Rabbit coccidiosis prevention and control of drug selection and use of by fdjerue7eeu

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									Rabbit coccidiosis prevention and control of drug selection and use of
Published in the "Chinese Journal of Rabbit Farming" magazine
article in 2003 4
Rabbit coccidiosis prevention and control of drug selection and use of
Rabbit coccidiosis by Eimeria tenella parasites in a variety of epithelial cells of
intestinal and liver caused by a protozoal. Disease is widely distributed, transmitted
fast, high mortality, especially in immature rabbits 1-4 months old infection, high
mortality rates of different species, age has a susceptibility of the rabbit. According to
the site of parasitic coccidia, coccidiosis in rabbits can be divided into intestinal, liver
and mixed, but in fact, a mixed infection. In the current rabbit industry, a minor
disease that is most damaging rabbit coccidiosis.
Currently, sold in the market of chemical synthesis and anticoccidial antibiotics have
more than 20 kinds of drugs can be used as a rabbit has more than ten kinds, most of
these drugs against coccidiosis control effect was significant, but there are not little
different degrees of drug side effects separately in a clear, high cost, easy to produce
drug resistance, inconvenient to use such defects must be under different
circumstances 正确 the types of drugs. In contrast, in recent years listed Diclazuril
and monensin with the two drugs are effective, inexpensive, easy to use, the basic
advantages of non-toxic side effects, should be at this stage to prevent coccidiosis in
rabbits the drug of choice. The following anticoccidial drugs on the rabbit with the
features and advantages and disadvantages are to be outlined.
Diclazuril (Diclazurril, Cinacox). Chemical name for chlorine hydrochloride
mandelonitrile. API is yellowish brown to gray powder, insoluble in water, slightly
soluble in ethanol, and steady. Commercial product formulations have premixes and
water agent. Brand name God the ball, net smash, Fu ball, insect magnitude. The drug
is a new broad-spectrum anticoccidial drug, is currently the lowest concentration of a
drug use anticoccidial drugs, the use concentration of 1mg/kg, or per ton of complete
feed containing 1 gram of the original drug. This product is of high safety factor,
addition of rabbit complete feed will not occur in the 5mg/kg the following side
effects. Drug processing and storage conditions generally not easily break down with
other growth-promoting agents and chemotherapeutic agents can be used. Diclazuril
widely used in China have been three or four years time, has not yet found that
resistance to coccidia produce. This product is on rabbit coccidiosis prevention and
treatment are ideal. In the case of the scale of production per ton of complete feed
Add Diclazuril cost 20 yuan, is now commercially available anticoccidial drugs in the
lowest cost, most effective drugs. Efficacy of the product's shortcomings is
shorter, withdrawal anticoccidial significantly decreased one day, disappeared two
days later, it must be continuous medication to prevent recurrence of coccidiosis.
Monensin (Monensinum), also known rumensin. The product polyether antibiotics, is
a broad spectrum antibiotic anticoccidial drug representatives, are effective against a
variety of rabbit coccidia, has been widely used all over the world, commercial
monensin as monensin sodium. Monensin sodium salt as yellow powder, stable,
insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, unstable in acidic medium, is stable in alkaline
medium. Commercial preparations of 20% monensin premix Monensin. Monensin in
the rabbit in the dosage of complete feed 40mg/kg. At current prices, the full price of
the goods in the rabbit feed to cost about 20-30 yuan per ton, higher than the
Diclazuril. Anticoccidial use of this commodities cycle peak for the second phase, the
trophozoite stage. The mechanism of anticoccidial is generally believed that the
product is being developed with the coccidia of sodium and potassium ions form a
complex, affecting sodium and potassium ion transport. This product is the same as
other polyether antibiotics, high dose (120mg/kg) on host immunity to coccidia
inhibited, so should a lower concentration or short-term dosing method. Use of
monensin should be noted: ① rabbit slaughter should be discontinued 3 days prior to
the listing; ② Ban and dimetridazole, tylosin, neomycin and used bamboo peach, or
may be toxic; ③ when mixing feed ingredients to prevent and skin, eye contact; ④
anticoccidial efficacy of the product inferior to Diclazuril, such as the interval with
Diclazuril can use to achieve the best results.
