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The world and animals - elk

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					The world and animals - elk
The world and animals - elk
Guo Geng
First, it is a mammal mammals, mammals. As the world less than 5000 kinds of
mammals, the elk is a very strange animal. So it's strange, not only in the
strange shape, strange habits, but also strange experience. Elk is actually a kind of
deer, but you may know, deer is also called what? "Neither fish nor
fowl." In fact, from the elk's name itself is very interesting. It
has several names, the first ancient name is moose or elk; elk's common
name is "nothing on earth", its Latin school called long tail deer,
it's English name yet, called Pere David's deer
"Father David deer." Then why? From the analysis of ancient
Chinese text, it is deer elk, rice sound, or that it's head on a brow, so the
name also, so they are called elk. Or Mi, mud close to walking in the marsh deer. Elk,
it is a typical wetland deer species.
We do not know heard that, in 1865, elk from a scientific point of view to be a
Westerner was found that the French Amand David. Because of an eight-entry in 1900,
and flooding. Elk in China in the last sub-group of the South China Sea in Beijing
finally extinct, then the animals in the history of the world increases the new page. In
1985, it finally ended nearly a century of overseas career, return to hometown. Seen in
the picture is then transported to the Father by David Paris Museum of Natural
History last chat type specimen, it is elk skeleton.
Father David said then, and now to show you, in front of everyone in the old man,
although Chinese officials wearing clothes, but in fact he was a French missionary.
1865 is wen four years, he went to Beijing to do the southern suburbs of flora and
fauna study. He was the sea wall, what wall then? Wall of the Royal hunting Court.
Father David was a look inwards wall, saw a lot of deer. But he, as a zoologist, did not
even know what a deer, it caused him intense curiosity, is this is not scientific
discovery, understanding, a new species? But the Royal Court, hunting is forbidden,
not let outsiders in, he is more well finish from inside a deer. But he can not let go of
this thing. Just think, two centuries ago, is the world's largest species found,
these scientists, the zoologist who, in order to find species as a great honor. Father
David, though could not get it, he has been not bear to leave. Until the second year, in
January 1866, he spent 22 silver, buy a hunting guard Royal Court officials, black
wind high in a month night, officials of the Royal Court over the coping hunting him
down two sets of elk hanging skull, angle of the specimen. Father David treasure,
these two sets of things, and sent to France. This is the Paris Museum of Natural
History, through the Paris Museum of Natural History's curator told Miller.
Edward's identification, he identified, was shocked and found it not only a
new species, but is a separate genus. After he published papers on the sensation of the
Western scientific community. To thank or honor of David found that elk in the
foreign language name, called Pere David's deer, Father David deer, which
is proud of what David had.
Just one to say, and elk, it is also known as "neither fish nor
fowl." So-called "nothing on earth" is the face like
Horse, its a long face; hoof of a cow non-cow, hoof wide; angle like a deer non-deer;
End of non-ass like ass. In fact, the last one is very important. I think what you can
remember. With other deer and elk can be discerned a difference, is its tail.
It's Latin school called long tail deer, is very appropriate. It is deer longest
tail, tail to 40 to 60 cm. So do such a long tail is used for? Because it lives in wetlands,
wetlands and more mosquitoes. Therefore, it is to drive away mosquitoes, lun to lun
go. If you have the opportunity to Beijing Milu Park you can see, in particular the
summer, mosquitoes, and more time. In fact, this "nothing on
earth" is not what some people thought it was a combination of four
different animals, it is a very strange and animals, mythical beasts. In fact,
it's "nothing on earth," the feature entirely on the
wetland environment adaptation. For example, you see, it's hoof so wide, it
easily in your marsh walk, and will not sink into.
