Pham Van Literature Review
Pham Van Literature Review
Summary of thesis writing methods References
Literature review it can be called a literature review, refers to the date, and a variety of
documents related to the field of systematic inspection and analysis to understand the
process of status in this field. Purpose is to understand the research topics in the field
of the position, and establish a starting point for this study.
As with a number of research-related literature are often very large, so the collection
and analysis of literature review articles are often looking for similar studies in the
authority, good article, looking forward the theory or practice of the article. Of course,
the data analysis for first-hand information as possible, especially in empirical
research (survey, interviews, reports, experimental studies) the findings, while others
can not be confined to research papers.
Write a literature review generally through the following stages, namely topic
selection, gathering to read literature, develop an outline (including induction,
consolidation, analysis) and written.
4. Content and methodology
Literature review is mainly collected from the literature analysis, especially analysis
of the study methodology and research findings.
Written comments in the literature, researchers in related topics should be read
magazine articles 8-10 (also read the City Library e-magazine e-TV), and then to the
classification of literature on the existing deal, in particular, We must be good to find
out the advantages and disadvantages, for their research taken a critical approach and
research methods, and then made the subject of study for individual ways and means
to surpass others, to establish the author of the base.
5. Some attention
① authenticity: document analysis as far as possible for first-hand information and
authoritative representative of the views; ② comprehensive: they can write 12
articles to the conclusion; ③ specific: Do not put unrelated ideas and information
listed out; ④ Effectiveness: to recently published information on the current subject.
6. In the research report (thesis) writing the location of the structure
In general, reference literature review (literature review) should be placed behind the
research questions, that is, it is proposed in the study of the problem, then solve this
problem are analyzed and discussed previous research on this issue come conclusion,
the proposed solution, means there&#39;s insufficient.
In addition, different researchers deal with literature review of the position is different.
For instance, some studies the literature review as a separate part of it; some studies
and research, it combined to form a part. Two approaches to writing, the more and
more inclined to report it independently as a separate part.
For the standardized and unified, now require students to &quot;reference
literature review,&quot; this part of the separately opening (another separate
page), binding position placed in the directory back.
&quot;Reference Review&quot; asked about the content of words between
350 and 500.
Transformation of Learning Disabilities Strategy
Transform students with learning difficulties at home and abroad are the subject more
fully carried out, the system of Yanjiu, especially for students with learning
difficulties of Jie Ding, Lei Xing, Tedian, the reasons,
&quot;correction&quot; Circumstances measures Douyou a full discussion
( general comments). More representative of a foreign former Soviet Union-Home
Linsky &quot;correct&quot;, &quot;hard to teach children&quot;
the theory and practice, Zancoff transform &quot;Underachievers&quot; the
theory and practice, and the American psychologist Howard Zander especially on the
discussion of students with learning difficulties. These were very great importance to
&quot;correct&quot; the practice of students with learning difficulties, but
more focused on the &quot;correct&quot; theory of student learning
difficulties. Mainland and represented by the Director of the Shenzhen Futian
SOCIAL hole Huang Chen presided over the &quot;success
education&quot; (Historical Review and the conclusions have been typical, view
classified or enumeration). But overall, these studies Learning Disabilities
transformation of specific ways, means and methods of innovation are relatively
lacking in Zhuanhua learning Kunnan Youqi students of 个案 studies and home,
school, students interactive, comprehensive, Duo-level, comprehensively improve the
quality and learning achievement of students study compared the book weak (to
- A total of 367 text characters. One reason is the number of words and more long
term - transformed into student learning difficulties, not the content too much.
- The Scarlet Letter Literature Review for the writing Pham Van Note:
&quot;on&quot; super media &quot;impact on learner cognitive
1. Domestic integrated education website
(1) The People&#39;s Republic of China Ministry of Education
The People&#39;s Republic of China Ministry of Education website, including
the dynamic of education, education legislation, the Ministry of Education files,
important documents and other columns, provided updates about national education
work principles and policies and the Ministry of Education 机 构 设置 main
functions of the description and the subordinate headquarters and directly affiliated
organizations, universities and their various educational projects, education and other
aspects of the Foundation&#39;s home page links to information.
