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Sun Yat-sen and Ningbo

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					Sun Yat-sen and Ningbo
Sun Yat-sen was a great revolutionary forerunner. Representatives of the bourgeois
democratic revolution led by him, including Ningbo, including large national
businessmen's wishes and demands, which widely support and response.
Long-term career in the revolutionary struggle, the Sun and many of Ningbo have
different levels of business contacts, and some turn to become followers of the
revolutionary cause and important supporters, the 1911 Revolution made important
contributions to the victory.
1, Ningbo and Shanghai with convenient transportation, the route commonly known
as a reed. Before the Opium War that many of Ningbo to Shanghai business. 1843
Opening of Shanghai, due to its favorable geographical location and vast hinterland
for the backing, quickly developed into the largest trade, financial and industrial
center. The rise of Shanghai, Ningbo attracted generations of people to make a living
business. "Pull out their wives and children travel more difficult for all
applicants." [Note 1] It is estimated that the late Qing dynasty, in more
than 100 million residents of Shanghai, Ningbo has reached 40 million. Businessmen
in Shanghai and Ningbo were numerous, as "Shanghai for business and the
most power to help the wrist and one mouth." [2] their influence has been
all over the major industries of Shanghai, especially in finance, commerce, shipping,
industrial aspects is important. Meanwhile, Ningbo in the business of its merchants
and appeal as well as all major industries throughout Shanghai backed forces, has
been hold the Shanghai General Chamber of Commerce and a number of major
industry organizations leadership. Such as the strict letter from Ningbo merchants
thick initiated the establishment of the Shanghai business conference hall (later
renamed the Shanghai Chamber of Commerce, the Shanghai General Chamber of
Commerce) is a sufficient control of Shanghai financial impact of the national
business trade and business groups, from 1902 to 1912, has established the
composition of Ninth board of directors, leaders strict letter Ningbo thick, ZHOU Jin
Kei Biu, Hou Yu served as one-seventh of the Prime Minister (President). In the
Shanghai General Chamber of Commerce and directors in Ningbo, 30% -40%
generally. [Note 3] At that time General Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai, Ningbo
in the forces so great that the famous French scholar studying the relationship
between the White Gill concluded, said: "Shanghai General Chamber of
Commerce seems to only be regarded as a branch of four out club "[4] As
for the Shanghai Chamber of Commerce and some other major trade associations such
as chambers of commerce in Zhabei, Shanghai County Chamber of Commerce,
Shanghai Financial Association and other organizations, Ningbo merchants are all
played an important role. To do this, the eve of the 1911 Revolution, the Shanghai
newspaper said: "To the merchants of its own forces in Shanghai, Ningbo
businessmen home when the throne." [Note 5]
After the late 19th century, with the businessman in Shanghai, Ningbo, growing
business forces, they also actively participate in political activities in Shanghai, to a
certain extent, become the spokesman for Shanghai business community and public
opinion about an important force. Intervention in that time they often interfere in
internal affairs, foreign affairs, in some cause social unrest and the entire country is
concerned about events in the first position, take the lead in launching an attack and
activities. Such as the 1905 boycott and subsequent recovery carried out by the Right
of Exploitation, Paul movement, Ningbo businessmen are very active. 1905 Shanghai
in the British consular insult to the Chinese Mixed Kim Bo Gong incident sparked
large-scale strike strike Kong Shanghai fashion. To quell disturbances, contact Yu
Qing, Zhu Bao Third Ningbo leaders actively running, serve as a mediator, and finally
to the Municipal Council to make concessions.
From the visible to the late 19th century early 20th century, Ningbo and Shanghai, to
become active in new business and foreign trading port and entrepreneurs. To
overthrow the rule of Qing Dynasty, Sun Yat-sen was rushing around to find support,
and to make his people at all levels of Ningbo have different levels of interaction,
such as Ningbo compounds help contact Qing Yu, JinTang, small and medium
business Zhao Fan, Zhao Yi brothers and Family Foundation - Xiaogang Li brothers
are all very close relationship with Sun.
