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   ?Response to the crisis, we should sit down and meet friends of experts. Because I
had the honor before the summer recess to find Xiao teacher, then, under his
leadership, in the absence of an article published in the premise, actually shamelessly
too rushed to listen to the international seminar, Zhejiang Hotels. At the meeting, with
Japanese experts to speak, I can not understand. Fills the feeling, if not made on the
future of academic achievement to, presumably this is my first and last time in this
international conference on the. Often have such thoughts. Ha ha. Laughter is the best
dinner. In fact, our school never even expect people to call, did not arrange our dinner,
this situation how a 囧 Zile ah? Fortunately, to a large dial, with 囧 slightly. Meisha
things to do, in fact, go Pianchipianhe, play drops. Absurdly over, and do not care.
Time to smell the fragrance, and came back and watched the International Fireworks
Festival. Actually, that fireworks festival 10 years ago I do not want to participate to
participate in, and then all of the good impression, it now appears, but is a countryman
watch the fun Bale. Although I followed the death of a former love who see the
fireworks together, still did not produce Sha liked fireworks. Want me to describe the
beauty of fireworks, really odd extremely difficult. Because next to the other girls also
standing, listening to their screams, cries, praise, I would go along with several more.
Say, the United States, really not really, ah not something innovative. Do in the school
bus, I bored, ask Xu Chen to a headset to listen to, but suspect that too close to the
horse. After all, I am now a married woman, I have to weight it. I sing little song
chanting, though ugly, they do their own entertainment. After all, braved a hair back
of the head is sick and unable to sleep a emphatically.
This is my strategic management of operations, sent to the blog where the reason is
because I personally feel that inside most of the fruits of labor of my own, not
someone else drops the results. At the same time, express themselves on the group
who were not shit the guy standing latrines grievances. Some people are really
shameless, ah, actually can be life and death matter others, throwing the responsibility
easily give you, eat you certainly can not let go. Drop these so-called friends, I ah
never never believed to play with you slightly. I, although certain of them liked, but
not a sucker to what for you, I do everything without complaint. My aim is to see the
two of you have several kilograms of a few. Like, you useless but also a scholar, I am
not good with your attack, if you want to stick the next over, you cut off as early as
possible the idea of it. I'm sick of you.
These are today the three topics to discuss:
1. IBM's strength and weaknesses of that? Company the competitive
environment, opportunities and challenges?
2.IBM from other manufacturers to purchase tablet computers and software instead of
its own production of the significance of strategic decisions expression?
3. In order to reverse the status of IBM in 1993, what strategy would you? When
finished choose, you can take a look at IBM actually taken action. Reduce operating
costs the company to reduce operating costs, the company cut operating costs, the
IBM has always been a leader in the computer market. But the Giants in the early 90s
was the worst disaster in its history. So why the IBM experience, and what it means
by itself save the day for? We briefly look at IBM70 the late 90's early
The late 70s, IBM's business focus in the production and sales of large
computers. It is 60% of the profits from this business. IBM mainframe for its
excellent quality, rich functionality and good service is famous. IBM was the leader in
the computer market, its market share of nearly 60%.
In 1981, IBM introduced the world's first personal computer. IBM has been
that the personal computer market is very small, and a machine function can not be
compared with the supercomputer. That is why the late 70s into the personal computer
field, again in 1981, the rush to launch its own personal computer? The original, back
in 1976, Apple introduced the first micro-computer. Taking into account the
replacement cost of a great computer, IBM personal computer market was worried
that Apple's grab. So because of competitive pressures, IBM to launch in a
short time beyond the personal computer of Apple microcomputers. Within the last
year, IBM created the world's first personal computer.
In such a short period of time Zaochu personal computers, of course with the
advantages of IBM's own property is closely related to people, but
there's a more important factor is absolutely not Pi ignored. During this
period, IBM has made a sufficient rewrite the history of the entire personal computer
industry strategic decision, that is, IBM does not manufacture its own chips and
software, but these two Yewu outsourcing Ji Intel and Microsoft. In doing so, IBM,
the benefits are obvious. IBM needs in the shortest possible time to release a personal
computer, but it did not own the semiconductor chips and software. If their own
development, it may delay the launch of IBM personal computer time, and may even
allow Apple to seize the personal computer market. To outsourcing to save a lot of
Intel and Microsoft for its research and development costs, but also for the speedy
availability of personal computers, before the rush to seize the Apple personal
computer market with a guarantee. At this point, IBM's mainframe and
personal computers are firmly occupy the status of the industry boss.