(2) China Education and Research Network
The site by the China Education and Research Centre under the computer network,
yes understand Chinese Education, Scientific Research Di window in time around the
education Jin Zhan introduced, the basic conditions and Ge Xue Xiao scientific
research, research institutions the latest scientific research.
(3) one to teach network
The website by the People&#39;s Education Press, sponsored by the Institute
course materials, set up under section includes educational information, curriculum,
taught books, taught periodicals, academic education, scientific knowledge, Chinese
culture, it also provides an interactive forum for online purchase books and other
(4) China Education Network
The site aims to set up the dynamic of education, recruit centers, science gallery,
educational books, teaching and research world, students in the community, parents
time, overseas windows, Achievements and other columns of information for students,
teachers, families, schools provide a full range of services .
(5) Basic Education Network
The site is the Ministry of Education curriculum materials for basic education
development center and co-sponsored by Beijing Normal University, a comprehensive
professional services website. Website emphasis on basic education reform and
development, education concepts, quality education, leading, open up the education
news, curriculum reform, administration, education, community, enrollment
counseling, educational supplies, with a school center part.
(6) K12 Website
K12 Education Network&#39;s goal is to build online education resource center,
education, information centers, educational and research center, learning exchange
center, education, e-commerce platform, the current focus on the goals of education
news, teacher channel, channel students, parents Channel, K12 Education Forum
schools and teachers free home space, free e-mail, a large number of services are
primary and secondary school teachers in the teaching process of teachers.
(7) Other comprehensive education website
Other comprehensive education sites include: China Education at
http://www.jyb.com.cn; Chinese university Web site at: http://www.china-school.net/;
Chinese students web site at: http : / / www.6to23.com/; China Education Online, Web
site: http://www.cer.net/; China&#39;s higher education network, Web site:
http://www.h-edu.com/index1.htm; Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research,
Website: http://www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/% 7Ehkier/indexc.htm; Hong Kong Educational
Research Association, Website: http://www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/% 7Ehkera /; U.S.
Department of Education at: http://www.ed.gov/.
2. Educational Technology Website
(1) Domestic Educational Technology Website
① Educational Technology Online
② China Education Network of Information Technology
③ modern educational equipment information
④ National Information Technology and Applications Distance Learning Education
⑤ Education Technology Newsletter
⑥ Modern Education Technology Network
⑦ China Education Technology Network
⑧ CHINA EDUCATIONAL
⑨ China Educational Technology
(2) Foreign Educational Technology Website
① American Association for Educational Communications and Technology AECT
② Technology Association of International Education
③ the U.S. Office of Educational Technology
④ educational technology journals-from now
⑤ chief executive officer of American Educational Technology Forum
⑥ American Association of Educational Technology
Literature review it can be called a literature review, refers to the date, and a variety of
documents related to the field of systematic inspection and analysis ... ...
Pham Van 3 Literature Review
System and economic development and growth theory Summary
System and the relationship between economic development and the system of origin,
institutional change and innovation, together with the national supply system known
as the four pillars of the new institutional economics, but also to a large sense, the
origin of the system, change and innovation, supply and demand are related to
economic development and growth. From the conclusions that an efficient system to
promote economic growth and development; inefficient system would be reduced or
hinder economic growth and development.
First, economic growth and development theory Viewing Back
1. Marxist theory of economic growth, the discussion on the system
Marx believed that the production is not abstract, nor leave the system (the reference
is to Marx&#39;s relations of production, in fact, the system) the productivity of
its development. Productivity is always a certain relations of production organization
and operation. Advanced production relations will promote the development of
productive forces, production relations will impede the backward productive forces. A
sustained period of time span is relatively stable relations of production (institutional
framework) to provide a corresponding development of productive forces of the
system space, which for many economists, research system and the relationship
between economic growth and development is an extremely important revelation.