Three years of the Qing dynasty (1904), Zhao Tong Fu brothers to study in Japan, met
during the Sun Yat-sen and the United League, which became Sun's most
faithful followers of the revolutionary cause. The following year, Zhao Zhang
Jingjiang brothers and revolutionaries have to do business in Paris, France, to all
profits used to finance Sun Yat-sen in revolutionary activities. "The total
outstanding personality has lost hundreds of thousands of gold 100, Jun has tens of
thousands." [Note 6] Guangxu three years (1906), Zhao brothers return to
their homes in Shanghai Pingqiao Road for residential - Zhao Hall, who became
foreign revolution with the Shanghai branch contacted the secret revolutionary branch
one of the locations. 1907 Sun Yat-sen has launched regional organizations in
Guangdong and Guangxi Chaozhou, Huanghuagang Uprising, uprising Lake Huizhou
and seven women, Yen Chow, Lim Uprising, Friendship Gate uprising, huge funds
needed. Zhao brothers from ho Department informed the plight of Sun Yat-sen was
very anxious, but when they do business in Shanghai, limited cash on hand, for which
both back to Ningbo, the majority of the Zuzhuan Tian and sell products to donate all
the proceeds in cash Sun Yat-sen. Since then, the Zhao brothers are still many have
aided the revolutionaries, and sometimes even at the sale of accessories help, move
the revolutionaries in for the elephants.
Sun Yat-sen's revolutionary activities, also received the support of overseas
businessmen in Ningbo, Ningbo businessmen in Japan, where Sun Yat-sen and
JinTang most closely. JinTang impoverished, the 19th century to Japan from Shanghai
80 years in business. Because of their tireless efforts and extraordinary courage, fast
becoming the Chinese leader in Japan in the early 20th century Japan, the business
sector, "Kansai zaibatsu," said. But he works in a foreign land,
home of mind, very concerned about the rise and fall of the Chinese nation, the
corrupt rule of the Qing government disgusted. Early years, he hovered between the
revolution and improvement. After the failure of Political Reform in 1898, Liang fled
to Japan, JinTang be a grand reception, but stubborn opposition royalist organization
Liang Sun Yat-sen's revolutionary activities, the switch to strong support
for Sun Yat-sen. He not only on the full support of Sun Yat-sen in the material to carry
out anti-Japanese cause, but also actively engaged in them himself, and became very
good friends with the Sun. Guangzhou Uprising in 1895, Sun Yat-sen organizations
fail, the Qing government revolutionaries crazy chase, forced the Sun once again in
exile. Year on November 12 when the Sun arrived in Kobe, JinTang by the warm
reception. He led the anti-Sun struggles with confidence and in the overseas Chinese
community to publicize the ideas of democratic revolution in Zhongshan. Since then,
the two men from very frequent, Tetsuo Nakamura, according to Japanese scholars
study, "1900, Sun Wu Wu contacts almost beyond any other
person's contact with." During JinTang also use leased
Sumitomo consortium launches in Kitakyushu, Japan, coal to domestic maritime
transport operations, the clandestine shipment of arms to help Sun Yat-sen. [Note 7] in
August 1905, Sun Yat-sen the "Revive China Society",
"Guang Fu Hui", "Hua Xing Hui"
together to form the "Chinese Alliance," JinTang active part in
League activities and support for post-Kobe League ministers, and he's
Residence in Kobe as part of housing loan in the League office. Since then, the
League to the KMT, JinTang continue to serve as minister of the Kobe branch. Early
in 1912 JinTang also has sponsored the funding for the military government of
Shanghai and Ningbo, 40,000 yuan.
