Road to Revolution - DOC

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					Road to Revolution

Influential Ideas

Republicanism
- a representative government modeled on Ancient Greece & Rome
- the stability & authority of government are based on the virtue of the citizens
     - selflessness, self-sufficiency, & courage

„Country‟ or „Radical‟ Whig Ideology in England and America
- opposed the power of the Monarchy and critical of:
   - corruption, patronage & bribes, among the King‟s ministers
   - the dangers of a standing army
   - the threat a powerful state posed to personal liberty

A New King
George III became King of England in 1760

Parson‟s Cause (1758-1763)
- British government interfered with Virginia‟s limitation of the pay for Anglican ministers
- Colonists, including Patrick Henry, were hostile to the minister‟s claims and British
interference

Writs of Assistance (beginning in 1761)
- general search warrants intended to cut down on smuggling
- enabled British authorities to search any colonist's business or home with no advance notice
  and no probable cause
- James Otis, a prominent Boston lawyer, argued against the writs in an unsuccessful court case

Aftermath of the French & Indian War
- Pontiac‟s Rebellion (1763-66)
- Proclamation Line of 1763
- Posting of 10,000 on the frontier
- Increased enforcement & collection of import duties by Prime Minister George Grenville
- England‟s national debt had double as a result of the War

Paxton Boys (1763-4)
- Pennsylvania frontiersman attacked and massacred peaceful local American Indians
- The colonial government did not support them and instead threatened prosecution
- In response the militia marched on Philadelphia but were met by British troops & militia
- The frontier militia was convinced to back down by Benjamin Franklin

Currency Act (1764)
- British government stopped the colonists from issuing local money, which had become the
basis of local trade
- It devastated the colonial economy that was already suffering recession and many colonists
went bankrupt
- Franklin saw this as one of the most important factors in encouraging the American
Revolutionary Movement
Sugar Act (1764)
- Reduced import taxes on foreign-made molasses, but strengthened enforcement of the law
  - tried smugglers before a Vice-Admiralty Court – a British judge, instead of a colonial jury
- first British tax on the colonies designed to raise revenue instead of regulate trade

Non-importation movement
- Many colonial merchants agreed to stop importing British goods in response to the Sugar Act

Quartering Act (1765)
- Required the colonists to provide housing, food and financial support to the 10,000 British
troops stationed in America

Stamp Act (1765)
- British imposed a tax on all colonial printed paper: including legal documents, newspapers and
pamphlets, even play cards and dice.
- This was the first direct tax on all the colonists
  (instead of an indirect import tax paid by merchants)
- Colonists argued it was “Taxation Without Representation”

Patrick Henry
- Virginia (Stamp Act) Resolves (1765)
- Henry persuades the House of Burgesses to pass resolutions denouncing the Stamp Act and
stating that the British Parliament could not directly tax the colonists because the colonists were
not represented there.

Samuel Adams
- Organized protests in Boston against the Stamp Act led by the
  Sons of Liberty
  - a group of patriots formed to oppose British actions
  - they intimidated tax agents and burned stamps

Stamp Act Congress (1765)
- representatives of nine colonies met in New York and passed resolutions including a
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
- this stated that the British Parliament could not directly tax the colonists because the colonists
were not represented there

Repeal of the Stamp Act/Declaratory Act (1766)
- The British repealed the Stamp Act because non-importation agreements hurt Britain‟s
economy and British merchants influenced the repeal of the act
- The Parliament then states that they still have the right to tax
  the colonists in the Declaratory Act

Townshend Acts (1767)
- import duties on several common items
- money raised to be used to pay royal governors
- suspended New York Assembly until they obeyed the Quartering Act
Liberty Affair (1767)
- Prosperous shipping magnate John Hancock‟s ship was
  stopped and boarded for suspicion of smuggling
- Hancock was arrested and put on trial
- He was acquitted, but people realized that no one was safe from British authorities

Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer (1767)
- John Dickinson‟s essays became a central set of positions for American colonists resisting the
new British policies of colonial taxation
- He specifically opposing taxation for revenue
- Dickinson favored reconciliation over independence

Boston Massacre (1770)
- A mob of angry colonists harassed British troops assigned to protect tax collectors in Boston
- The troops eventually fired into the crowd, killing five people including African-American
Crispus Attucks
- Sam Adams & the Sons of Liberty used the incident to build anti-British attitudes

New Prime Minister Lord North repealed the Townshend Acts in 1770, but retained a small tax
on tea (to maintain their authority)
- three largely peaceful years except for the March incident in Boston

Regulator Movement (1764-1771)
- In North Carolina colonists took up arms against unfair taxation by corrupt government
officials
- They demanded a more fair tax system and a more democratic government
- Defeated by the state militia in 1771

Gaspee Incident (1772)
- Colonists attacked the ship British Gaspee, an aggressive anti-smuggling ship, when it ran in
Rhode Island
- The ship was burned and the captain shot
- Britain threatened to try the men involved in England, but there was not enough evidence to
charge anyone
- The threat of a British trial stirred even greater anti-British feelings

Committees of Correspondence (1772-)
- The Gaspee incident contributed to the formation of groups who wrote letters to each other
telling about the actions of the British against the colonists (Sam Adams helped form these
groups)

Tea Act (1773)
- The British gave a monopoly on imported tea to the failing British East India Company,
including the collection of a tax
- Even though it made tea cheaper, if colonists bought the tea it was an admission they could be
taxed

Boston Tea Party (Dec. 1773)
- Throughout the colonies there were protests against the Tea Act
- In Boston the Sons of Liberty, led by Sam Adams, dressed as Mohawk Indians and dumped a
shipment of 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor in protest against the Act
Coercive Acts and Quebec Act (“Intolerable Acts”) 1774
- Britain‟s government responded to the „Tea Party‟ by punishing
  Boston, hoping to isolate them from the other colonies
  - Boston Port Act – closed Boston Harbor
  - Massachusetts Government Act – strengthened the royal governor
  - Administration of Justice Act – allowed trials of officials in Britain
    instead of the colonies
  - Quartering Act – expanded the quartering of troops in all colonies
- Quebec Act – extended Canada‟s boundary south to the Ohio River
   and established Catholicism as the official religion of Quebec

First Continental Congress
- Sept.-Oct. 1774 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- 55 Delegates from 12 colonies (all except Georgia)
  - Sam Adams, John Adams, Patrick Henry, George Washington
- Suffolk Resolves
- Declaration of Rights and Grievances
- Continental Association - a complete non-importation agreement against British goods
- Plan for Second Congress in May 1775

Patriots/Whigs and Loyalists/Tories
- Not all colonists favored resisting the British
- Approximately 1/3 were Patriots, favoring anti-British action
- Approximately 1/3 were Loyalists, favoring loyalty to Britain
- The other third were unsure

“Give me liberty or give me death” – Patrick Henry, March 1775
- Speaking in the Virginia House of Burgesses Henry predicted the conflict that was coming and
gave the reasons for it

Lexington & Concord (April, 1775)
- The British sent troops out from Boston to confiscate colonial weapons and arrest Sam Adams
& John Hancock
- Paul Revere and others rode out to warn the colonial „minutemen‟
- At Lexington British troops fired on colonial militia killing eight
 - Remembered as the “Shot heard „round the world”, because it
   began the American Revolutionary War
- The British troops marched to Concord & found nothing
- On the way back to Boston colonial minutemen attacked the British inflicting over 250
casualties & embarrassing the British