Salinomycin (Salinomycinum). For the polyether antibiotic anticoccidial mechanism
and its effect and monensin similar commercial for the salinomycin salinomycin
sodium. Salinomycin sodium as a white or light yellow crystalline powder, stable,
insoluble in water, soluble in ethanol, soluble in ether. Preparations for the
salinomycin salinomycin premix (such as Yusuf fine), the specification of 5%, 10%,
50% and so are several. The full price of feed amount of addition of rabbit 50mg/kg.
High concentrations of immunosuppressive 80mg/kg salinomycin and monensin the
same intensity. Will lead to further increase the concentration of toxicity. Rabbit
slaughter should be discontinued prior to listing on the 5th.
Hydrochloride Robenidine (Robenidini Hydrochloridum), also known as Nit Lo
benzene for chemical synthesis earlier anticoccidial drugs have been widely used in
rabbit years of history. White or light yellow crystalline powder, slightly almond gas,
bitter, almost insoluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol, the event has gradually
become darker the color of light. Robenidine hydrochloride, 10% of premix
formulations and tablets (each 10mg). Treatment of rabbit feed dosage of 300mg/kg,
prevention capacity by half. 1-2 weeks of treatment, Lian Yong. Robenidine
hydrochloride with broad-spectrum, high efficiency, low toxicity and good palatability.
The drawback is: ① found in recent years the use of this product obviously coccidia
resistance occurred; ② addition of larger, more costly than Diclazuril 3-5 times
higher; ③ rabbit must be discontinued 7 days before slaughter . Therefore, in the
present circumstances, not as a hydrochloride Robenidine rabbit coccidia have been
the first choice for drug control, should not be long-term use.
Clopidol (Clopidolum), also known as pyridine alcohol chlorine, chlorine pyridoxine,
g ball more grams of ball powder. For the chemical synthesis of anticoccidial drugs,
widely used in about ten years. White or almost white powder, odorless, insoluble in
water, in most organic solvents are not easy to dissolve, chemical stability, and a
variety of feed mixing, processing and storage without adverse reaction. The product
of the product formulations of 25% premixes, such agents shall be lovely Denmark.
Add the rabbit feed ratio of the product 200mg/kg, add the cost per ton of feed is
about 30. Using the product should pay attention to: ① The product of the poor
treatment of coccidiosis, only as a precautionary purposes, not for therapeutic use; ②
rabbit 7 days before slaughter to stop drug use; ③ no coccidia of rabbits after using
this product apparent immunity; ④ In the current circumstances, the rabbit coccidia
has clopidol significant resistance to occur.
Dinitramide care amine (Dinitolmidum, Zoalene), also known as nifedipine amide,
trade names ball dysentery spirit. This product is light yellow powder, odorless,
tasteless, stable, insoluble in water, soluble in ethanol. Preparations for the premix and
tablets. For rabbit coccidiosis prevention and treatment. When added to prevent the
concentration of feed 125mg/kg, the treatment capacity of 250-300mg/kg mixing, or
orally 30-50mg/kg weight, 1 day, 3-5 days.
Sulfonamides and antibacterial synergist. Sulfonamides chemical synthesis is the first
generation of anticoccidial drugs, applied to rabbit coccidiosis such drugs
sulfamethazine        (Sulfadimidine,     SM2),      pyrazine    sulfonamide       chloride
(Sulfachlorpyrazinum, Esb3), sulfamethoxazole ( Sulfamethoxazolum, SMZ), also
known as the new Normington, sulfadoxine-quinoline evil forest (Sulfaquinoxalinum,
SQ), 2 Trimethoprim (Diaveridinum, DVD), also known as the enemy net and other
bacteria. Commonly used compound has cotrimoxazole, net and other bacteria enemy
compound. These drugs as anticoccidial drug application for the premix, water,
solvents, or tablets. Sulfa coccidiostat whether prevention or treatment have better
results, but there are more disadvantages. ① not long-term use of these drugs, there
would be obvious side effects; ② add capacity, generally a few thousandths of a few
percent to the range, high cost, the cost per ton of feed to add about 100-200 yuan.
