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					Smart Card
1. What is a Smart Card?

Smart card (Smart Card): embedded microchips plastic card (usually a credit card size)
of the known. Some smart cards contain a RFID chip, so they do not need physical
contact with any reader can identify the cardholder.

Smart cards are equipped with CPU and RAM, could handle a large number of data to
the host CPU does not interfere with the work. Smart cards can also filter the wrong
data, in order to reduce the burden on the host CPU. Adapted to the number of port
and communication speed needs more places faster.

Smart card, IC card (IC card) of a, according to the different types of embedded chips,
IC card can be divided into three categories: 1. Memory card: The card IC are
available electricity erasable programmable read-only memory EEPROM, it is only a
data storage function, no data processing capabilities; memory card itself has no
hardware encryption, file encryption only, it is easy to crack.

2. Logic encryption card: The card includes encryption logic integrated circuits and
programmable read only memory EEPROM, encryption logic circuits can be
protected to some extent, cards and card data security, but only low-level protection
can not prevent malicious attacks .

3. Smart card (CPU card): IC card, including central processing unit CPU,
programmable read only memory EEPROM, random access memory RAM and
curing in the read-only memory ROM in the card operating system COS (Chip
Operating System). Card data reading into the external and internal processing part, to
ensure that the card data safe and secure.

2, IC card related specifications

IC card is a very standardized product, regardless of their shape, or electrical
characteristics of the internal chips, and even their application methods are subject to
the control of some of the more stringent protocol. The most important set of the most
basic norms ISO / IEC 7816 protocol. This agreement not only provides mechanical
and electrical characteristics of IC cards, but also provides IC card (smart card in
particular) the application of methods (including data structures, many of COS).

In addition to 7816 agreement, the possible applications of IC cards in various
specific areas and some more specific agreements, such as in China, PBOC
specification developed financial sector, traffic management system, social welfare
system has its specific norms. These agreements are established norms based on
agreement in 7816, and the 7816 agreement will be specific formation.
Of course, the 7816 agreement was not an independent existence (as defined), which
there are many other concepts drawn from the relevant protocol specification. For
example, in 7816 agreement, the organization has some data using
"BER-TLV", and the "BER-TLV" a
detailed statement of this concept is in the IEC 8825 ASN.1 protocol given. This
shows that the agreement is not completely Exotic 7816, to adopt the concept of
norms is not an occasion given a free hand. This makes all kinds of agreements to
form a tight system specifications.

3. Smart card operating system is what?

Smart card operating system often referred to as chip operating system COS. COS
generally have their own security system, its safety performance is usually measured
COS important technical indicators. COS features include: transport management,
document management, security system, the command interpreter.

4. Smart cards used for?

From the functional point of view, the use of smart cards can be grouped into the
following four points:

1 identification

2, payment

3, encryption / decryption

4, information

History of the development of smart cards

IC card is an integrated circuit card (Integrated CircuitCard) the title, and in some
countries also known as smart cards, smart cards, micro-chip cards. Will be a
dedicated integrated circuit chip embedded in line with ISO7816 standard PVC (or
ABS, etc.) plastic base film, packaged into shape and form of magnetic cards similar
to that produced an IC card. Of course, can also be packaged as buttons, keys, jewelry,
and other special shapes.

IC card originally conceived by the Japanese initiative. December 1969, Japan has the
village Kunitaka (KunitakaArimura) A secure and reliable credit card manufacturing
method, and patented in 1970, then called the ID card (IdentificationCard). In 1974,
France's Roland Moreno (RolandMoreno) invented the integrated circuit
chip with a plastic card, and made the franchise, this is the early stage of IC cards.
1976, Le Bourget, France (Bull) company has developed an IC card in the world. In
1984, the French PTT (Posts, Telegraphs andTelephones) the IC card for the phone
cards, IC card as a good safety and reliability, was an unexpected success.
Subsequently, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO, International
StandardizationOrganization) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC,
International ElectrotechnicalCommission) whom the Joint Technical Committee
developed a series of international standards, norms, greatly promoted the research
and development of IC cards.