Now to show you a picture of the old South Garden map, this place, from the Yuan,
Ming and Qing Dynasties are the Royal Court, hunting, and deer hunting is precisely
the Royal Court, the largest mammal. This place from the Ming dynasty called the son
of the South China Sea, the so-called son of the South China Sea is located south of
Beijing, Wang Yang into the sea. Well, today, we use the term ecology today, the
actual interpretation of the ecological environment of this place is it? Wetlands. Why
show about this? We may not know why the elk hunting in the Royal Court has been
able to survive in, while China was the last group. This is a well-known as a court
painter in Qing Dynasty, in fact, is Italian, his name Lang Shining painting a picture,
called the South Garden Line Circuit diagram, also called the envelope read materials
map. This is the Qianlong Emperor, at the Royal Court in hunting activities and
hunting. This gives a strange question, why the elk hunting happens in the Royal
Court as well? Then the Royal Court on the hunt today, what with the protection of
our natural relationship? We survived the stress when the elk, then consider the first
reason, elk have been able to survive because it is present in the Royal Court in
hunting. Royal Court could have been hunting an emperor or ruler of hunting, or is
open, even soldiers Yanwu learning place. So now there is no relationship between
nature conservation in the end, may you all over the world claimed to be the first
nature reserve, then in the United States called the National park, is a national park,
claimed to Yellowstone National Park. 1872. But China's royal hunting
Court, it's there in three thousand years ago, perhaps in the Spring and
Autumn time there, although it is not the purpose of conservation, but the Royal Court,
but because of hunting, breeding and conservation of rare birds and animals, including
elk of the many animals, can be inherited, this is what we call the Royal Court, its
positive effects hunt.
So I say we have not elk mythical beasts, but it does in traditional Chinese culture,
there are many records, you have not read "Gods",
"Gods," a late-bloomer in the horse is "nothing on
earth", but also poet, called "body riding a nonsensical,
handheld Janus Owl", which is that a late-bloomer in the horse that he rode
that "nothing on earth." But indeed, "nothing on
earth" is not a moose, I am not sure. Because in the Chinese popular
known as "neither fish nor fowl," the animals are still many.
Father David, then the year in Beijing, the Royal Court found that the elk hunting, I
sometimes say, Father David, with some kind of deer he has a very deep relationship.
Because he found so many animals, hundreds of species, only deer is named after him,
called the "Father David deer," is a 1900 elk sub-extinct South
China Sea in Beijing, while David is also a 1900 Fr 11 10 months died in Paris,
France. Father David to death, but I am afraid that very hard to say clearly why elk
land of China exists only in a small royal hunting Court. So that small, it actually
more than 200 square kilometers. But the big map of China's mainland, and
he from north to south are many places to go, north to Inner Mongolia, south to Fujian,
Sichuan, everywhere in the footsteps of David, but how happens elk existed in such a
small royal hunting Court, this is the elk on the cultural connotations.
Then, we can describe here, and sometimes I say, you are probably very familiar with
these two idioms: one is "who the winner" is the
"Central Plains." So these "deer" refers to
what is it? I said that moose, I said what reason. In ancient times, those ancient rulers,
the calendar was still not developed, their astrology, astronomy, the time is not too
familiar with it. Was based on changes in phenology to determine the
plant's start and end. Then the elk, it is precisely not the same as with other
areas of deer, it is time to remove the horns spring in the winter time. At that time
equal to the Yangtze River basin, one corner of it off, the new plant began in, of all
things show life. Therefore, the rulers who took elk horn off as a very auspicious
symbol. Later, those rulers is King Wen of Zhou, King Wu of the time, simply say to
do off the field observation of elk horn, she simply took to the ring to the royal
elk's Yuanyou into, then this started Yuanyou animals especially the elk, as
Yuan You animal, it began, called the "spirit of limited construction,
building Lingtai." Gradually formed a ritual of it, the Royal feeding elk.
Result it became a symbol of imperial power, is called "Edward was
ordered to line the king hunting." Results from the royal courtyard that
deer ran out, was another ruler of the chase. He felt that since it is a symbol of
imperial power, I caught, I was authentic emperor ruler. So the emergence of the
"Central Plains", you can double the interpretation of such a
dictionary, called "Qin missing the deer, the world total by the."
The "competing against" not to eat meat, not for hunting, but a
symbol of imperial power, it has a special significance.
Second, as its habits. Elk, in fact it's not happened too early in the whole
deer, are of a relatively young species, only two or three million years, but its heyday,
that is, three thousand years ago. So a lot of ancient books in China have such records,
including the works of Qu Yuan in his "Nine Songs" being there
"any elk in the food court Xi, Xi Jiao, water-born what is" such
a record. Then we may be more heard it said that it, is called "Taishan
collapse in the former and the color unchanged", the next one,
"Xing elk head on the left but do not blink." Why did these
ancient people regarded such things deer head hanging in the mouth it, a lot of content.
