Montessori Montessori August 31 1870 Maria Montessori was by fdjerue7eeu


August 31, 1870, Maria Montessori was born in the Italian province of Ancona.
Although she is an only child, thinking conservative military father, mother and good
family background did not have spoiled her, made her an early age to care for others,
cultivate a stubborn personality.

Year-old and his father because of his position between the family moved to Rome.
There, Montessori began her colorful schooling process:

(1) 13 age group to enter engineering school engineering school (at that time very few
girls into the engineering group) ─ ─ on the great interest in math, and this is her
view that the future development of "mathematical mind" and
"abstract culture ability to think the best way to "source of

(2) 2-year-old from Davenport odd engineering graduate, to attend school during the
Natural Science and Modern Languages ─ ─ for the later development of language
and science teaching her methods, planted a good knowledge foundation. (3) she
refused to her teachers, parents hope, determined to study the subjects she loves ─
─ biology, and insists on entering medical school. However, when the society is very
conservative, never have women attending medical precedent, the Montessori many
years of struggle before they entered the College of Medicine in the 20-year-old, and
therefore more rebellious father, cutting off her source of income. She had to rely on
scholarships and tutoring for a living, medical student, spent the period of the
hardships of her journey ─ biology has laid the deep cultivation in order to help her
understand the law of human development. She is of low to the Montessori children
though her talent and spirit, breaking the shackles of many ordinary people are
difficult to overcome, Nian Liu at the age of the most outstanding achievements, to
become Italy's first woman medical doctor, reputed in the country; but still
can not change the prevailing social stereotypes of women, only psychiatric clinic in
the University of Rome as an assistant physician.

Also because of the opportunity, she contacted the idiot children (at that time with
idiots and maniacs locked in an insane asylum), they also live by the compassion to
help solve problems, instead began to study the treatment of children with intellectual
disabilities and education, so she began Sagan was reading books on special education
and ITAR studies in this area. Two years in a psychiatric clinic work, she noticed:
"Children in addition to food, people will be poking around inside the
house, fumble, two-handed operation allows to find something to practice their
grasping ability." This recognition laid her education theory,
"the development of intellectual needs through the hands to
operate," the basic theory. And by the last two years of experience, she
went to the education of mentally retarded children's views: "To
overcome the smart Buzu, country primarily through education Shouduan; can not
just go Zhi Liao Yong medicine." To make a Gaichuan Tong Yao Wu
treatment of children with paranoid Dineng practice. Because of her discovery and
record the past two years the performance of organic certification would be better

Since taking office in 1898 after the Montessori placed themselves under
Sagan's books and ITAR laboratories developed methods, the actual
application of these poor kids; but also for her fellow workers, and school teachers in
Rome, prepared a set of mentally retarded children "special
observation" (to understand the needs of all children), and Education Act
(to help children progress in intelligence).

Not only that, she was the problem for these children, carefully developed a variety of
educational tools to help them, "Hands and Brain," to promote
intelligence, every day from 8:00 to 19:00 and children get along with her personally
observed them, understand them, and do analysis and comparison of notes, and
constantly come up with a better way. Result, two years, children have learned many
things she thought impossible, they will not only read and write, but also through the
area at the time as normal children in Rome at the public examination.

Determined to study normal children

But this remarkable achievement has also brought her meditation, she felt as
educational efforts on human intelligence may have changed (Note: At that time
scholars have determined that the genetic intelligence); and from normal children in
the "public Examination "shown by the results, no better than
children with intellectual disability excellent results, said the vast majority of normal
children's intellectual development, not only suppressed by the bungled or
improper teaching methods that start too late, or even two by combination. This is a
major event can not be ignored, she thought it was people should be looking for
answers, should strive to solve the big problem to ease. Because she felt the future
happiness of mankind, world peace, the hope is to hope that in the majority of normal
children who, she resolutely accepted the new challenge.

She found: She used the method of low energy child, since the lower state of mind
can grow behind it, "education theory" must also be more
widely used in the normal children's shoulders, will reach a higher state of
mind higher level. If a normal child because of the normal development of the mental
state of those low and they would never be the same.

