Rabbit coccidiosis prevention and control of drug selection and use of Published in the &quot;Chinese Journal of Rabbit Farming&quot; magazine article in 2003 4 Rabbit coccidiosis prevention and control of drug selection and use of Rabbit coccidiosis by Eimeria tenella parasites in a variety of epithelial cells of intestinal and liver caused by a protozoal. Disease is widely distributed, transmitted fast, high mortality, especially in immature rabbits 1-4 months old infection, high mortality rates of different species, age has a susceptibility of the rabbit. According to the site of parasitic coccidia, coccidiosis in rabbits can be divided into intestinal, liver and mixed, but in fact, a mixed infection. In the current rabbit industry, a minor disease that is most damaging rabbit coccidiosis. Currently, sold in the market of chemical synthesis and anticoccidial antibiotics have more than 20 kinds of drugs can be used as a rabbit has more than ten kinds, most of these drugs against coccidiosis control effect was significant, but there are not little different degrees of drug side effects separately in a clear, high cost, easy to produce drug resistance, inconvenient to use such defects must be under different circumstances 正确 the types of drugs. In contrast, in recent years listed Diclazuril and monensin with the two drugs are effective, inexpensive, easy to use, the basic advantages of non-toxic side effects, should be at this stage to prevent coccidiosis in rabbits the drug of choice. The following anticoccidial drugs on the rabbit with the features and advantages and disadvantages are to be outlined. Diclazuril (Diclazurril, Cinacox). Chemical name for chlorine hydrochloride mandelonitrile. API is yellowish brown to gray powder, insoluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol, and steady. Commercial product formulations have premixes and water agent. Brand name God the ball, net smash, Fu ball, insect magnitude. The drug is a new broad-spectrum anticoccidial drug, is currently the lowest concentration of a drug use anticoccidial drugs, the use concentration of 1mg/kg, or per ton of complete feed containing 1 gram of the original drug. This product is of high safety factor, addition of rabbit complete feed will not occur in the 5mg/kg the following side effects. Drug processing and storage conditions generally not easily break down with other growth-promoting agents and chemotherapeutic agents can be used. Diclazuril widely used in China have been three or four years time, has not yet found that resistance to coccidia produce. This product is on rabbit coccidiosis prevention and treatment are ideal. In the case of the scale of production per ton of complete feed Add Diclazuril cost 20 yuan, is now commercially available anticoccidial drugs in the lowest cost, most effective drugs. Efficacy of the product&#39;s shortcomings is shorter, withdrawal anticoccidial significantly decreased one day, disappeared two days later, it must be continuous medication to prevent recurrence of coccidiosis. Monensin (Monensinum), also known rumensin. The product polyether antibiotics, is a broad spectrum antibiotic anticoccidial drug representatives, are effective against a variety of rabbit coccidia, has been widely used all over the world, commercial monensin as monensin sodium. Monensin sodium salt as yellow powder, stable, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, unstable in acidic medium, is stable in alkaline medium. Commercial preparations of 20% monensin premix Monensin. Monensin in the rabbit in the dosage of complete feed 40mg/kg. At current prices, the full price of the goods in the rabbit feed to cost about 20-30 yuan per ton, higher than the Diclazuril. Anticoccidial use of this commodities cycle peak for the second phase, the trophozoite stage. The mechanism of anticoccidial is generally believed that the product is being developed with the coccidia of sodium and potassium ions form a complex, affecting sodium and potassium ion transport. This product is the same as other polyether antibiotics, high dose (120mg/kg) on host immunity to coccidia inhibited, so should a lower concentration or short-term dosing method. Use of monensin should be noted: ① rabbit slaughter should be discontinued 3 days prior to the listing; ② Ban and