Motherboard_ memory_ hard disk_ network card briefly by fdjerue7eeu


									Motherboard, memory, hard disk, network card briefly

    ?Motherboard Chipset
1, North Bridge and South Bridge
   North Bridge chip

One of the most important part of the motherboard can be said is that the motherboard
chipset, and generally speaking, the name of the chipset North Bridge chip is to name
names, the motherboard chipset are generally composed of Northbridge and
southbridge chips, the two together constitute the motherboard chipset. North Bridge
chip is mainly responsible for implementation and the CPU, memory, AGP interface,
data transfer between, but also through specific data channel and the South Bridge
chip connected. North Bridge chip BGA package model originally used to package
mode, and now Intel's northbridge chip has changed for the FC-PGA
package model, but designed for the AMD processor to the motherboard Northbridge
chipset are still also use the traditional BGA package model.

South Bridge Chip

Terms compared to North Bridge chips, South Bridge chip and the IDE device is
responsible, PCI devices, sound devices, network devices and other I / O devices to
communicate, South Bridge chips so far can only see the traditional BGA package
model a kind. In addition, Northbridge and Southbridge chips in addition to the
traditional classification methods, are now also able to see the integration of design,
such programs often seen on SiS chipsets, the Northbridge and Southbridge chips
merged into one chip, this design has a unique, but so far there is no general widely.

   (Chip set is very important and quite a lot of models, major manufacturers and Intel,
SIS, ATI, NVIDIA, VIA, etc. choose to consider the compatibility of motherboard,
integrated graphics performance than the other, Intel Centrino mobile platform, every
generation corresponds to a series of chipsets, see the Centrino's Profile)
   Computer memory is the main component, it is relative to the external memory is
being used. We normally use the program, such as the Windows operating system,
typing software, games software, typically installed on the hard disk and other
external memory, but only the yes can not use its function, and must run them into
memory before real use of its features, we usually enter a text, or play a game, they
are actually carried out in memory. Usually we have to permanent preservation, and
large amounts of data stored in external memory (hard disk, U disk, CD, etc), while
the number of temporary or a small amount of data and programs on the memory, of
course, good or bad memory will directly affect the computer speed.
   CPU frequency and memory frequency, as are customarily used to indicate the
speed of memory, which represents the memory the highest possible operating
frequency. Memory frequency is MHz (megahertz) as a unit measurement. Higher
memory frequency to some extent represents the faster memory can reach. Memory,
the memory is the highest frequency determines what kind of frequency in normal
operation. Now more mainstream in the DDR2 memory frequency is 800MHz
memory, and some higher frequency DDR3 memory, memory.

Computer system's clock speed is measured in terms of frequency.
Working memory clock signal from the motherboard chipset North Bridge or directly
provided by the motherboard's clock generator, meaning that the memory
can not determine its own operating frequency, the actual operating frequency is
determined by the board.

DDR memory and DDR2 memory frequency can be frequency and equivalent
frequency of two ways that the memory frequency is the actual frequency of particles,
but because DDR memory can be both rising and falling edge pulse transmission data,
transmitting data equivalent frequency is twice the frequency; and DDR2 memory,
four times on each clock frequency can speed read / write data, data transmission
frequency of the equivalent frequency is four times. For example, the operating
frequency of DDR 200/266/333/400 are 100/133/166/200MHz, the equivalent
frequency is 200/266/333/400MHz; DDR2 400/533/667/800 operating frequencies
are 100 / 133/166/200MHz, the equivalent frequency is 400/533/667/800MHz.
DDR DDR2 and DDR3, DDR has been out, DDR2 and DDR3 is mainstream,
especially DDR2 667/800 and DDR3 1066/1333, 1G DDR2 800 laptop is now about
90 yuan. Memory greater than or equal to the equivalent frequency of CPU front side
bus, to play the best CPU performance, not by a pro rata basis, with the support of the
situation when the motherboard to see. Can also be equipped with dual-channel
memory requires 2, columns such as DDR2 667 with two carry, can make the
equivalent frequency into 1333)
Click on dual channel
1G       or     2G      memory      on      the     memory         problems      Click

    ?Hard disk
1, interface
ATA full name of the Advanced Technology Attachment, is a traditional 40-pin
parallel port cable to connect motherboard and hard drive, external interface speeds
up to 133MB / s, because the parallel lines of interference of bad, and the cable space,
detrimental to the computer cooling , will gradually be replaced by SATA.