Revolution victory in 1913, after the fruit was Yuan Shikai, Sun Yat-sen arrived in
Kobe, Japan, in March the same year. JinTang Chinese Association in Kobe rallies
organized a grand welcome, and later as Minister to Kuomintang branch in Kobe, Sun
Yat-sen and his entourage invited to Maiko Villa Beach Songhai guest. In 1915, Sun
Yat-sen, Soong Ching Ling honeymoon get Kobe, Wu has repeatedly hosted
hospitality. To praise the revolution owed its support, Sun Yat-sen had personally
inscribed "public spirited" one plaque. Expression of longing
for the motherland and feelings Haiwaichizi, 1916, JinTang Maiko Beach built in the
octagonal one other village, called "Empathy House." Sun sick
in December 1924 north to attend the National Conference Association. Through
Japan, Sun Yat-sen accompanied by his wife, the last person "Empathy
House." In Wu's help, Sun Yat-sen Hall in Kobe
women's middle school issued a "Great Asianism"
speech, Soong Ching Ling also women's emancipation in the Hyogo
College Girls speech.
After the Revolution, despite the Journal of Sun Yat-sen's political career,
when floating, but his relationship with the Merchants have been quite close. It is this
close contact and Businessman and supportive of the revolution, so in order to
rejuvenate the Chinese nation, the development of national industry and commerce on
the responsibility of the Ningbo Sun high hopes.
Yuan in June 1916 due to failure of the restoration of monarchy, depressed and
eventually died. In August, when the initiative of Custodian of Sun Yat-sen in
Shanghai to be long, Zhejiang Province, Lu Kung Wang, Ningbo Museum of the
Fourth Principal Patrick Jianhou's invitation to come visit Zhejiang
Province. Through Hangzhou, Shaoxing, the Sun Yat-sen, Hu and his entourage
arrived on August 21 in Ningbo, Ningbo been warmly welcomed by all walks of life.
The next day, he was held in Ningbo, the Fourth Provincial all welcome the meeting,
spoke highly of the Ningbo merchants: "Ningbo had a reputation for being
good at doing news, and possessed of courage strong," and that
"Ningbo Birth in Guangdong, after The atmosphere of the opening are not
under the Guangdong Province and the port where my country, everyone has one
cause of Ningbo, the European countries, will rise Ningbo, footprints, their capacity
and influence of those who have large solid can be second to none. "[Note
8]
Second, during the Revolution, businessmen in Shanghai, Ningbo, very active. It can
be said, not only on the Sun Yat-sen's 1911 Revolution led to express
different degrees of sympathy and support, quite a number of Merchants and thus
directly involved in this revolutionary activities, the 1911 Revolution, particularly in
Shanghai and Jiangsu and Zhejiang made great victory of Revolution contribution.
Ningbo businessmen to participate in and support the 1911 Revolution is divided into
two stages. That is, before the support of the Wuchang Uprising Sun, ho and other
revolutionaries in the anti-revolutionary activities and armed uprising; Wuchang
Uprising, is to help the revolutionaries to seize and consolidate power. Support with
more dominated by economic, political and military auxiliary.
Zhao Fan in the shipping industry, Ningbo Zhao Yi brother is representative of small
businessmen, who participate directly in from the beginning of this revolution to show
the greatest revolutionary. To promote the revolution launched in 1910 by Fan and
Shen Zhao-yun, unadorned funding support has established in Shanghai, Yu You-jen,
"the people hail", "China Calls for News",
"Min Li Pao", advocating for the revolution. "Funds
established newspaper, before people said, calls to avoid the government was
imprison at least, is the founding of a democratic, people called on." [Note
9] in particular, in October 1910 established the "China Li Bao"
is the 1911 Revolution the revolutionaries in the country during the best-selling, most
influential newspaper. The newspaper is the base for the revolutionaries in Shanghai.