Zhuangzi said the words, he said, "Mao Qiang, Julia is also known as the
United States", in ancient times, there are two famous beauty, a man named
"Mao Qiang," called "Julia", it is
generally accepted She is a beauty. But maybe has a beauty to come, see the birds fly,
fish, see the in-depth, elk see the decision at first, elk met beauties run, you do not
believe you to try, to where we are, you go, elk met You run, elk is a very shy animal,
very shy, saw you run, the final word Zhuangzi said, "four persons who are
familiar with, the world of the orthophoto zai", said the four different
animals, you Who can say who said it best, each have their own aesthetic, we can not
be forced. Or the employer's standards insist other animals.
So I was the world and animals from the perspective of the deer, elk why is it odd?
Why do most? Give you an introduction. First of all, the 40 kinds of elk in the world
about deer, the pregnancy is the longest time a deer. It can reach 285 days gestation to
300 days, but we are more familiar with what one called the deer, it's
pregnancy time is 230 days, this elk pregnancy how such a long time it a bit with the
people challenge. Elk, have already said, it is a very typical wetland deer species. It
reflected in the wetlands, even more than normal animals, wetlands, wetlands, it also
means that it is the best swimmer. 1997 Yangtze River flood occurred, elk here Daibu
Zhu, and cross the Yangtze River, to Hunan to the south to, and some even swim the
23 hours without being drowned. I can not say that it is regrettable that plague all, this
is a very special elk for the best. I am afraid that the deer in one of the strongest
swimming ability. So it is the longest in captivity. Starting from the Zhou Dynasty
rulers captive elk have been extended to the Yuan, Ming and Qing to the Republic of
China, there is no Republic of China is not the feudal rule of the rulers, may no longer
be a symbol of imperial power. It is also one of the most docile elk deer. Have the
opportunity to welcome you to see, but people came, it ran very afraid of people. In
fact, there are many such ancient records, such as "Mencius",
there Mencius see King Hui, Gu Hongyan elk, saying, "Sage to this music
almost." The virtuous person to chat with each other, their wetlands, in the
swamp above, there are geese, there are elk, there are birds, there are animals, they are
endemic species of wetland. And also that the Sage to this music almost, people
interested in these animals, some are very worthy people.
Let's take another look at the elk's diet of deer is very special. It
is mainly dominated by wetland plants to eat, not only herbs, but love eating Wo of
the plants, and even we had this attempt. That is a fine material, with grass, generally
agreed that these animals, particularly animals eat concentrate, but when there is grass,
which prefers to eat grass, and it also has its own characteristics, it is rather long face,
hoofs and relatively wide, easy to walk in the wetlands, mud, you can not eat other
animals eat the plants of those wetlands, whether emergent plants, or floating plants,
which are able to effectively feed. So here, Yo Yo Deer, Kuino the apple, I have guests,
drum color Flutist. Elk in the grass, the grass feeding. So the site is four-year, in May
when the birth scene. We can see that this is called lick calf love. This picture is very
typical of the deer just born soon, legs still a little trembling, then it's time
to drink milk, the DOE, in licking its butt to stimulate its digestion. And this time the
elk Court often hear this call between doe and fawn, the real is the Yo Yo Deer, is the
kind of voice. Deer often issued Jiao Didi's voice, this is fun. I once quietly
in our view Lutai there, watching over a group of deer from my eyes, and then I told a
joke that deer, I did not show up, I hide, so they are just about gone, I am a called,
those doe all back, I did not expect, I keep returning so high. The results have a doe,
not only to look back and also came back a few steps around, and I know what it
means, someone's lost child came back to see at a glance, no, I dared not
exposed, I can not cheat it, and dared not show up. This is Muzaizhiqing, this is an act
of mother and child. So here is between males in each of their courtship, when males
fight to take place between. But in fact the two are sub-adult male, they are actually
this is a practice, not a real king in the war. Then the next you see, this is the real King
Deer, go into battle, the corner that rolled grass, its behavior is called corner
ornaments. We say that animals generally show off, most of the animals have to show
off behavior, but this status Shikao high, or have a tendency to struggle Shikao do this
deer, it's this behavior by those grass rolled in his head, then the so-called
go into battle, then ran in front of the doe, looked very majestic, like a great general.