dimetridazole, tylosin, neomycin and used bamboo peach, or may be toxic; ③ when mixing feed ingredients to prevent and skin, eye contact; ④ anticoccidial efficacy of the product inferior to Diclazuril, such as the interval with Diclazuril can use to achieve the best results. Salinomycin (Salinomycinum). For the polyether antibiotic anticoccidial mechanism and its effect and monensin similar commercial for the salinomycin salinomycin sodium. Salinomycin sodium as a white or light yellow crystalline powder, stable, insoluble in water, soluble in ethanol, soluble in ether. Preparations for the salinomycin salinomycin premix (such as Yusuf fine), the specification of 5%, 10%, 50% and so are several. The full price of feed amount of addition of rabbit 50mg/kg. High concentrations of immunosuppressive 80mg/kg salinomycin and monensin the same intensity. Will lead to further increase the concentration of toxicity. Rabbit slaughter should be discontinued prior to listing on the 5th. Hydrochloride Robenidine (Robenidini Hydrochloridum), also known as Nit Lo benzene for chemical synthesis earlier anticoccidial drugs have been widely used in rabbit years of history. White or light yellow crystalline powder, slightly almond gas, bitter, almost insoluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol, the event has gradually become darker the color of light. Robenidine hydrochloride, 10% of premix formulations and tablets (each 10mg). Treatment of rabbit feed dosage of 300mg/kg, prevention capacity by half. 1-2 weeks of treatment, Lian Yong. Robenidine hydrochloride with broad-spectrum, high efficiency, low toxicity and good palatability. The drawback is: ① found in recent years the use of this product obviously coccidia resistance occurred; ② addition of larger, more costly than Diclazuril 3-5 times higher; ③ rabbit must be discontinued 7 days before slaughter . Therefore, in the present circumstances, not as a hydrochloride Robenidine rabbit coccidia have been the first choice for drug control, should not be long-term use. Clopidol (Clopidolum), also known as pyridine alcohol chlorine, chlorine pyridoxine, g ball more grams of ball powder. For the chemical synthesis of anticoccidial drugs, widely used in about ten years. White or almost white powder, odorless, insoluble in water, in most organic solvents are not easy to dissolve, chemical stability, and a variety of feed mixing, processing and storage without adverse reaction. The product of the product formulations of 25% premixes, such agents shall be lovely Denmark. Add the rabbit feed ratio of the product 200mg/kg, add the cost per ton of feed is about 30. Using the product should pay attention to: ① The product of the poor treatment of coccidiosis, only as a precautionary purposes, not for therapeutic use; ② rabbit 7 days before slaughter to stop drug use; ③ no coccidia of rabbits after using this product apparent immunity; ④ In the current circumstances, the rabbit coccidia has clopidol significant resistance to occur. Dinitramide care amine (Dinitolmidum, Zoalene), also known as nifedipine amide, trade names ball dysentery spirit. This product is light yellow powder, odorless, tasteless, stable, insoluble in water, soluble in ethanol. Preparations for the premix and tablets. For rabbit coccidiosis prevention and treatment. When added to prevent the concentration of feed 125mg/kg, the treatment capacity of 250-300mg/kg mixing, or orally 30-50mg/kg weight, 1 day, 3-5 days. Sulfonamides and antibacterial synergist. Sulfonamides chemical synthesis is the first generation of anticoccidial drugs, applied to rabbit coccidiosis such drugs sulfamethazine (Sulfadimidine, SM2), pyrazine sulfonamide chloride (Sulfachlorpyrazinum, Esb3), sulfamethoxazole ( Sulfamethoxazolum, SMZ), also known as the new Normington, sulfadoxine-quinoline evil forest (Sulfaquinoxalinum, SQ), 2 Trimethoprim (Diaveridinum, DVD), also known as the enemy net and other bacteria. Commonly used compound has cotrimoxazole, net and other bacteria enemy compound. These drugs as anticoccidial drug application for the premix, water, solvents, or tablets. Sulfa coccidiostat whether prevention or treatment have better results, but there are more disadvantages. ① not long-term use of these drugs, there would be obvious side effects; ② add capacity, generally a