The newspaper published several days after the Wuchang Uprising Reuters,
Commentary, instigated the revolution, encouraging the public gas, sales surge to
promote the development of the revolutionary situation has played a very good
publicity. Since then, Zhao Fan Xu Yafu so they started to support "public
opinion newspaper." Zhao brothers had given up during business activities
and concentrate on the cause of revolution. July 1911, Zhao Fan Organization in
Shanghai to help ho League Central Association, Zhao Yi shortly under the auspices
of Alliance was established in Ningbo branch, Zhao president. In the same year on
November 5, Ningbo recovery, Zhao Yi was elected Speaker of the General Staff
Military Government of Ningbo, assuming the concubine of politics. Stability in the
near Ningbo, Zhao Hui Hu resigned Arts business. 1912 Sun Yat-sen in Nanjing
became provisional president, appointed as the National Mint director Zhao Fan, Sun
Yat-sen resigned soon, Zhao has resigned Fan Hu.
Zhu Bao 3, Yu Qing is consistent during the Shanghai Ningbo Xinhai Revolution
leader, also was on the beach in the spotlight. Beginning of the 20th century,
represented by their molecular While the upper Ningbo corrupt and incompetent Qing
government, dissatisfied with the act of national betrayal and humiliation, but still
sent to fantasy. To this end, in December 1906 when Zhang Jian, Tang Shou launched
in Shanghai, the establishment of such "pre Constitutionalism",
Zhu Bao 3, contact Yu Qing, ZHOU Jin Kei Biu, Su Bao-Sheng, Li Wei Zhuang join
as a member. However, with the Manchu government sham constitutionalism,
thoroughly exposed the true face of tyranny and the impact of the revolutionaries, and
they gradually come to realize that, on the Revolutionary Party expressed sympathy
and support. As Mr. Ding Richu analysis "with the Qing
government's stubborn rotten and external yield further exposure, the
people against the struggle of the increasingly high, the Shanghai top capitalists in
some of the people on the Government's fantasy final burst, and the final
choice of the revolutionary road, took part in the Alliance. "[Note 10] In
response, Yu Qing contact readme" Since by the Industrial Association
(June 1910 opening of the Nanjing Drum Tower - I), the ... ... He has things heart
revolutionary. " [Note 11]
First initiated by the danger of contact Emily founded the Shanghai Chamber of
Commerce in Shanghai commercial control an armed forces. Early in 1911 under the
League's instructions, Shen unadorned cloud, Ye Huijun, and others will be
organized into groups Shanghai anti-business forces. No doubt this has been
consistent Yu Ching's approval. In the same year in April, in the Yu Clan
support, the National Federation of Business Group in Shanghai, Yu appointed
Honorary President. Subsequently, the Shanghai commercial stepped up military
training, has developed into a fighting military organization, to recover after the Battle
of Shanghai has played a important role. At that time, they bang capture Shanghai
Road, County Office, followed by the capture of the people not the military Jiugong
grams of Jiangnan Manufacturing Bureau.
During the Qing Yu contact with the Shanghai Revolutionary leaders are closely ho.
Yu repeatedly financed the ho, and its fund-raising purchase of firearms for use in the
uprising. Activities to cover the revolutionaries, the eve of Revolution, Yu and Zhu
Bao Third International Settlement in Shanghai, Ningbo, entering into the
organization "rather Commerce Association." The British
Government to the Hong Kong registered Municipal Council held its first Association
of license, the so-called special note. With this defense, the International Settlement in
police stations can not just enter a search. Ning Business Association 1:00 into the
activities cover important place for the revolutionaries.
October 10, 1911 Wuchang uprising news, volatility of the Shanghai area, and many
banks, the banks closed, serious impact on the business operators and public life. To
stabilize the financial, maintaining public order, ho on the business in danger of
contact Emily, who received strong support. Yu Qing side contact sent by letter, sent
to industrial and commercial sectors, and in the form of news in the newspaper in
order to bridge unnecessary panic. Yun Shen unadorned side, Wang Yiting other
alliance members separately to the industry to publicize, explain, full maintenance
market, the market finally stabilized, people also tend to stability.