Therefore, should the treatment of drug use, not for prevention. Also, to note that the
use of these drugs with the same amount of sodium bicarbonate to and drinking more
water, to facilitate the excretion of drug.
Anticoccidial drugs in traditional Chinese medicines. Practice in many parts of China
concluded a number of anticoccidial Traditional Chinese Medicines, most showed
good control. Such as the four yellow powder (from Coptis, Phellodendron, Rhubarb,
skullcap, licorice and other flavors composition), coccidia 9 mei san (from the
cadaver, rhubarb, peach, earth element, Atractylodes, Guizhi, Poria, Alisma,
Polyporus umbellatus, etc. 9 flavor composition) and other group parties. However,
prevention of rabbit coccidiosis with traditional Chinese medicine under the current
circumstances there are more disadvantages. ① the high cost of drugs, such as for
the prevention of rabbit feed to cost more than 200 yuan per ton, very economic. ②
use of these agents also by the rabbit who has bought the original drug self-prepared,
very convenient. ③ toxicity of some anticoccidial medicine large enough security.
Can not or should not be used for rabbit anti-coccidiosis medicines. Need to indicate
clearly can not be used rabbit anti-coccidiosis medicines mainly Maduramicin and
furazolidone, etc., not for rabbit anti-coccidiosis medicines mainly Hainanmycin and
Amprolium so.
9-1 Maduramicin (Maduramicin), or call Maduramycin. This product is a single
glycoside polyether antibiotics, usually its ammonium salt. Original drug to white or
white crystalline powder, micro smell, insoluble in water, soluble in ethanol.
Preparation of 1% Maduramicin ammonium salt, trade names are Elsie Ball,
anti-world number one, anti-imperial and so on the ball. This product is currently used
anti-chicken medicine ball, control effects are good, but the factor of safety.
Provisions of the concentration of mixed feeding broiler 5mg/kg, mixed feed
concentration 8mg/kg leads to significant toxicity. Add rabbit feed when the
concentration of 5mg/kg Lianyong cause poisoning and death in two days. Since 1997,
the first reported cases of poisoning in rabbits Maduramicin since such poisoning
cases occur frequently, causing serious losses rabbit supplies. Maduramicin
performance of rabbit poisoning mainly in skeletal muscle limp and visceral bleeding,
severe limb paralysis, drooping and backward side of the head and neck, until the
waste must also reduce appetite, the spirit of melancholy. With typical symptoms of
poisoning to death over end. Therefore, Maduramicin absolutely can not be used
rabbit coccidiosis.
9-2 furazolidone (Furazolidonum). Commonly known as Furazolidone, the chemical
synthesis of furan antibiotics with broad-spectrum antibacterial and anticoccidial
effect. The product is yellow powder or crystalline powder, almost insoluble in water.
Goods are premixes and tablet formulations. Because of its residual effect of this
product in 2002 by the National Department of Agriculture as a veterinary medicine
banned.
9-3 Hainanmycin (Hainanmycin). China developed a new class of veterinary drugs, as
polyether antibiotics, usually its sodium salt. White or almost white powder, odorless,
insoluble in water. This product is currently used anticoccidial drugs in chickens, one
has good anticoccidial effect. Preparation 1% Hainanmycin premixes, its brand name
Chicken factors. There is no existing product can be used for rabbit Veterinary
Pharmacopoeia note, there are no product can be used for rabbit information, and thus,
not as a rabbit with adriamycin Hainan.
9-4 amprolium hydrochloride (Amprolini Hydrochloridum, Amprol). C-ethyl pyridine,
also known as ammonia, Amber Music. White powder, with sour, odorless, soluble in
water, soluble in ethanol, stable, appropriate and with other drugs, agents used as a
premix and water. The mechanism is jamming tenella thiamine (vitamin B1)
metabolism, which showed competitive antagonism of anticoccidial activity. Easy to
use Amprolium the host, the lack of production of vitamin B1. Current Veterinary
Pharmacopoeia no Amprolium description for rabbit, therefore, the product is not for
the rabbit.
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