2. Western economic growth theory, discusses the major schools of
(1) Model School
They think: economic growth or development is to promote economic growth, a
combination of various factors of production, distribution, superposition and
qualitative results. They will be a variety of growth factors as independent variables,
the economic growth (usually GDP, national income, per capita income that) as the
dependent variable to determine the function, the establishment of various economic
growth models to explain economic phenomena. Most notably Harold = more horses
economic growth model, neoclassical growth model (ie Solow = Swan model), and
Kaldor, Robinson, Pasinetti, and others advocate the Cambridge growth model. The
economic growth model is essentially only shows that the long-term economic growth
and the short-, medium-term economic growth of the relationship between the output
of the decision sought to make the growth of aggregate demand and production of
products to match the total production capacity has gradually emphasized the
technological progress in economic The role of growth, ignoring the role of
(2) structure to send
In their view, economic growth and development is both a country&#39;s
economic capacity (total and average amount) and capacity growth and expansion
process, but also a country&#39;s economic structure, the conversion process.
There are Lewis&#39;s dualistic structure; nax cycle of poverty; inseparability
from the investment arising from Rodin&#39;s big push on; Chenery, who
advocated the development of type theory; and the two gap theory, and the balance
and not balanced growth theory, etc.. In this genre, this factor has been implicit in the
system and background. Among them, the Lewis theory of the dual structure is
particularly evident. Therefore, Lewis was even designated as the new system.
(3) Stage School
Representative is Rostow, who will be divided into six stages of economic
development, that stage of the traditional society, to prepare conditions for the
take-off stage, off stage, mature stage, the high mass consumption stage and the
pursuit of quality of life stage. Not difficult to see, more and more obvious the
framework of institutional context.
(4) factors of school or school of origin
This school in Denison to the factors of economic growth divided into two broad
categories: factors of production inputs and production factors productivity.
Subdivided into eight areas, (it was divided into seven), namely: the number of
workers who use and structure; working hours; use the education level of workers; the
size of the capital stock; knowledge of the state; assigned to the invalid use The
proportion of labor; market size; short-term pressure on the pattern and intensity.
Dennison, published in 1967, &quot;Why growth rates of different: some
Western post-war experience&quot; in the use of factor analysis method. Known
as the Denison model used. In this model, causes two problems:
The first problem: the various factors that contribute to economic growth rates can be
calculated by the model, however, what the reasons (factors) the potential productivity
of these factors into real productivity?
The second question: will be calculated after the factors, there are still remaining, or
residual value, the so-called residual overflow, then the residual value should be
classified as to which factors?
The Kuznets stressed the high demand for structural change in the rate of economic
growth in the production of modern structure with a high conversion rate effects. It
will cause the creation of new high-tech products, technologies and inventions, and
promote the formation and development of new industries and ultimately promote the
development of modern economic growth and speed.
(5) to send the new growth theory
There are Romer&#39;s increasing returns model of economic growth; Lucas
specialized human capital growth model; Martin Boyd&#39;s dynamic growth
model of the Commonwealth Capital; A temperature Young&#39;s innovation
and limited mode of learning by doing so. These theories not only of knowledge and
human capital factor into the economic growth mode, even more noteworthy is that
the new growth theory and policy systems confirmed the important influence on
economic growth, and summarize a set of policies to promote economic development,
for example, support education; to stimulate investment in physical capital; protection
of intellectual property rights; to support research and development; the
implementation of beneficial new ideas to form and pass in the world of international
trade policies; prevent the government in the market, large distortions.
(6) the evolution of division of labor camp
Xiaokai represented the school first pointed out the inherent neo-classical
micro-economics, that is, the social structure or the division of the state as a fixed
factor, and research resources in which the optimal configuration, and then build the
division of labor explain the evolutionary pattern of economic growth. They believe
that when people with little experience, the productivity is low, so can not afford the
transaction costs, people only choose to become self-sufficient. Learning through
practice, productivity, can afford transaction costs, and therefore, people began to
select the high level of division of labor and specialization. Which will accelerate the
learning through professional learning speed, which can pay higher transaction costs.
This positive feedback (positive cycle) the division of labor will evolve spontaneously.
Division of labor has been able to increase productivity is caused because of some
specialized information asymmetry, sellers for their products know much, but as a
buyer is poorly understood.
Xiaokai et theoretical model for the evolution of division of labor we have two things:
Revelation 1: promoting the division of labor and trade and knowledge development
for economic growth and development is extremely important.