IC card identification cards than in the past, has the following characteristics: First,
high reliability ─ ─ IC card has a magnetically shielded, anti-static, anti-corruption
and anti-chemical mechanical destruction, information can be stored for more than
100 years, the number of read and write in 10 million or more, at least 10 years are
available; Second, security is good; Third, large storage capacity; Fourth, many types.
From a global perspective, the IC card application is now no longer confined to the
early communication 领域 but rather rich financial and monetary, social security,
transport travel, healthcare, government administration, Shangpin retail, leisure
entertainment, Xuejiaoguanli and other areas.

Currently in China, with the Gold Card Project continues to deepen, IC cards have
been widely applied in many fields, and obtained a preliminary social and economic
benefits. In 2000, IC card issue is about 230 million, which accounted for most of the
telecommunications market. Payphone IC Card more than 120 million pieces of
mobile phone SIM card more than 42 million, other types of IC cards is about 60
million. IC card shipments in 2001 total approximately 380 million, up 26% over the
previous year; issue about 320 million, up 40% over the previous year. From the
applications point of view, public phone IC card issuing more than 170 million, SIM
card issuing 55 million, public transportation IC card is 3.2 million, Social Security
card for the 14 million area, and other card issuers to 80 million.

Although the IC card issuance to maintain a high growth rate, but the market sales in
the IT market share was small. According to CCID statistics, China's
computer market in 2001 sales of approximately 250.2 billion yuan, while the IC card
market sales of less than 2.1 billion. China IC card market has not constitute IT
industry bright spot, pulling effect on the IT market is not obvious. The side
constraints on the IC card technology enterprise IT investment, on the other hand, it
indicates that China's IC card market, a huge space for development. With
the support of government administration and greater efforts devoted to upgrading the
level of R & D, IC card market competition would be profound changes. As
the high-end chip, the core module, financial POS machines, production equipment is
the hands of foreign companies, resulting in a number of foreign brands on the market
segments relative monopoly. Government smart card projects with the launch of the
mobile communications market will gradually open up the domestic strength of
enterprise technology and process optimization, making the market share of foreign
brands by a large degree of restriction, while domestic brands will be rapid
development. Some grew up from the domestic telecommunications market IC card
business, relying on a solid financial and technical strength will ID cards, finance,
social security, transportation and other areas continue to expand their business,
directly involved in international competition.

2002 and for the next 5 years, China's IC card application development
period in depth. China's IC card market structure will definitely order from
disorder to competition in the market will go from the finite infinite, IC card market
will gradually mature into the marginal profit. In this situation, a simple card volume
and the number of new products do not measure the IC card industry and market
development, market development ultimately depends on the level of IC card
applications and the resulting social benefits. From the perspective of sustainable
development, strengthen industry standards and promote IC card companies shifted
from the product and technology applications and service, will be the development of
China's IC card market, an important trend.

In 1970, the French 罗兰德莫瑞 Snow (Roland Moreno) the first time can be
programmed to set the IC (IntegratedCircuit) chips placed in the card so that card with
more features. At that time, his description of the technology: there can be
self-protection embedded memory card. This one was born the world's first
IC card.

Over the next three decades, with the ultra-large scale integrated circuit technology,
computer technology and information security technology development, IC card types
richer, more mature technology, have been widely used at home and abroad. The
following from a different perspective on the IC card and a simple analysis of the
detailed classification.

1, according to the different chips embedded into:

(1) memory card: card chip electrically erasable programmable read only memory
EEPROM (Electrically Erasable ProgrammableRead-onlyMemory), and address
decoding circuitry and instruction decoder. In order to be able to package it in the
0.76mm plastic card is based, the special structure made of 0.3mm thin. Memory card
is a passive-type card, usually synchronous communication. This card storage
convenience, use simple, inexpensive alternative to magnetic cards on many
occasions. But this kind of IC card is not equipped with security functions, which are
generally used for storage of confidential information not required. For example, use
the emergency medical card, catering to customers with the menu card. Common
memory card with ATMEL Corporation AT24C16, AT24C64, etc..