IDE full name in English "Integrated Drive Electronics",
namely "Integrated Drive Electronics", commonly known as
PATA parallel port.


Use the SATA (Serial ATA) hard drive also known as serial port hard disk, PC hard
drive for future trends. In 2001, Intel, APT, Dell, IBM, Seagate, Maxtor composed of
these large manufacturers Commission formally established the Serial ATA Serial ATA
1.0 specification, 2002, although the related equipment Serial ATA has not been
formally listed, but the Serial ATA Board has first to establish a Serial ATA 2.0
specification. Serial ATA Serial connection, Serial ATA bus with embedded clock
signal, with a stronger error correction capability than in the past the biggest
difference is able to transmit commands (not just data) to check if found errors
automatically corrected, which greatly improved the reliability of data transmission.
Serial interface also has a simple structure to support the hot swap benefits.

Seagate NCQ SATA the basis of the local command array technology, and increased
disk speed.
   SCSI-wide known as Small Computer System Interface (small computer systems
interface), after many generations of development, from early SCSI-II, to the current
Ultra320 SCSI, and Fiber-Channel (Fibre Channel), there are a variety of connector
types. Workstation-class SCSI hard drives are widely used in personal computers and
servers, because of its fast speed, up to 15000 rpm, and data transfer CPU-less
computing resources, but the unit price than the same capacity ATA and SATA hard
drive expensive.

SAS (Serial Attached SCSI) is a new generation of SCSI technology and SATA drives
the same serial technologies are adopted to achieve higher transmission speed up to
3Gb / s. There is also improved through the narrow connecting lines within the system

In addition, SAS drives with SATA drives share the same backplane, so in the same
SAS storage system, you can use the SATA hard drive to replace part of the expensive
SCSI hard drive, saving overall storage costs.
   SATA mobile platform are mainly

 ?2, capacity

As the computer system data memory, hard drive capacity is the most important

Hard drive capacity in megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB) as a unit, 1GB = 1024MB.
However, the hard disk drive manufacturers in the nominal capacity usually take 1G =
1000MB, so we in the BIOS or in the format the hard disk to see the capacity of the
nominal value than smaller manufacturers. (Mobile platform for now the difference
between the 320G and 250G is about 30-50 yuan)
  ?3 speed
    Speed (Rotationl Speed or Spindle speed), is a hard disk spindle motor rotation
speed, which is hard discs can be completed in one minute maximum rpm. Hard disk
speed marking speed is an important parameter to grade, it was decided inside the
hard disk transfer rate one of the key factors, in large part a direct impact on the speed
of the hard disk. The faster the speed of the hard disk, hard drive to find faster the file,
relative speed drives also been enhanced. Hard disk transfer speed per minute to
indicate the unit is expressed as RPM, RPM is the abbreviation for Revolutions Per
minute, is transferred / min. RPM greater the internal transfer rate and faster access
time shorter, the better the overall performance of the hard disk. Ordinary hard disk
speed home generally 5400rpm, 7200rpm several high-speed hard disk is now the first
choice for desktop users; while for laptop users is 4200rpm, 5400rpm dominated,
although the company has released a 7200rpm notebook hard drive, but has been little
in the market.

 ?4, the cache
   With the cache on the motherboard (RAM Cache), as the hard disk cache is
intended to solve the system before and after the class to read and write speeds do not
match, so as to improve the hard drive read and write speed. Currently, most SATA
hard      disk     cache      for     the      8M,       while     Seagate's
"Barracuda" series are used 32M Cache.
 5, the main hard drive manufacturers

EMC information storage for a U.S. information technology company principally
engaged in information storage and management products, services, and solutions.
EMC Corporation, founded in 1979, based in Hopkinton, Massachusetts City

EMC Clariion CX500EMC company's stock symbol is EMC, the New
York Stock Exchange, and the S & P 500 is one of the constituent stocks.

Seagate Technology (Seagate)

Seagate Technology (English: Seagate Technology, NYSE: STX) is one of the
world's leading hard drive manufacturers, in 1979, set up in California,
now in the Cayman Islands. At present, the main products including desktop Seagate
hard drives, enterprise hard drive, laptop hard drive and micro hard drives. R
& D in a special hard drive vendors, Seagate is the oldest. It is the first hard
drive products, the capacity is 5MB. In May 2006, Seagate Technology bought
another hard drive manufacturers - Maxtor Corporation. Product sales, the Seagate is
the first reported his company, sold 1 billion hard drives.