Revelation 2: a country&#39;s system of innovation, should be towards the
promotion of the division of labor, lower transaction costs and improve transaction
(7) anti-growth or zero growth in school
Represented by Mi Duosi economists believe that economic growth and development
of the human costs too much, and thus it anti-growth or growth in the value of
skepticism; Mi Duosi to population growth, food supply, capital investment,
environmental pollution and energy consumption 5 major factors such as connecting a
feedback loop is established end of the world model. In order to avoid the end of the
world, we must make the major factors of economic growth to achieve zero growth,
therefore, the theory is called the limit of growth or zero growth of.
Second, the new system school of economics the main argument
1. North&#39;s point of view
(1) system and the relationship between economic growth and development
Party system, new institutional economics and economic development, and creative
contributions to the North. His theory of economic growth and development of the
core arguments concise, that is, economic growth and development of key
institutional factors, an adequate and effective system of personal incentives are the
decisive factors for economic growth, and factors in the system, The most important
role of property relations. On the basis that, in the traditional economics, the market
operation are assumed to be complete information, clearly defined property rights
conditions and zero cost to run the process. People in the process of market
transactions are filtered to a pure price mechanism of action, even as the cost of a deal
and search of information did not exist. In this mode of logic, other coordinating
organization and the organizational system and the organization of economic activities
are seen as insignificant. If the traditional methods of economic analysis can not
explain the 1600 to 1850, the maritime industry is technically not much progress in
the case, productivity has a more substantial increase of the phenomenon. Therefore,
institutional factors can not be ignored. The effectiveness of the system is through a
series of rules to define relationships between the main transaction, reduce the
environmental uncertainty and transaction costs, thereby protecting property rights,
promote productive activities, so that the potential benefits of trading activities
become a reality.
North pointed out: the institutional environment is a series used to determine the
production, exchange and distribution of basic political, social, legal rules,
institutional arrangements that govern the economic units may be among the rules of
cooperation and competition forms, and the system itself is a set of rules , it follows
the ethical requirements and ethical standards of behavior for the binding behavior of
individuals. In other words, the system is different from the system, it is a series of
rules to be formulated, procedures and law-abiding behavior of ethical norms, subject
to constraints to pursue the interests of welfare or utility maximizing individual
behavior. Institutional framework constrains people&#39;s choice set. Since
these rules are not only created to guide and determine the economic activities of the
incentive system, but also determine the social welfare and income distribution, the
foundation, then the structure of the system in a static decision on a way out of
economic entities and their knowledge of technology growth. North said: Many
economists innovation, economies of scale, education, capital accumulation and
knowledge of the progress so classified because of economic growth, in fact,
economic growth itself. Economic growth caused the real reason is the system
changes. Institutional change is uneven from the equilibrium to return to a balanced
process. In a variety of factors make the potential profits outside the existing
institutional arrangements can not be realized, it is possible to establish a new system
to reduce costs. He believes that unless the current economic organizations or
institutional arrangements are efficient, otherwise, economic growth does not simply
happen. Then, the North&#39;s supply and demand on the system analyzed the
supply and demand when the system is consistent when the system reached
equilibrium. This system is a system of equilibrium conditions for suppliers to
achieve the marginal benefit equals marginal cost, ie MR = MC. Accordingly, the
North proposed to build an efficient new system of basic (ideal) standard or principle
is to make the new mechanism (system) under the personal income rate and the social
rate of return equal to or close.
(2) State&#39;s role in institutional change
States are not neutral, the state decided the structure of property rights, and economic
growth depends on the specific property, but in technology and the existing
organizational constraints, the property rights of innovation, determination and the
exercise price of extremely expensive, as a low-cost countries provide property rights
protection and enforcement power of the institutional arrangements came into being,
to maintain economic growth and development, and ultimately result in economic
growth, development, decline or stagnation in the property structure of the efficiency
of the charge.
(3) Theory of Ideology
There are three characteristics of ideology:
First, the ideology is saving mechanism, through which people know their
environment, reducing the cost of trial and error.
Second, the ideology will often personal observations when the world&#39;s fair,
just held moral, ethical evaluation are intertwined, that is sometimes conflicting
theories and ideologies to choose. For example, the income distribution is fair
Third, when people experience with the original concept or ideology does not comply,
they will try to change their ideology, to develop a more appropriate concept or
experience of their new rational choice.
Therefore, institutional arrangements and the impact of ideology is another important
factor in economic change.