In order to prove that this method is applied to the possibility of normal children, she
was determined to re-examine "normal education." She heads
from the world-class reputation in Europe high on the left, back to the University of
Rome registration, redo the students to study the biological sciences, experimental
psychology, normal education, educational anthropology and related disciplines in
order to thoroughly explore the natural laws of human growth, to find the scientific
theories and methods of education. Downs suffered through a study of seven years,
she gradually found out the law of development of human life, and gradually to form
the initial of her ideas and theories. Is verified by the lack of opportunity.

The creation of children's homes

1906, because of a chance, fine architecture in Rome, the Society's support,
for her research and verify the upgrade has brought the world the opportunity to
children with normal intelligence:

January 6, 1907, the first "Children's House" in
Rome's slums Sang Luolun the official opening of multi-zone, three
months after the second Montessori "children's home"
have been established.

"Children's House": refers to the supply of child
development opportunities in the "environment", it is
"an apartment in the school", meaning not only at home,
"such as members of the mutual care, assistance, environment, all devices
are also meet the needs of children and the size "; more child care places of
education. "Home" in the big one must always committed to
"school" environment, transformation, making them suitable for
the development of children.

Montessori here, but also good for these children mentally, carefully developed to
promote the intellectual development of various teaching aids, to enhance human
intelligence, to explore infinite potential; were here to appreciate the teachers should
observe the role of produced a world-famous Montessori method.

In the "Children's House", the Montessori
application at that 60 children aged three to five body methods have been amazing
results; with the European press, magazines, books on the children's home
and painted a vivid report so that a constant stream of visitors from various countries,
I praise music, hailed as miracles. So in London, Switzerland, the Netherlands and
other European countries followed suit to establish, and invited to set up Montessori
teacher training courses.
Montessori in 1912 to the United States welcomed by Edison and other celebrities,
she's Education Law Expo in San Francisco in the show has been on both
sides of the General Assembly, the only gold medal. During World War II, Montessori
Although forced to leave her native country to India, but her
"children's home" and the teacher training unit, but
after the war quickly spread throughout the world.

Montessori's death

Montessori's later years, remains constant despite the decline of the body
of work, May 6, 1952 died in the Netherlands Nuteweike, at the age of 80-year-old.
Not only is she a famous scientist, but also a great educator, life for children, to the
revival of the human spirit and human development, devoted all her wisdom and life.
[Edit this paragraph] educational philosophy
Children's homes in Education:

(A) respect for the independence of children: only people who can enjoy the freedom
of independence. Good children's characteristics is his mobility, adults will
not interfere willfully or prohibited, teachers Do not "command"
or "order" a child, to make his own command of themselves,
their follow his orders. Respect for the independence of children, children's
activities will naturally his bones, a healthy body followed.

(B) quiet and activities: respect for the independence of children, not let him do
whatever they want, and not let the children think that quiet, submissive, obedient,
passive is a good thing; the activity or work is bad. Montessori teaching methods
emphasize children's active exploration, and inspiring focus on the design
of teaching situations and teaching aids for children to learn through the actual
operation, not just listening.

(C) the spirit is better than Method: Mongolia's hope that her students not
to "active" want to "teach" children
should be a "bystander" to watch all the acts of their children.
The only thing to be man-made design or production of a number of teaching aids,
and even encourage children to enjoy the play and manipulation, that is, the greatest
respect for the child. Montessori method because of the real teacher is the children

(D) social discipline ahead of individual freedom: freedom first, the order is followed.
Traditional education emphasized that "sociability", and
Mongolia's focus on "personality." Montessori in
1932 to the Montessori Society of the United Kingdom published the article which
strongly deplores by the beam in the adult children than slaves and workers are.
Mongolia's lifetime efforts stressed: "Free the Children is the
mission of educators; therefore personal freedom of children, should be a priority

(E) sense of order in childhood: Montessori found that one of the characteristics of
children is a sense of order. Most people believe that a child's room or the
playground some mess, toys or scraps of paper to throw in the floor, and therefore a
considerable headache for adults and children that this is a serious educational
problems, to find ways to train children early the habit of clean and tidy . However,
Montessori believed that kids are not in the house arranged orderly, prime suspect is
the adults. This conforms with children have a natural sense of order, only adults but
to the "power" to ruin it
[Edit this section] book
1909: "pre-school children automatically education." 1910:
"Montessori           Method."          1914:        "My
Handbook." 1916: "The Montessori education method for
children." 1929: "Children living in the church."
1938: "Children are different." 1949: "Education of
Man," "creative children, absorption of mind",
"Education and freedom." 1948: "From childhood to

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