However, we should see, IBM This practice is more important. IBM use Intel chips
and Microsoft's operating system, two requirements of the global personal
computer to formulate common industry standards, enabling rapid development of the
industry 80 years the 20th century, the dominant industry, and create a Compaq
Dengyidapi       IBM      Personal     Computer      "compatible"
manufacturers. Personal computer industry was born. To this day, "IBM
compatible personal computers and" is always synonymous with
industry-standard personal computer.
Here I will answer our second question to be discussed.
IBM strong, strong men, and however, it is too proud, it has been committed since the
early '80s with a series of stupid but very fatal mistake. All these eventually
led to its disaster in the early 90s.
As already said, IBM compatible personal computer to establish a global standard, but
it did not take effective measures to prevent other computer manufacturers to use its
production standards, it is also no limit to Intel and Microsoft to other companies to
supply products, which makes those "pirates" can be open and
aboveboard with IBM to produce products as good as the quality of the computer, and
the advantages of cheap labor by "pirates" of a machine the
price is even cheaper than the IBM. Personal computer industry is the largest
development, while IBM, a machine the company is devastated.
Some people may say, IBM to patent protection if the measures will not end up in this
situation. In fact, IBM lost the PC market is inevitable. The face of external
technological innovation, IBM failed to make the right judgments. It has always
believed that a machine will never replace the mainframe, its main business is the
Then, the great development of computer technology, making further improve the
performance of personal computers, more affordable, personal computer soon replace
the mainframe. IBM personally cultivate a large number of competitors erode their
own personal computer market, also watched the mainframe market was built on his
own and replaced by the personal computer market. IBM lost its main source of profit.
When it woke up, it come the development of new personal computers, develop their
own operating software and chips to escape the control of Microsoft and Intel found
that longer work. It is no longer the leader in personal computer market, and its
production of a computer each to Intel and Microsoft also have to pay royalties. Step
wrong, the wrong step. This is used to describe the IBM case was very appropriate.
Thus, in the early 90s, IBM inevitably into the profits of a disaster.
IBM how to get rid of the crisis, has become a topic we have to focus on. We first on
IBM in the early 90s a SWOT analysis of the situation, the way to answer look at the
first question.
IBM still has a computer company was the most important person in need of
resources property;
Have completely independent and able to respond in accordance with national market
conditions and a range of products subsidiary;
IBM93-year sales of the world's first software;
IBM was the development of seven strategic with many advantages:
1. Dominant market share;
2. Excellent staff policy;
3. Reliable products;
4. Close contact with the national government;
5. Local and national responsible social policies;
6. A good financial position;
7. All over the world of modern plant.
But the strategy it set a very fatal weakness - all strategies have nothing to do with
Meanwhile, IBM has long had many problems.
1. IBM's size is too large and all over the world, divided into a series of
subsidiary companies. This leads to an important strategic decision made by head
office management and control is very limited, involving only the level of national
subsidiaries. Similarly, the subsidiary of all of the data reported to the Corporation at a
fairly lag, IBM could not adapt to rapidly changing market and technological changes
prevalent in the world;
2. IBM does not own the semiconductor chips and software, only to Intel and
Microsoft to buy;
3. IBM's mainframe gradually into the product life cycle, recession can no
longer provide it with profit;
4. IBM's personal computer market leadership position has been replaced
by other computer companies, and the market has been affected by the new access to
the computer manufacturer's partition;
5. Culture errors occurred, IBM has become synonymous with expensive and
Rapid changes in computer technology to IBM's development of new
Solve problems for customers to become the computer industry needs new markets;
Computer users on the computer software and services, increasing the degree of
In the personal computer industry, and other computer manufacturers and IBM
launched a fierce competition eroded IBM's market share;
Computer technology update too fast, to IBM's products and service
updates tremendous pressure;
In the software industry, Microsoft is rising, with IBM in software production and
sales in fierce competition
Later, Gerstner led IBM to take from the hardware manufacturer to service provider
changes the strategy:
1. A fundamental change - cultural change: to correct errors and cultural bias, of the
corporate culture reengineering, change the mood of arrogant enterprise, customer
service center to change the culture of performance.
2. To the customer, and continuous technological innovation;
3. Service innovations, differentiated services to the road;
4. Positive and downstream competitors and supply chain collaboration.
We       can      look      at     their      specific      strategies     and      tactics.
So far, whether in business conditions, or from the image of the outside world, IBM
had been successful transition from hardware manufacturer to "solve
problems for customers," information technology services company.
IBM's successful strategic transformation is not required to meet the
market's short-term expedient measure taken, but a business philosophy to
the company from a fundamental structural change to enable IBM to ease the
transition to anticipate and seize opportunities, and to enable it to withstand the
external market fluctuations and maintain the competitiveness of enterprises.

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