So What is more, they use the horn to pick those mud in his back, his own confused
dusky body, so that it becomes cool, and certainly doe keep returning even higher.
Weeping willows, Dihua whistle, elk is very peaceful in the shade, gave everyone a
very poetic in a landscape.
Then third, I'm going to brief you on the deer incident. Elk are native in
China in 1900, that is, sub-extinct South China Sea, Beijing. Then that a local
extinction is the extinction in China, because, after all, before it become extinct, a few
elk were shipped to Europe. Elk's extinction is not simply that it entered in
1900 of an eight-extinction, but rather in the field, the extinction in the wild is
estimated that in the late Ming and early Qing record time. It is because, due to
excessive development of the population. Because we all know, to the Qing Dynasty,
China's first population Jinru a million or more, then with the increase of
population, natural development, development of wetlands, which enables the elk got
out of it depends, 环境, elk Zai field on extinct. Finally, the Royal Court in Dare
Anson hunting, so there is only down, but to about 1894, due to the proliferation of
the Yongding River, the Yongding River in the flood washed away the walls of the
Royal Court, hunting, bull elk about 120 lost inside a Royal Hunting Garden were
victims to eat, and finally running out of elk coming to an eight-entry in 1900, the last
elk in China, no, this is what we call elk extinction. So I used the lyrics, called
"a century ago a quiet night, embattled be tolerated sword."
This is the eight-.
Although the local extinction of elk in China, but I said, before being transported to
the extermination of Europe. Father David, the elk actually introduced to Europe
about a decade later, many zoos in Europe from Paris to London to Hamburg,
Antwerp, these are from the Beijing Zoo after another son of the South China Sea, is
the Royal Court in hunt to buy, ask for exchange , 1:00 The Zoo has a deer. But the
elk it is a unique wetland species, the zoo does not have the characteristics of
wetlands, is a fence, so the more support elk at the zoo is the less, seeing elk in a
foreign country would have completely wiped out, this time there is a to elk survivor
of the person, that person called Bedford, he was a British prince, he has a manor
called woburn abbey, he would spend heavily to all parts of the elk, European elk zoo
buy all , and finally bought a 18, this 18 elk became the world's last group
of elk, they kept in the temple of his estate is called Diu. Although elk are living off
others, but after all, a survivor, not only survived, but gradually resumed again. From
18, to the time of World War I, has multiplied to 88, to the time of World War II, has
been breeding to 250 long. Because this place woburn abbey lush, groove bifurcated
horizon, very suitable for elk. While they are overseas, but this place really can
Gouqietousheng, but safer. But by the time of World War II, then something went
wrong. You may know, when World War II, the German air force bombing of London,
woburn abbey was more than 30 miles from London, this time the masters of fear elk
woburn abbey was destroyed by the war again, they changed the habits of deer not to
others, to elk transported to the UK, Europe and many parts of the world. But only to
China but did not, why do we not give? Let's not be returned. Because time
is the Sino-Japanese War, turmoil and chaos of war. So back then elk have to take a
bayonet to the Japanese devils pick. So we the villagers as elk, has been no return.
Then until 1985, elk finally ended this to depend on others lived career began back in
the South China Sea Beijing sub.
That was the time to discuss the return of elk, many Chinese and foreign scholars are
divided, elk should be back to where? Because in the history of China, north to the
Liaohe River, south of Qiantang River, east to Taiwan, and west to Shanxi, have elk
fossils. At that time the choice, then put eyes fell on the South China Sea in Beijing
children. This place is better than other places can not. First of all, this is the type
specimen of origin elk, you will remember, in 1865, Father David is found in species
in this place. Second, this place is 1900, the extinction of elk in the land of China. So
in this sense is very special, is content from the history of science, from the cultural
point of view, this place after the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties of the Royal
Hunting Garden, more importantly, which was all to see, weeping willows, Di
Flowers whistle, the European herons Elique, the lack of Yo Yo Deer, and that if the
elk to come here, great condition. Indeed true then the South China Sea in 1985, was
son of a flooding rivers and lakes. So we decided, is also home to elk has been here,
was really very successful, this option is very perfect, the international community to
put some of the famous elk return, known as the most accurate
"re-introduction of the" project.