Western Digital (Westdigital)

Market share second only to Seagate. To Desktop products. The desktop product into
focus the high IO performance Black Series (commonly called "black
site"), common Blue series (commonly known as blue-plate), and the
emphasis on low power, low noise, the environmental Green series (commonly known
as green plate).

Western Digital also provides near-line storage for enterprise Raid Edition series,
referred to RE series. Also have the Raptor 1000RPM SATA interface and rapid series
of Dragon (VelociRaptor) series.

Hitachi (Hitachi)

Third-largest hard disk manufacturers. Mainly by the acquisition of the former IBM
hard drive from sector development.

Hitachi (Japanese: Hitachi Ltd.; English: Hitachi, Ltd.), Referred to as Hitachi,
headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, dedicated to home appliances, computer products,
semiconductors, industrial machinery and other products, is Japan's largest
integrated motor manufacturer.
Samsung (Samsung)

Samsung Electronics (Samsung Electronics KSE: 005930, KSE: 005935, LSE: SMSN,
LSE: SMSD) is the world's largest electronics company, Samsung Group,
one of the subsidiaries. In March 1938 it was established in the Republic of Korea,
Daegu Metropolitan City, founded by Lee Byung-chull, the present president is Lee. It
is a beginning exporters, but it quickly into many other areas. Today it has 58
countries around the world more than 20 million employees. In 2003, its turnover
value of 101.7 billion U.S. dollars. The world's most famous list of 100
trademark, Samsung is the only South Korean trademark is a symbol of South
Korea's national industry.

Maxtor (Maxtor)

Maxtor (Maxtor) was founded in 1982, the United States hard drive manufacturers in
2006 was also a hard drive maker Seagate Technology has acquired. [1] in December
2005 before the acquisition of Maxtor, the world's third-largest hard disk
manufacturer. Seagate Maxtor is now a subsidiary of a operators. Maxtor same time
operating desktop computers and server market, compared to the speed, the Maxtor
hard drive is more focused on capacity.

Toshiba (Toshiba)

Is Japan's largest semiconductor maker, also is the second largest
manufacturer of integrated motor, belonging to Mitsui Group. Toshiba is a Japanese
company in 1939, the two merged into the.

Toshiba is the world's chip makers an important member. February 2009,
Toshiba, Fujitsu hard drive M & A department.

Fujitsu (Fujitsu)

Fujitsu Limited (Fujitsū Kabushiki-gaisha) is a Japanese company specializing in
production of semiconductors, computers (supercomputers, personal computers,
servers), communication devices and services, headquartered in Tokyo.

February 2009, Toshiba, Fujitsu hard drive M & A department.
  ?Seagate and Samsung are mainly giant, Western Digital and Hitachi are the
cheapest on the market very few other


 ?1, NIC
   Computer local area network connection with the outside world is through the box
into a network host interface board (or is inserted in a laptop PCMCIA card). Network
interface board, also known as communication adapter or network adapter (adapter) or
Network Interface Card NIC (Network Interface Card) but now more people willing
to use a more simple name "card." NIC is working in the data
link layer of network components, is to connect the LAN interface of computers and
transmission media, not only with the LAN transmission medium to achieve the
physical connection and electrical signals between the match, but also send and
receive frames, frame of the package and opened, media access control, data encoding
and decoding functions, and data cache.
?Whether the assembly properly selected, the connection and set card, network
connectivity is often able to correct the premise and the necessary conditions. In
general, to consider when choosing card the following factors:

   Network Type: There are now more popular Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI net, select
the type of the network should be to select the corresponding card.
   Transfer rate: server or workstation in accordance with the bandwidth requirement
and the physical transmission medium can provide the maximum transfer rate to
select the card's transmission rate. To Ethernet, for example, choose to
have a rate of 10Mbps, 10/100Mbps, 1000Mbps, and even 10Gbps and many other,
more appropriate, but not the higher rate. For example, for the connection speed with
only 100M of twisted pair with a computer on the network card configuration 1000M
is a waste, because it can only achieve a maximum transfer rate of 100M.

   Bus Type: Common computer bus slot types: ISA, EISA, VESA, PCI and PCMCIA,
etc.. Commonly used in server PCI or EISA bus intelligent card, workstation is
available PCI or ISA bus using ordinary cards, notebook computers are used in the
PCMCIA bus, parallel interface card or a portable card. Basically, the current PC, is
no longer supported ISA connections, so when buying for your PC, network card, do
not buy the outdated ISA card, but PCI cards should be optional.

