Recognizing Communication (b)
46, the double meaning of communication effects: ① it means to persuade with the
spread of behavior motivated by those who pass the psychological, attitudinal and
behavioral changes. ② It refers to communication activities, especially the press,
radio, television and other activities of the mass media and society by the mass on all
the implications and results of the general, whether these effects are intentional or
unintentional, direct or indirect, overt or latent.
47, communication effects of three levels:
① the role of external information in their perception of the memory system, causing
it to increase the amount of knowledge and knowledge of changes in the composition,
is the effect on the Cognitive Level;
② acting on their idea or value system and cause changes in mood or feelings, and
attitudes are psychological effects of the level;
③ these changes manifested by people&#39;s words and deeds, that the effect
level for action.
48, common sense theory, field theory, social science theory: McGuire believes that
mass communication on the effectiveness and impact, there are three main theories:
① General Theory: the public through daily contact and direct experience of using
the media to form some of the views and opinions. This &quot;theory&quot;
in the form of public opinion affect the activities of the media.
② field theory: people who work in the media within the view, including their
purpose and nature of the communication activities of understanding, information
selection and processing standards, technical regulations editing business,
professional ethics. This theory of direct control of the mass media dissemination of
information operations and daily activities.
③ Social Theory: from individuals, communities and the relations among the media
starting on media activities and the objective results of quantitative and qualitative
research system knowledge gained. It affects the public, media workers, the spread of
the legislative, judicial and administrative. Communication effects of social science
theory of the basic point is to play a powerful force in ensuring Dazhongchuanmei
while promoting social development, but also the implementation of social
counterweight to it as possible to prevent its possible negative effects.
49, Golding that the effects of mass communication is divided into four types (Figure):
British Golding of time and intent of the two elements are combined, the effects of
mass media and divided into four types:
① short-term expected results. Including &quot;personal response&quot;
and &quot;the media response and sensitization activities focused on&quot;
two. The former refers to specific information in the body caused by personal
knowledge, attitudes and actions change. The latter refers to one or more of the media
to achieve a specific objective to carry out the persuasive campaign.
② short-term non-expected results. A &quot;spontaneous reaction of
individuals&quot; and &quot;collection of spontaneous reaction&quot;
categories. The former refers to personal contact occurred after specific information,
and disseminator of intent not directly related to acts of imitation or learning these
behaviors may be beneficial to social or antisocial. The latter mainly refers to the
community in the same information many people under the influence of the stimulus
and the set of phenomena.
③ long-term expected results. Refers to a particular theme or a cause for long-term
dissemination of information generated, consistent with the intent of the cumulative
effect of communicators.
④ long-term non-expected results. Is the cause of the spread of daily, sustained
communication activities combined effect or objective results.
50, the mass media&#39;s social effects of three levels: ① Environmental
cognitive effect. ② the formation and maintenance of the value effect. ③
demonstration effect of social behavior
51, communication process: communication process is the message from the mass
media, through various intermediate links, and &quot;flow&quot; to the
social process of communication objects. Representative results are: Lazarsfeld and
others, &quot;the people&#39;s choice,&quot; Katz and others,
&quot;interpersonal influence,&quot; Rogers &quot;innovative and
popular&quot; and so on.
52, both political tendencies: people before the mass media have been in contact with
the political attitude. IPP index. Lazarsfeld and others: by the people will give a
decision or other political occasion, this decision does not depend on the prevailing
political propaganda and mass communication, but basically depends on the people
held there, and so far the political attitude.
53, selective exposure: the audience does not spread indiscriminately with any content,
emu prefer the &quot;Choice&quot; those who stand with their existing
attitude be the same or close contact with the contents; This selective contact to more
easily strengthen their attitude in the direction of the original work, not cause it to
54, opinion leaders: in people decision-making process, some personal influence on
55, 2 transmission: the impact of mass communication is not the direct
&quot;flow&quot; to the general audience, but through the opinion leaders
in the intermediate links, namely, &quot;mass media opinion leaders → →
56, persuasive effects research: the attitude of those who pass along by the
communicator to convince the changes in the direction of intent is a &quot;pure
57, &quot;the people&#39;s choice&quot;: Yes, Lazarsfeld, and others
in 1940 during the U.S. presidential election, campaigning around the mass
media&#39;s influence on the voters by an empirical investigation of the study.
The researchers analyzed the survey data, obtained a series of hypotheses. Which
reached the &quot;opinion leaders&quot; and &quot;two
communication theory&quot; theory: the impact of mass media is not the direct
&quot;flow&quot; to the general audience, but through the opinion leaders
in the intermediate links, namely, &quot;mass media opinion leaders →
General → the audience. &quot;
58, effect of source credibility. Disseminator of information content of the decision,
but the angle of propaganda or persuasion, different communicators,
people&#39;s acceptance of it is not the same. Disseminators of their own
people first based on the credibility of the information to judge the authenticity and
value. Credibility consists of two elements: First, the credibility of the communicator,
and second, professional authority. &quot;Credibility effect&quot; concept
note on the communicators to foster a good image for the audience&#39;s trust
is a prerequisite for improving the dissemination of results.
59, &quot;sleep effect.&quot; Persuaded by the credibility of the results is
not caused by static. Hovland, who found that, over time, high confidence in the
persuasive effect of source decay occur, the low credibility of the sources of
persuasion effect is on the rise. Source of low credibility of the message, source
credibility as a negative influence, the content itself can not be immediately
convincing to play, in a &quot;sleep&quot; state, over time, weaken the
credibility of the negative impact of or disappeared, the effect can be fully
demonstrated. This theoretical explanation: the credibility of sources of information
extremely important short-term effect of the impact of long-term effect, but ultimately
decisive is the content itself convincing.
60, &quot;prompted one side&quot; and &quot;prompt both
sides.&quot; Side tips are only tips to convince the object of his party had a
favorable opinion or to judge material. Tips are on both sides point of view prompted
one&#39;s own benefit or material, but also prompted the opposing party or
unfavorable view of the material. Side tips can be concentrated on one&#39;s
own point of view, simple and easy to understand, but it will convince the object of
psychological resistance. &quot;Prompted both sides&quot; giving a
&quot;fair&quot; feeling, but more difficult to understand, easy to create
publicity for the other results.
61, &quot;both sides of prompt&quot; and
&quot;immunity&quot; effect. Lamusiding that contains on the opposite
point of view as the &quot;Help&quot;, &quot;tips on both
sides,&quot; like, like vaccinia virus vaccination in advance, to make people in
the future when faced with opposing views editorial publicity strong resistance.
62, &quot;explicit findings&quot; and &quot;discouraging view on the
material being&quot;: to stay to make points clear and explicit conclusions, the
reader easy to understand, but easy to arouse the reader disgusted. No clear
conclusion, readers of a &quot;conclusion derived from his&quot; feeling.
This method tends to obscure the article subject, increasing the difficulty of
63, &quot;appeal to reason&quot; and &quot;resort to
feelings&quot;: persuasive communication to carry out activities in the occasion
of the way in which &quot;move&quot; the object is also an important