Now to show you, these are the elk return to the scene. You see, when the sun sets, the
South China Sea sub-faction Mizusawa. The second photo, China and Britain signed
an agreement to return, the door began to build here. August 24, 1985, elk is the plane
ride back to Hometown. Many people also home to elk are as China's
diplomatic, political victory. In fact, those of us naturally to protect workers, we have
to practice what it means for international cooperation to save an endangered species
project called "re-introduction of the" English told
Reintroduction, I think you may know, this "re-introduce" it is
biodiversity conservation is an important measure. "Re-introduction of
the" people, how to "re-introduction", that is, when a
species in its origin, for some reason disappeared. But it was outside the country of
origin leads to, and a small amount of remaining deposit, through artificial breeding,
acclimatization, then it lead back to its ancestors had lived in the place, this rescue
measure called "re-introduction." Now there are 130 around the
world, "re-introduction of the" rescue, then only 15 succeeded.
China has only three "re-introduction", China's three
"re-introduce" is Saiga antelope, wild horses and elk Platts. So
now the only announced the successful deer, elk, not only in 1985 and 1987,
respectively, 38 children returned to Beijing the South China Sea, and in 1986 there
are 39 to Jiangsu Dafeng, National Nature Reserve. And then the South China Sea in
1993, son of elk Beijing began to rock the first transported to the Nature Reserve in
Hubei, including last year we saw 30 elk taken to stone the first nature reserve in
Hubei, and another 30 deer along the Yangtze River on the original sent to the natural
sun protected areas. Nature reserves in China now, the elk will not be extinct already,
and it has returned to its ancestors lived where. So elk's
"reintroduction" to save, this is basically successful. So whether
it is the return of elk, or these species, "re-introduction", which
is largely with the zoo, there has been a great relationship, including the just said, elk
were shipped to Europe, they were being kept in a zoo , then woburn abbey has now
turned into an opening of the zoo. So the zoo this phenomenon, how do we
understand, from the relatively strong conservation of this point of view, including
myself, have repeatedly said the zoo is the animal prison. May you ever heard not, in
the Central Television, "Animal World" Zhao Zhongxiang once
said, in fact, before I say this, I want to tell you that such a sentence is October 4th
called "World Animal Day . " Animal Day this year, so when
some friends that we give animals the feast, then, when I speak I said, on October 4 is
the "World Animal Day", but it is not animal holiday, why do
you say so ? It is only animals who love festivals, because Zhao Zhongxiang, when
one day, all animals in the zoo, are breaking the cage toward the place where their
ancestors lived, which genius is the animal's Day. So, I think, our aim is to
make it back to the wild, back to its ancestors lived nature reserve. But in fact, so
many years, the zoo in fact it played a role in the continuation of a species, especially
as in the wild, make it with the extinction of individual species, the zoo has become a
haven for it, so we said, the zoo today purpose, it is an animal sanctuary, is a devotee
of knowledge, it is the quality of citizens who like to teach people how kind to
creatures.
We can be this simple diagram, you can see the trajectory of the elk. It is the original
wild, in the natural state. But three thousand years ago, began to be gardens, are
Yuanyou after that, to the late Ming and early Qing, when the wild entirely wiped out,
we only have this Yuanyou of these dying. Was just said, because of an eight-entry, it
extinct in China itself, was sent to the zoo. Then it returned to Beijing in 1985, son of
the South China Sea, and from the South China Sea son went to a protected area such
a process. Then back to protected areas is back to our so-called field, then returned to
the wild state.