Wuchang from the post, Shanghai revolutionaries scheduled on November 5 in
Shanghai uprising. But on November 2, Yu Qing contact the company suddenly
Ningshao Hankou branch of telecommunications sent five warships in the Qing
learned from driving under Hankow, and will soon be arrived at Shanghai Wusong,
Jiangnan Manufacturing Bureau to prepare a large number of shipping arms and
ammunition to aid to the Hanyang attack the Qing. This information immediately
inform ho Yu, Chen feels that if these ships were used against the insurgency in
Shanghai will exert a significant obstacle to the uprising. At the same time, part-time
at Shanghai Road Department Chief accountant also ZhuBaosan business delegation
to the headquarters (in this Hong Kong "Movie King" Run Run
Shaw established by the father of Shao Yuxuan "Kam Tai Cheong pigment
No.") provides the Governor on the suppression of the revolution of two
river partisan of the secret order: "Shanghai revolutionary things, the
business group to make rebellion, has been ordered Nanjing, Songjiang into the two
soldiers, regardless of the revolutionary party, business groups, who captured all the
right law." [Note 12] the situation at stake, the revolutionaries decided to
Shanghai before the arrival of reinforcements in the Qing, early in the uprising on
November 3. Uprising victory on November 6 after the establishment of Shanghai
Military, Yu Qing chief adviser contact, and then served as chief of Zhabei District.
Shanghai recovery after the financial problem is the greatest revolutionaries One of
the difficulties, this time in Shanghai and Ningbo merchants doing my part, have
given support. Businessmen from Ningbo Siming Shen unadorned cloud bank, Zhou
Shunqing operation fidelity bank are actively funding for the rebels, especially the
first two days of pay of the intifada more than the two lines of output. "Min
Li Pao" set "Shanghai ... ... recovery before and after the Sept.
13, the 14th issued by the military ring, half by the two lines of the output"]
Yu contact Emily with Yuan Heng of Hu Send Mei initiated the establishment section
of charge to help rates will , called on business people fully support the revolution,
said: "Two months, Wuhan corner, at loggerheads, military rates items,
extremely Pocu, particularly precarious trend. this is not for the assistance, if the
overall collapse of the overwhelm of regret. "[Note 13] At that time each
will participate in the national self-help industry, such as flour, business director of
director Li Yun books, money, business director Zhu fifth floor window of coal value
for both the directors personally thank staff as a Way of Shanghai Chamber of
Commerce has also worked for the military government mat silver 1,800,000 2, in
which 1.2 million two-line Hangzhou and Yangzhou salaries for full Ning. According
to rough statistics, such by the Shanghai Chamber of Commerce came forward for the
revolutionary army to raise business funds a total of 300 million to be huge. [Note 14]
then contact the Qing Yu Bao Zhu also and three foreign banks in Shanghai Wang
Yiting so to, businesses to borrow large sums of money, aid to the quartermaster. Four
of them were handled in Yu Ming Bank 40 000 2, 160 000 2 Ningshao company, the
Netherlands is OK 10 000 2, have handled ZhuBaosan Mitsui Matheson 350 000 2,
Xiang Zhuang tebou two other firms more than 30,000, in addition to their organized
business, arts community "to help sell property rates," Charity
bazaar and other activities.
December 1911, invited to be ZhuBaosan Shanghai Military finance minister, Jin
Zhou, Ningbo merchants darts, Fu Xiao Um, third-class money up to advisers to
"raise Masonic Association." Chu soon as Sun Yat-sen launched
by the president of the Bank of China set up for the new government funding in
support of the Northern Expedition, etc., rushing contact politicians or pains.
