Recidivism Rates for DCJ Offenders Exiting Residential Treatment

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					 Recidivism Rates for
DCJ Offenders Exiting
Residential Treatment
                   June 2007
                Kim Pascual
       Research & Evaluation
                   Methodology
   Follow-up to previous report in 2005.

   All DCJ offenders who exited residential A&D
    treatment in 2003, 2004, and 2005, using the first
    treatment episode of the year per offender.

   All SIDS for each sample entered into the DSS-
    Criminal Justice Data Warehouse to collect pre-
    and post treatment data. Data collected 1 year
    prior to treatment and up to 3 years after
    treatment.
                Arrest Data Collection


Pre-Treatment Arrest Data    Post Treatment Arrest Data
            1 year    2003   1   2    3 years

            1 year   2004    1   2 years

            1 year    2005   1 year
                 Demographics
   For all 3 years, each sample was approx. 60% male
    and 40% female.
   Race: A 3% decrease from 70% to 67% in White
    offenders. A less than 2% decrease in African
    American offenders from 24% to 22%.
   Average LOS: 96 days in 2003, 107 in 2004, and 101
    in 2005.
   Average age: 35 years for all three samples.
                   Drug of Choice
45%
40%
35%
30%                                                                 2003
                                                                    2004
25%
                                                                    2005
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
        Alcohol   Cocne/Crack   Heroin   Meth   Marijuana   Other

 2003    19%         21%         19%     33%       7%        1%
 2004    19%         18%         19%     36%       8%        1%
 2005    12%         17%         17%     44%       9%        1%
 Drug of Choice by Gender: 2005
    60%
                                                                  Females
    50%                                                           Males

    40%

    30%

    20%

    10%

    0%
          Alcohol   Cocaine   Heroin   Meth   Marijuana   Crack     Other

Females     4%        7%       19%     51%       7%       10%         3%
Males      17%       16%       15%     39%      10%        2%         0%
        Drug of Choice: Findings
   51% of females vs. 39% of males reported meth
    as their drug of choice. An 11 percentage point
    increase from 2004 for females and a 6
    percentage point increase for males.
   Of those reporting meth as their drug of choice,
    48% successfully completed treatment in 2004 and
    2005.
   Of those reporting Cocaine/Crack as their drug
    of choice, 41% successfully completed in 2004 and
    only 32% successfully completed in 2005.
      Treatment Completion
         for All Offenders
                              Successful
60%
                              Unsuccessful
50%    47%                    Neutral
              43%     43%
40%                     38%
              34%

30%   29%


20%   24%     23%
                        19%
10%

0%
      2003    2004    2005
    Differences by Gender at Exit
                            Successful      Unsuccessful         Neutral
          Average LOS      2004    2005     2004     2005     2004    2005
Females       80.7         39%     36%      34%      40%      27%      24%
Males         114.1        46%     48%      34%      37%      21%      15%

Women had a shorter average LOS by almost 35 days and in addition to having a
lower proportion than men in successful completions, women had a 3 percentage
point decrease in successful completions from 2004 to 2005.
More women than men were reported as unemployed and in unstable housing
situations than men in 2005.
                                  2005 Females        Males
                        Employed at exit 10%           36%
                           Unemployed    90%           64%

                 Stable Housing at exit    45%         65%
                     Unstable Housing      55%         35%
       Arrest Rate Trends: 2001-2005

                                                                1st Year
       2005    40%                       60%                    2nd Year
                                                                3rd Year
               41%          13%                46%              No Arrests
       2004

                                                             Total Arrested: 60%
Year




       2003    41%          14%    5%           40%


               40%      10%       7%           43%           Total Arrested: 57%
       2002

                45%          10% 6%             39%          Total Arrested: 61%
       2001

          0%   20%    40%          60%         80%    100%
            Arrest Rates
1 Year Pre- & 1 Year Post Treatment
100%
                                                                       Pre
 90%
                                                                       Post
 80%
       67%          65%
 70%                             61%                      63%
                                             57%
 60%
              45%
 50%                       40%         41%          41%          40%
 40%
 30%
 20%
 10%
  0%
       2001         2002         2003        2004         2005
                  Arrest Types
   Data reflect all felony arrests- including fugitive
    arrests.

   Fugitive arrest often indicate an offender has left
    treatment or absconded from supervision.

   Fugitive arrests are not considered to be an
    arrest for a new crime.
        Post Arrest Types for 2005
                            21 (12%) of the 98 had
Arrest Type     n     %        only one or more
                            fugitive arrests in the
Fugitive       98    58%         year following
Behavioral      5     3%           treatment.
Alcohol/Drug   39    23%      The remainder, 77
Person          2     1%     (46%) had a fugitive
                              arrest as their first
Property       15     9%    arrest after treatment,
Total          168   100%   but also had new other
                              criminal arrests at
                             some point that year.
Arrest Reduction Rates by LOS
50%
                                                               LOS>90
45%
      39%                                                      LOS<90
40%                36%
35%                            32%                     31%
30%
25%                                        22%

20%                      17%
                                                              16%
15%
             8%                       8%          9%
10%
5%
0%
      2001        2002         2003        2004        2005
Differences by Race
                      White   Afr Am
                      n=282    n=93
        Successful     47%     33%
      Unsuccessful     36%     48%
          Neutral      17%     18%

       Post Arrest?
               Yes    32%      54%
               No     64%      46%

 Avg # Post Arrests    0.60    1.20

    Drug of Choice
Methamphetamines      60%       4%
    Cocaine/Crack      5%      56%
                   Limitations
   Arrest data are extracted in the year prior to and
    the year following the first treatment episode of
    the year.
   Data from the DSS Justice Warehouse is
    constantly being updated and as a result these
    arrest reflect the data available at the time of
    analysis.
   Analyses do not take into account offender’s
    time in the community.
                Key Findings
   There has been an increase the proportion of
    offenders reporting Meth as their drug of
    choice, particularly among women.
   Over sixty percent of White offenders report
    Meth as their drug of choice. Cocaine/Crack are
    most often reported as the drug choice for
    African American offenders.
   48% of those reporting Meth as drug of choice
    successfully completed treatment.
           Key Findings (cont.)
   Differences in successful treatment completion,
    employment at exit, and stable housing at exit
    indicate men are fairing better than women.
   The rate of offenders with an arrest in the year
    following treatment remains constant at approx.
    40%.
   Differences in outcomes also exist between
    White and African American offenders.
             Recommendations
   Explore the differences in outcomes based on
    race, gender, and drug of choice to try and
    determine how to best serve these populations.
   How can the housing and employment needs
    best be met for different populations?
   How does drug of choice affect treatment
    outcome? How does it affect an offender’s
    ability to engage in treatment?
For More Information:
             Contact:
           Kim Pascual
      Research & Evaluation
Department of Community Justice
          503-988-4564
kim.a.pascual@co.multnomah.or.us