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On the standard containers

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									On the standard containers
?
   In order to effectively carry out the international multimodal transport container,
the container must be intensified to standardize the container should further improve
standardization. Container by using the range of sub-standard, international standards,
national standards, regional standards and standards of the four companies

1. International standard container is based International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 104 established international standards to
build and use the internationally accepted standard containers. Container
Standardization gone through a process of development.
ISO/TC104 International Organization for Standardization Technical Committee since
its inception in 1961, international standards for the container several times to add,
change and modify the existing international standard is a series of 13 species, are the
same width (2438mm), length There are four (12192mm, 9125mm, 6058mm,
2991mm), height of four (2896mm, 2591mm, 2438mm, 2438mm). See Table. 2 series
and 3 series are reduced to a technical report.
2. Governments of national standards to international standards the container and to
consider their specific circumstances, and to develop national standards for containers.
China's current national standard "container external dimensions
and weight rating" (GB1413-85) in containers of various types of external
dimensions, limit deviations and nominal weights.

3. Regional standard containers such container standards, is a regional organization
under the special circumstances of the region developed, such container only for the
region. Such as the European International Union of Railways (VIC) standards set by
the construction of container container.

4. Standards of some large container company container shipping company, according
to the company's specific circumstances and conditions to formulate
standards for container shipping companies, mainly in the company of such containers
transport range. Such as the U.S. company's 35ft sea container.
Definition of container
   The definition of container, over the years, there are some differences between
domestic and foreign experts and scholars. Now to International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) definitions of the container to make the following description,
the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) under the definition of
container as a "container is a transport equipment, shall meet the following
requirements:
(1) with easy handling and transport of equipment, particularly to facilitate the
transfer from one mode of transport to another mode of transport;
(2) the design should be noted that to facilitate cargo loaded or emptied;
(3) content plot for the 1 square meter or 1 square meters.
(4) has the durability, strength of its strong enough to be used repeatedly;
(5) to facilitate transportation of goods specially designed, in one or more modes of
transportation without intermediate Dress;

?Container does not include vehicles or conventional packaging.
?Currently, China, Japan, the United States, France and other countries concerned
have fully introduced the ISO definition. In addition to the definition of ISO, there are
"Customs           Convention        on       Containers"       (CCC),
"International Convention for Safe Containers" (CSC), the UK
national standard and the North American Society of the Pacific liner under the
definition of container, the contents are basically similar.
China's         national      standard      GB1992-85        "container
terminology" in reference to the above definition.
?In addition, there are many non-standard containers in the world. If non-standard
length containers are U.S. companies 35ft sea container, the president of 45ft and 48ft
shipping container company; non-standard height of the container, mainly two kinds
of 9ft and 9.5ft high container; non-standard width of the container so the container
has 8.2ft width.
As the cost of driving, the world's 20ft 24ft container weighing a total of
more and more, and generally welcomed.
The types of containers
   With the development of container transport, goods to meet the needs of different
types of loading, so we had a different type of container. These containers not only
look different, and structure, strength, size, etc. is not the same. According to the use
of the container there are several different points.
1. Open Top Container (Open Top Container), also known as open top container,
which is a rigid box is not the top of the container, but can be folded type beam
supporting the canvas roof, made of plastic sheeting or plastic coated fabric roof, the
other components similar container with the goods. Open top container suitable for
high loading of large cargo and heavy cargo lifting required.
2. Taiwan shelf and platform-type container (Platform Based COntainer) platform
frame container roof and wall is not me, and even some with side walls are removed
and only the bottom and the four corner posts of the container. There are many types
of containers Bench. Their main features are: In order to maintain its vertical strength,
bottom of thick.
3. Containers (Dry Cargo Container), also known as container cargo, which is a
generic container to carry liquid cargo except the need to adjust the temperature of
goods and special cargo other than the general break-bulk cargo. Use of this container
scope, 20ft and 40ft common with two of its structural features are often closed,
usually with one end or side door.
At present, extensive use of container in the world according to their main material is
classified as:
1. Ventilated container (Ventilated Container) ventilation is usually in the wall or the
side container wall with ventilation holes, suitable for loading does not require
refrigeration and ventilation needed to prevent sweaty goods, such as fruits and
vegetables. If the vents closed, can be used as a cargo container.
2. Refrigerated Container (Reefer Container) is required for the transport of frozen
goods to maintain a certain temperature or low temperature cargo container designed.
It is divided into the interior with a mechanical refrigeration freezer containers and no
external mechanical freezers refrigerated containers. Applied load of meat, fruit and
other goods. High cost of refrigerated containers, the higher operating costs, the use of
refrigeration equipment should be noted that the technical condition and the required
temperature inside the cargo.
3. Container (Bulk Container) Bulk containers in addition to box outside, in the box at
the top also has 2 to 3 loading port for loading the goods in powder or granular. Box
used to pay attention to maintaining clean, smooth on both sides to maintain, easy to
unload goods from the door.
4. Animal container (Pen COntainer) This is a special container for shipping livestock.
In order to achieve good ventilation, box wall with wire mesh manufacture, with
clean-up port and the bottom wall outlet, and with feeding devices. 8. Tank Container
(Tank Container) This is a special set for the shipment of liquid cargo and containers,
such as alcohol, oil and liquid chemicals and other goods. It consists of the tank and
the cabinet frame of two parts, loading cargo from the tank when the hole into the top
loading, unloading, by the row of holes out of goods or from the top of the loading
hole suction.
5. Automotive Container (Car Container) is designed for shipment of small cars
designed and manufactured container. Its structural features is no wall, only to have
the framework and the bottom of a chest, can carry one or two cars.
6. Stainless steel containers are usually used stainless steel tank containers. The main
advantage of stainless steel containers are high strength, rust, corrosion resistance and
good investment big disadvantage.
7. FRP glass containers steel containers are installed on the steel framework
consisting of glass fiber reinforced plastic composite board. The main advantage is
the insulation, corrosion and chemical resistance are better, strength Dayong (good,
can withstand greater stress, easy to clean, repair is simple, more so on the container
inner volume; the main drawback is that larger self, higher cost.
8. Steel container wall of its frame and box are made with steel. Biggest advantage is
high strength, structural firm, good weldability and watertight, low price, easy to
repair, difficult to damage, the main drawback is that since the major, poor corrosion
resistance.
9. Aluminum container aluminum container, there are two: one for the steel aluminum;
the other two ends only with a steel frame, the other with aluminum. The main
advantage is light weight, no rust Si Bu table appearance, good elasticity, easy to
distort, the main disadvantage is high cost, easily damaged by the collision.
Bottom of the container than the average strength of a large, and its internal height of
less than container. Side beam and the prism on the next line with Central, it will be
loaded cargo tie-down. Bench container is not watertight, the goods can not be afraid
of water wet shipment, load shapes for different goods.
?Bench container can be divided into: open side of the Bench, Bench whole skeleton,
with the full Bench fixed side wall, only a fixed prism and unprovoked Bench floor of
the container and so on. Platform is the only bottom container without a container
superstructure. The easy loading and unloading containers, suitable for loading long,
heavy cargo.
   As the container in transit often subject to various loads and environmental impacts,
so the container material of sufficient stiffness and strength, should be adopted in light
weight, high strength, durability, low maintenance costs of materials and materials
both inexpensive and also easy to obtain.
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