(2) logical encryption card: type of card has a memory card in addition to the
EEPROM, but also with the encryption logic, each read / write cards to password
authentication before the first. If the successive password validation error, the card
will be self-locking, a dead card. From the data management, password verification
and identification in terms of logic encryption card is also a passive card, using
synchronization to communicate. Storage capacity of such cards is relatively small,
relatively cheap, and confidentiality requirements applicable to certain occasions,
such as canteen cards, phone cards, public utility charges card. Common logic
encryption card with SIEMENS company SLE4442, SLE4428, ATMEL Corporation
AT88SC1608 so.

(3) CPU card: type of microprocessor chip contains unit (CPU), memory unit (RAM,
ROM, EEPROM), and input / output interface unit. Which, RAM for storing
intermediate data during operation, ROM in curing a chip operating system COS
(Card OperatingSystem), and EEPROM for storing the cardholder's
personal information and information about the issue of Units. CPU management
information encryption / decryption and transmission, and strictly guard against
unauthorized access card information, found a number of illegal access, to lock the
corresponding information area (high-level commands can also be used to unlock).
CPU card capacity are of different sizes, the price is higher than the logic encryption
card. However, a good CPU card processing capabilities and excellent performance of
confidentiality, making it the main direction of development of IC cards. CPU card
for the confidentiality requirements of the particularly high occasions, such as
financial cards, the military secretly ordered the transfer card. Comparison of the
international famous CPU card providers have Gemplus, G & D,
Schlumberger, etc..

(4) Super Smart Card: the CPU card based on the increase of the keyboard, LCD
monitor, power supply, that is to become a super smart card, some cards also have a
fingerprint identification device. VISA international credit card organizations that test
with a super card of 20 healthy, can display 16 characters, except for timing, the
computer exchange rate conversion functions, but also store personal information,
medical, travel data, and phone number.

Second, according to card data exchange with the outside world is divided into
different interfaces:

(1) Contact IC card: type of card reader device through the contact IC card and
contactless IC card read and write data after exposure. ISO7816 international standard
mechanical properties of such cards, electrical properties and so the stringent

(2) non-contact IC card: type of card and IC card systems can not touch the circuit,
but through non-contact reading and writing literacy technology (such as optical or
wireless technology). In addition to its embedded chip, CPU, logic cells, memory
cells, the increase of RF transceiver circuits. ISO10536 series of international
standards set for non-contact IC card requirements. Generally used in the use of such
cards frequently, relatively small amount of information, requires high reliability.

(3) Dual Interface cards: the contactless IC card and contactless IC card to a card
combination, the operating independently, but can share the CPU and storage space.

Third, according to card exchange with the outside world is different when the data
transmission is divided into:

(1) Serial IC card: IC card data exchange with the outside world, the data stream input
and output according to the serial mode, the electrode contact less, usually 6 or 8. As
the serial IC card interface is simple, easy to use, the largest currently in use. Defined
by international standard ISO7816 IC card is such a card.

(2) parallel IC card: IC card for data exchange with the outside world in parallel
manner, there is more electrode contacts, usually between 28-68. Has two main
advantages, first, speed of data exchange, and second, under existing conditions can
significantly increase storage capacity.

4, according to the card can be divided into different application areas:

(1) debit card: also known as bank cards, they can be divided into two kinds of credit
cards and cash cards. The former is for consumer payments, according to pre-set
amount of overdraft funds; which can be used as electronic wallets or electronic
deposit, but not overdrawn.

(2) non-financial card: also known as non-bank cards, involving a wide range of
practical includes all areas outside of financial cards, such as telecommunications,
tourism, education and public transportation and so on.

(3) traffic card: wide range of applications