   ?Support the cable card interface: the ultimate card to connect to the network, so
there must be an interface to cable through its connection with other computer
network equipment together. Different network interfaces for different network types,
now common main Ethernet interface RJ-45 interface, thin coaxial cable interface and
coarse coaxial BNC AUI interfaces, FDDI interfaces, ATM interfaces. And some
cards to apply to a wider range of application environments, provide two or more
types of interfaces, if the card will also provide RJ-45, BNC interface or AUI
(A) RJ-45 interface: This is the most common type of card is the most widely used
type of an interface card, mainly due to the popularity of twisted pair Ethernet
applications. RJ-45 interface, because this type of card is used with twisted-pair
Ethernet as the transmission medium, its interface is similar to the common telephone
interface RJ-11, but the RJ-45 8-core line, and telephone line interface is a 4-core, and
usually only take 2 core wire (ISDN phone line then 4 core). The card also comes
with two state instructions on the lights, through two lights could not judge the color
of the network card working condition.

(B) BNC interface: this interface card on a thin coaxial cable used for the transmission
medium of the Ethernet or Token Ring, the current type of network card interface,
rare, mainly due to the use of thin coaxial cable as the transmission Media's
network is relatively small.

(C) AUI interface: this interface type of network card on thick coaxial cable used for
the transmission medium to the Ethernet or Token Ring, this interface type of network
card is now rare.

(D) FDDI Interface: This interface card is adapted to FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data
Interface) network, this network has 100Mbps of bandwidth, but it uses the
transmission medium is fiber, so this FDDI interface, the interface card also the
optical interfaces. With the emergence of fast Ethernet, the speed advantage it has
ceased to exist, but it is expensive to use fiber as the transmission medium faults and
did not change, it is also extremely rare.

(E) ATM interface: this interface type of card is used in ATM (Asynchronous Transfer
Mode) optical fiber (or twisted pair) network. It provides the physical transmission
speed of 155Mbps

Price and brand: different rates, different brands of card prices vary greatly.
  2, wireless LAN and wireless network card (wireless Internet access in your word,
do not consider)
  ?The so-called wireless network, is the use of radio waves as a medium of
information transmission, consisting of wireless local area network (WLAN), and the
wired network uses a very similar, the biggest difference is the different transmission
media, using radio technology to replace cable, and cable networks can be inter- To
back up, but unfortunately too slow.
  ?Wireless network card is the wireless network terminal equipment, is under the
coverage of wireless local area network wireless network access through a wireless
connection using wireless terminals. Specifically, the wireless network card is to
make your computer can use wireless to access a device, but there is also need a
wireless card can connect to wireless networks at home or where you have a wireless
router or wireless AP (AccessPoint wireless access entry point) coverage, you can
wirelessly through the wireless network card connected wireless network and internet
  ?Wireless LAN Standards
   1.IEEE 802.11a: use the 5GHz band, transfer speed 54Mbps, not compatible with
   2.IEEE 802.11b: use the 2.4GHz frequency band, transfer speed 11Mbps;
   3.IEEE 802.11g: use the 2.4GHz frequency band, transmission speed of 54Mbps,
can be backward compatible with 802.11b;
   4.IEEE 802.11n (Draft 2.0): for the new Intel Centrino 2 notebooks and high-end
routing, it can be backward compatible, transmission speed 300Mbps.
  ?Wireless LAN Interface Type
1. Desktop machine dedicated PCI interface to wireless card
   2. PCMICA interfaces dedicated laptop card
   3.USB Wireless LAN Interface
   4. Notebook computer built MINI-PCI wireless card

 ?Wireless network card and wireless card difference
  Wireless network card and wireless network card looks very much like, but really
quite different function. Through this comparison shows that although the two can
achieve wireless Internet access, but ways and means to achieve quite different. All
wireless cards have been announced only for a limited range of the wireless LAN. If
you are outside the scope of the wireless LAN coverage, wireless wide area network
that is wireless Internet access, computers must have wireless card in the basis, and
configure wireless network card.

As mobile phone coverage in the local environment is far greater than the wireless
LAN, all the wireless network card significantly reduces the dependence on
geographical areas, the vast number of individual users, more user-friendly. So,
wireless LAN and wireless network card although all wireless features, but the ways
and means of implementation is completely different.

Wireless LAN is mainly used in wireless LAN for LAN connection, wireless router or
wireless AP to have access to such equipment can use, and wireless network card as
the same as normal 56K MODEM phone signals can be used in any place covered by
Internet access, pay attention to differences between novice

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