Shanghai uprising, Suzhou all heard the news have asked Jiangsu governor Cheng
Tak-chuen, declared independence, and through the speculative process Tak-chuen,
see "military state of affairs, is no longer a" ready to make
alternative plans, but still the lack of their pay as a pretext for blackmail. Shanghai
revolutionaries, after consultation, decided to contact the Qing Yu 1 million to raise
money for two two-way De Fu Suzhou persuade all. Forced by the revolutionary
situation in Germany received huge sums of money all the way after the
announcement of Jiangsu independence. At that time, still according to risk
recalcitrant Nanjing Qing became revolutionaries - block heart disease. Yu Qing
contact with the two rivers by the Governor Zhang Renjun Southern Seas will be held
together, then volunteered to go to Nanjing to lobby, but it was South Admiral Zhang
Xun, "refused." Ho see capitulate and fail, power to fight the
coalition forces are organized in Nanjing in Jiangsu and Zhejiang. Back in Shanghai
Qing Yu consistent side to "advance" the coalition needs 100
thousand yuan to exile on the one hand and the Ping books, Chu-pao published a joint
notice of third-14, Way give a bonus army supplies. Yu will then procured a large
number of reward items, together with arms and ammunition, hand guard, that night
sent to Nanjing front, the front strongly encouraged soldiers. Zhejiang coalition forces
after bloody battles, finally captured Nanjing on December 2, which at that time
greatly enhanced the north-south confrontation in the South of chips for the revolution
laid the foundation for the stability of the situation.
Zhenhai Jiu Shu Fang and Li Xiaogang, Ningbo is the most economic power to help
the family consortium. During the Revolution, these two family members are
involved in the revolution. Shanghai from the prior, Fang Qiao Ling Qing by Yu
introduced to ho after contact, that is the attitude expressed support for the
revolutionaries, not only from the lost large sums of money, but also initiated a
"revolution in their pay recruitment team", with nephew parties
separately to the shops Fu Jia Jiao Bo Way China military funding, a proven track
record. 1912 Nanjing Provisional Government set up, in order to get rid of financial
difficulties, has issued bonds, Fang Yu Qiao Ling and Ching are huge subscription
contact, to show their support.
Li Yun Li Xiaogang book three brothers, Wei Li Zhuang, Li Zheng Shanghai Five is
the man of the Revolution. Before they joined the Alliance in the Xinhai. [Note 15]
Battle of Shanghai recovery began, Li Zheng Shanghai Five organizations have been
recruiting military Recovery Army, to serve as guide. "Since the recovery
of thousands of the Army, stationed in Zhabei that the assistance." [16] and
in the Jiangnan Manufacturing Bureau to attack the battle to show excellent command.
He then initiated a military co-China and China's economy will, to raise
rates as a unified body, "the budget funding for the Northern Expedition, in
order to prepare munitions, and military support group for people" [Note
17]. Li Yun, however, is served as director of Jiangsu and Zhejiang forces Chief
General station, to protect the front of the military supply commitment and dedication.
During the five-Li Zheng Qing contact with Yu, Jin Zhou darts, a prominent figure
Ningbo Zhu Bao and Li Ping, the third class books, jade and other business
organizations for a kiosk, "salute the military and naval people,"
in order to participate in the Northern Expedition of the soldiers cheer.
Of course, Ningbo is a soil that contains all classes of people, including regional
entrepreneurs, for their own interests, they are led by Sun Yat-sen and the
Revolution's attitude can not be exactly the same, at different times, Even
if the same group on the attitude of this revolution will change, such as Shanghai 1911
Revolution who have run the risk of positive contact Emily, when the President of the
Republic of China Sun Yat-sen Yuan replace, the Yuan had high hopes. To do this he
was opposed to "Second Revolution" best to obstruct the
Nationalists Movement Zhejiang independence plan, urged the Governor Zhu Rui Zhe
neutral. But when the public became the emperor after the Yuan, Yu Yuan is contact
Emily has joined the ranks of Sun Yat-sen and then he has always supported the
revolutionaries. Tendency from the mainstream point of view, small businessmen
from Ningbo to business tycoons, from the family to travel outside the Chamber of
Commerce Foundation Sun Yat-sen's 1911 Revolution and its leadership
more sympathetic and supportive attitude, and some turn to participate in this
revolutionary movement, the Xinhai revolution has made an important contribution.
(Note: Associate Professor, University of Ningbo Shan-roots, this central authority
transferred from the Cultural Revolution website)

				
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