2. International Centre for Economic Growth New research shows that:
(1) generally facing the developing countries to sustain economic growth and improve
the efficiency of the two major economic problems, the problem is rooted in the basic
institutional framework, for example, rent-seeking.
(2) institutional arrangements is the main driving force of economic development.
First, the system by affecting the availability of information and resources, build
capacity and the establishment of social transactions, the basic planning and
expansion of human choice, that is, economic development targets. Second, the
effectiveness of the system to correct the price, that is basic to economic development
and long-term contribution. Third, although technological innovation will drive
economic development, technological innovation in developing countries rely on the
promotion of innovation, defined property rights and contractual relations or external
risk-sharing arrangements for the various systems.
(3) from the system of supply and demand, that demand for institutional innovation in
the economy, the increased inefficiency, technological change, market Tezheng and
the establishment of the Group to maintain its own Li Yi Ge Ren and the way the
legislative order; the system of supply depends on the legislative order, system design
cost and knowledge base to find alternative targets. Therefore, developing countries
must be established by legislative order in the core of the institutional environment,
create market forces to drive innovation.
(4) in the developed market economy countries, the fundamental problem is the lack
of development of the market economy system in the background. Such as law and
order, stability, morality, property rights, the definition of human capital supply, the
provision of public goods, dominated trading and risk-sharing regulations. Therefore,
in developing countries, how to play a leading role in the government to formulate a
set of open and transparent system of rules to prevent rent-seeking and abuse of power
and fraud, as the market economy system to create a fair and reasonable environment,
is the realization of a market economy a smooth transition and efficient operation of
the essential conditions.
Third, simple comments and questions
1. North to the system factors into the framework of economic growth, economic
growth in the system as an endogenous variable, the application of modern property
rights theories to explain institutional change and economic growth relationship, that
institutional change is one of the important factors of economic growth. He makes the
system more sophisticated research and analysis, contributed to the development of
2. Application of the Method school of the new system of economic impact of more
and more widely, and many economists had widespread disapproval of the system to
absorb and use the new system of analysis economists generally believe that the
solution of economic development, not only only concerned with capital
accumulation, technology transfer, financing, industrial structure, employment, etc. to
improve the purely economic factors, but more attention should be placed on
institutional factors for economic growth, promote or hinder the role of.
3. The institutional factors into economic growth and development issues in the
context of greatly expanded the economic problems of development of vision and
Participants also develop from the previous Yi Zibenzhuyi small countries or regions
is giving development power.
4. Several issues should be in-depth discussion
(1) In many, the system is still a very abstract concept, how to further quantify
(2) Changes in economic development since the system is very important, how to
speed up the pace of institutional change and promote economic development.
(3) In the information age, very easy access to information, then the new system, one
of the cornerstones of economic theory of the school status of the transaction costs
will be shaken.
Many of the new institutional economics point of view school more and more
accepted by people, its influence is also growing, but these problems still plague the
new system school of economics and his followers, await further study.
 [U.S.] Douglass C North, Chen Yu, LUO Hua-ping, M.: &quot;Economic
History Structure and Change&quot; [M], Shanghai Joint Publishing, 1991
 [U.S.] Coase, North, etc.: &quot;Property, Property Rights and Institutional
Change&quot; [M], Shanghai Joint Publishing, 1991
 International Center for Economic Growth V Ostrom and D Feeney, H Picht
compilation, Wang Cheng, M.: &quot;Institutional Analysis and Development of
Reflection: Issues and Options&quot;, Commercial Press, 1992
 Zhang Yuyan: &quot;Economic development and system selection: the
system of economic analysis&quot; [M], China Renmin University Press, 1992
 Lin Yifu: &quot;On the system, technology, and China&#39;s forestry
development&quot; [M], Beijing University Press, 2000
 Xian-Xiang Lu: &quot;the new institutional economics&quot; [M],
China Development Press, 1999
 Li Yue: &quot;industrial economics&quot; [M], China Renmin
University Press, 1998
 Rostow: &quot;The take-off into sustained growth of the
economy&quot; [M], Sichuan People&#39;s Publishing House, 1988
 Kuznets: &quot;National economic growth&quot; [M], Commercial