few thousandths of a few percent to the range, high cost, the cost per ton of feed to add about 100-200 yuan. Therefore, should the treatment of drug use, not for prevention. Also, to note that the use of these drugs with the same amount of sodium bicarbonate to and drinking more water, to facilitate the excretion of drug. Anticoccidial drugs in traditional Chinese medicines. Practice in many parts of China concluded a number of anticoccidial Traditional Chinese Medicines, most showed good control. Such as the four yellow powder (from Coptis, Phellodendron, Rhubarb, skullcap, licorice and other flavors composition), coccidia 9 mei san (from the cadaver, rhubarb, peach, earth element, Atractylodes, Guizhi, Poria, Alisma, Polyporus umbellatus, etc. 9 flavor composition) and other group parties. However, prevention of rabbit coccidiosis with traditional Chinese medicine under the current circumstances there are more disadvantages. ① the high cost of drugs, such as for the prevention of rabbit feed to cost more than 200 yuan per ton, very economic. ② use of these agents also by the rabbit who has bought the original drug self-prepared, very convenient. ③ toxicity of some anticoccidial medicine large enough security. Can not or should not be used for rabbit anti-coccidiosis medicines. Need to indicate clearly can not be used rabbit anti-coccidiosis medicines mainly Maduramicin and furazolidone, etc., not for rabbit anti-coccidiosis medicines mainly Hainanmycin and Amprolium so. 9-1 Maduramicin (Maduramicin), or call Maduramycin. This product is a single glycoside polyether antibiotics, usually its ammonium salt. Original drug to white or white crystalline powder, micro smell, insoluble in water, soluble in ethanol. Preparation of 1% Maduramicin ammonium salt, trade names are Elsie Ball, anti-world number one, anti-imperial and so on the ball. This product is currently used anti-chicken medicine ball, control effects are good, but the factor of safety. Provisions of the concentration of mixed feeding broiler 5mg/kg, mixed feed concentration 8mg/kg leads to significant toxicity. Add rabbit feed when the concentration of 5mg/kg Lianyong cause poisoning and death in two days. Since 1997, the first reported cases of poisoning in rabbits Maduramicin since such poisoning cases occur frequently, causing serious losses rabbit supplies. Maduramicin performance of rabbit poisoning mainly in skeletal muscle limp and visceral bleeding, severe limb paralysis, drooping and backward side of the head and neck, until the waste must also reduce appetite, the spirit of melancholy. With typical symptoms of poisoning to death over end. Therefore, Maduramicin absolutely can not be used rabbit coccidiosis. 9-2 furazolidone (Furazolidonum). Commonly known as Furazolidone, the chemical synthesis of furan antibiotics with broad-spectrum antibacterial and anticoccidial effect. The product is yellow powder or crystalline powder, almost insoluble in water. Goods are premixes and tablet formulations. Because of its residual effect of this product in 2002 by the National Department of Agriculture as a veterinary medicine banned. 9-3 Hainanmycin (Hainanmycin). China developed a new class of veterinary drugs, as polyether antibiotics, usually its sodium salt. White or almost white powder, odorless, insoluble in water. This product is currently used anticoccidial drugs in chickens, one has good anticoccidial effect. Preparation 1% Hainanmycin premixes, its brand name Chicken factors. There is no existing product can be used for rabbit Veterinary Pharmacopoeia note, there are no product can be used for rabbit information, and thus, not as a rabbit with adriamycin Hainan. 9-4 amprolium hydrochloride (Amprolini Hydrochloridum, Amprol). C-ethyl pyridine, also known as ammonia, Amber Music. White powder, with sour, odorless, soluble in water, soluble in ethanol, stable, appropriate and with other drugs, agents used as a premix and water. The mechanism is jamming tenella thiamine (vitamin B1) metabolism, which showed competitive antagonism of anticoccidial activity. Easy to use Amprolium the host, the lack of production of vitamin B1. Current Veterinary Pharmacopoeia no Amprolium description for rabbit, therefore, the product is not for the rabbit. ?
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