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Spanish Speaking South America

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					Spanish Speaking South
       America
    Chapter 10 Section 3
       Main Idea and Key Terms
• Native peoples and      • Inca
  settlers from Spain     • Quechua
  have shaped the         • Mercosur
  culture of South
  America
• Regional economic
  cooperation will help
  raise people’s
  standards of living
               Conquest
• Francisco Pizarro attack the Inca in the
  1500’s and took the Incan Emperor
  prisoner
• The people filled rooms with gold and
  silver to win his release
• The Spanish execute him anyway
• This breaks the Inca, and the Spanish
  continue on to conquer the rest of the
  Incan Empire
• Spanish culture influenced South America
  from then on
 Spanish Speaking South America
• South America was divided into two
  regions, based mainly on whether the
  people speak Spanish or Portuguese
• The Spanish speaking region includes
  Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia,
  Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru,
  Uruguay, and Venezuela
• Suriname speaks Dutch
• French Guyana speaks French
• The Inca was a great civilization located in
  the Andes mountains in Peru
• From their capital at Cuzco, they extended
  their power
• By 1500 the Incan Empire stretched 2,500
  miles along the Pacific coast of South
  America
• They developed a road system with
  20,000 miles of roads to connect their
  empire
• The Spanish settlers forced the natives to work
  in mines and on farms and ranches
• Many settlers abused the natives or worked
  them to death
• Forcing the natives to move to plantations
  disrupted and destroyed families and
  communities and made governing difficult
• The language of the Inca, Quechua, was
  overshadowed by Spanish
• Many Incan descendents still speak Quechua
• Inspired by the American Revolution and
  the French Revolution, the countries of
  South America sought their independence
• Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin led
  many of these revolution
• Argentina and Chile are the first to gain
  independence
• After independence, geography made
  unification and cooperation difficult
                    Culture
• There is a “cultural mosaic” in South America
• This means there are many different cultures in
  a small area that do not mix
• There is a rich literary heritage: Gabrial Garcia
  Marquez “One Hundred Years of Solitude”
• Street music is everywhere throughout the
  region
• Musicians play drums, guitars, marimbas,
  maraca, and flutes
• Combines Indian, African, and European
  elements
• Craftwork can be found everywhere: pottery,
  textiles, glasswork, metal work
                Economics
• Most economies in S. America are based in
  agriculture
• The region is capable of producing a large
  variety of products
• Some countries have farms (Guyana, Surname,
  and French Guiana), others have oil (Colombia
  and Venezuela)
• Peru has a fishing industry, Ecuador exports
  shrimp, Bolivia has tin, zinc, and copper
• Argentina produces grain and livestock, Uruguay
  has a major farming industry
• Paraguay has soybeans, cotton, and animal
• Chile has been the most successful
  economically
• They are a leader in working for economic
  cooperation in the region, where it is an
  associate member of Mercosur
• Mercosur is an economic common market
  that began operating in the southern cone
  of South America
      Education and the Future
• The countries of Spanish speaking S.
  America have a higher literacy rate than
  that of Central America and the
  Caribbean, Mexico and Brazil
• Most of the countries support colleges,
  universities, and tech schools
• Chile is at about 95% literacy, higher
  among younger people

				
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