Then we say that last part is about the value of elk. Speaking of the value of elk, many
people especially some very utilitarian many adults will inevitably ask, to where we
should ask what you used to support the deer, or someone to call you there is a Deer
in the bar, there is deer eat? Deer drink it? I told them no, we're not here
Deer's. That's not a lot of deer that you do, so we do not know
us here. So let me just say a word, is not a zoo, though there are many animals, there
is not Yanglu Chang, although you can see all kinds of deer, we say that it is not a zoo,
but not Yanglu Chang, It was for? We are around the elk's protection, or
biodiversity conservation, scientific research and scientific work. Simply speaking,
these two functions. Speaking of elk horn, deer antler value, then I should have to tell
you about this story. This is an antler, elk Court in our museums, exhibition,
exhibitions pair of antlers. Then the pair of antlers, all of you look carefully here,
there are a lot of fine print. The small print is the identification of an Emperor
Qianlong then antlers. So we are all familiar with Qianlong, this man is not only civil
and military, assigned to do both good at poetry, but also good at riding, archery, his
science is not bad, he is very good at exploring natural phenomena. He has to write a
thing called "Antlers in mind," not "The
Deer." He was in the "antlers in mind", he said,
"not only identify the deer and elk are solutions of angle in the summer,
not in the winter," he was arbitrarily that they remove the horns are all
summer. "The root of both their words and without it, often Genggeng
Yan." That said, he had been brooding. "Last winter solstice, the
so-called middle steep Recalling South Garden, or solution angle in the winter, but
also knowing. Qianren upon this as the time when its candidate," he then
sent his imperial bodyguard named Dr. Chen, "Policy Manan to
"out of the palace to the South Garden on the run, just off elk
horn," who hold that it has solution to go. " Just off the corner
to get a look at the National Palace for the Emperor, Qianlong Emperor "is
the embarrassment from the loss," I said, not the original. A result, he said
so few words, I think, he said two words, I think we as a people engaged in science,
and we have very deep significance, as we say a word called
"Knowledge" But did he say? He said "the
world's poor management is not easy, but things were not easy to format, is
almost like," he admitted the truth the world is really a moment, half a
moment blurred, live and learn. The results, he said he let artisans to these words
engraved in the top of antlers, and now everyone there, not only see but also feel, this
is the "elk horn explanation."
In fact, the value of elk just talked about, I think the value of at least three elk, this is
my only able to analyze out. First, it can be said to be a representative of wetland
species, or species of wetland odd see. If we protect the elk, which it is a living while
protecting wetlands, then that is a good care of our living out of their homes. Friends
present may know of our wetlands is very important to human beings, we forests as
the lungs of the earth, the wetlands known as the land of the kidney, it's
that provide water, degradation of toxins, as well as biological diversity This feature is
very rich, and we long story. Then the second, elk, at least our ancestors passed down
to us, so we have a duty to let it be preserved in a rare genetic, it should not because
we put it all eaten their fill, all kill up to it. Therefore, as a valuable genetic gene, we
also have the responsibility to make it SO.
Then third, I have never seen as a mass of elk meat, a skin, or a skeleton, but take it as
a living natural heritage, in this "elk at the new solution", I said
elk have been lost in the reversion, is surviving as a true portrayal of fortunes rise and
fall as a sign of ecological advantages and disadvantages of biological quality can
alive in front of us, a tragedy in the comedy, the midst of sadness. Common name
"neither fish nor fowl," the animal, in the misty rain Drizzle,
fragrant grass in the water 's edge stroll, stop, look back, sent a roar of
crude, raised his huge desolate corner, every move she makes Yi Bai Mei, trick moves
and style to make In passing the ancient information describing the frustrations of the
experience, "and all the years of deep, with the Friends of the
elk," This is the Qianlong said, that evolved together with humans, which
lasted 200 years of deep between. Their tolerance and heavy classical mysterious
wealth of content, are all subject to our values in a vulgarity to assess, to sentiment, to
interpret, to decipher. "After the fall this is" elk now roam in the
Court of elk, are still to vicissitudes of Unfortunate fate and lost the back of the
frightened to warn the hurry of the world: the human call me
"Moose," I wish human beings themselves Do not
"lost" ah!
Speaker Introduction:
Guo Geng, Beijing Milu Ecological Centre and Biodiversity Conservation Research
Center, Beijing, deputy director, in primate animal breeding, field of biological study
and conservation education; in 1998 in the Beijing Milu Ecological Center has to
work full-time status accident conservation education and science popularization.
?
larization.
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