementation of local
self-government, not by the British Government, but elected by the residents of local
agencies Concession Concession governance. However, local self-government
institutions elections (UC) because of the electoral law on the rights of property and
the amount of taxes or rent restrictions on the eligibility of foreign residents account
for only about one-tenth of the total (see Feaer, Werker, pp.128-208) This concession
of the British judicial, taxation, public finance management for the Chinese people to
learn modern political, economic, judicial system the best materials. Modern urban
public finance system, public facilities, architectural styles are seriously affected,
especially the British Concession Concession provides an independent judiciary, local
self-government, equality before the law from the income property is inviolable,
freedom of association, freedom of belief, freedom of speech, corporate set up
auto-registration example is China's development is very positive meaning.
Unfortunately, after the chaos in the revolutionary movement, the system of
concession and not the Chinese system of learning. Fairbank also recorded the first
citation British club system in the concession system, how to increase freedom of
association was used to overcome the Chinese community in the management of
public affairs, born of the free-rider mentality.

And concessions related to China's customs system. Many have alleged
past historical evidence of the Qing Dynasty betrayal is right for the Customs and
outsiders, in fact, this accusation is inaccurate propaganda. Hart Qing Customs is
managed by the British, but he is an employee, as the Qing government, the exercise
of his powers. His management of not only the rapid modernization of China Customs,
and the customs to become the most efficient, least corrupt Qing bureaucracy. He
assured that the treaty regime of restrictions on tariff rates, thus facilitating free trade
and fair tax, he also guaranteed using efficient management and the system as the
Qing government of substantial tax revenues. Liu, management of customs that
Hart's greatest contribution to the promotion of China's
commercial development, to eliminate corrupt officials under the Qing corrupt
customs disruption (see Liu, 1993, Fairbank series, the volume Chapter
self-strengthening exercise: guided surgery in Western technology, pp566-570).