Lithium battery

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					Lithium battery
   Lithium power battery of the 20th century developed a new type of high-energy
batteries. This battery is a lithium metal anode, cathode with MnO2, SOCL2, (CFx) n
so on. 70 years into practical use. Because of its high energy and high battery voltage,
operating temperature range, the advantages of long storage life, has been widely used
in military and civilian small appliances, such as mobile phones, portable computers,
camcorders, cameras, some to replace the traditional battery. Large-capacity lithium
battery in electric vehicles trial, will be the 21st century electric car one of the main
power supply, and in the satellite, aerospace and energy storage terms applied.
(1) single battery voltage up to 3.7V, is the nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel hydrogen
batteries 3 times, nearly two times the lead acid batteries, lithium battery which is
higher than the energy of an important reason. Therefore, the driving force composed
of the same voltage battery, the lithium battery used in tandem will be considerably
less than the number of lead-acid batteries and nickel-metal hydride batteries. If the
motive power of the number of individual cells more batteries in the conformity
requirements of individual cells to the higher life of the more well to do, in the actual
use of the battery pack in question, the general is one of the two a single cell battery
problems and then lead the whole group of problems, it is not difficult to understand
why the 48V lead-acid batteries 36V lead-acid batteries feedback than the higher,
from this standpoint is more suitable for lithium battery use. For example, the lithium
36V only 10 monomer, and 36V lead-acid batteries need to be 18 single cells, that is,
three 12V battery pack, and each has six 12V lead-acid battery cell that is one of six
single cells composition.

(2) light weight, high energy, high 150Wh/Kg, nickel hydrogen batteries 2 times,
lead-acid battery 4 times, so the weight is the same one-third the energy of lead-acid
battery to a quarter From this perspective, the less lithium depletion of resources, and
because lithium manganese oxide used in more elements of reserves, so the relative
lead-acid, nickel metal hydride battery may further price increases, but the cost of
lithium battery power is further reduced. Li-ion battery electric bicycle weighs 2.2-4
kg, lead-acid batteries for the 12-20 kg weight, lithium lead-acid batteries weighing
about a quarter to one-third lighter than lead-acid battery is about 10 kg ( 36V, 10Ah
batteries), battery weight by 70%, total vehicle weight of at least 20% reduced.
Lithium car is easy with the general models of electric bicycles, batteries and vehicle
as light, the same voltage, same capacity, longer battery mileage, general electric
vehicles weighing over 40 kg, while the lithium battery electric bike weight between
7-26 kg. Women and the elderly can easily carry, human riding is also very light,
sports and leisure have both. (3) small size, high up 400Wh / L, volume of lead-acid
battery is one-half to one third. The structure provides a more reasonable and more
beautiful appearance of the design conditions, design space and possibilities. At this
stage as lead-acid battery size, weight restrictions, design ideas designers greatly
constrained, leading to the present stage of electric bicycles in the structure and
appearance, "1000 car side", similar similar monotonous
uniformity. The use of lithium batteries, to the designers provide design ideas and
style show greater space and conditions. Of course, also lead to electric bicycle
lithium battery size varied, is not conducive to the development of lithium battery
industry. Lithium battery industry is also a need to devise national standard lithium
batteries for electric bikes, electric bikes in the field of lithium to accelerate to the
lead-acid battery replacement. Of course, lithium is currently in the process of
continuous development of different materials, different process cells vary
considerably in size, how unified is a difficulty.

(4) long cycle life, cycle times up to 1000. To maintain the 60% of total capacity,
100% battery charge and discharge cycles can reach more than 600 times, the age up
to 3-5 years, lead-acid battery life of about two to three times. With technology
innovation, equipment to improve the battery life will become longer and longer, cost
will be higher. (5) self-discharge rate is low, less than 5% per month.

(6) Wide operating temperature range, low temperature performance, lithium battery
can be between -20 ℃ ~ +55 ℃, particularly for low temperature use, the aqueous
batteries (such as lead-acid batteries, nickel metal hydride battery) in the low
temperature , due to deterioration of the electrolyte liquid can cause performance

(7) No memory effect, so do not like every time before charging nickel-cadmium
batteries, nickel metal hydride batteries need to discharge the same, you can recharge
anytime, anywhere. Battery charge and discharge depth has little effect on battery life,
and able to charge full release, we charge the whole cycle of testing is to put all the.

(8) is particularly suitable for battery, in addition to the high voltage lithium batteries,
the lithium battery pack as the protection plate can be carried out on every single
high-precision battery monitor, low-power intelligent management, with well-off
charge over discharge, temperature, over current, short circuit protection, lock and
reliable self-recovery function of the equilibrium charge, greatly extending battery life.
Other types of batteries (such as lead-acid batteries) in the course of consistency as
batteries, chargers and other issues, easy to produce battery charge, over discharge
and other issues (due to various reasons such as cost, lead-acid battery pack can not
Every single battery monitoring and protection).

(9) non-polluting, non-lithium battery in the presence of toxic substances, known as
the "Green Battery", supported by the state. The lead-acid
batteries and nickel-cadmium batteries because of lead and cadmium in hazardous
substances, the State is bound to strengthen the regulation and governance (the
cancellation of export tax rebate lead-acid batteries, lead resource tax increase,
lead-acid electric bicycle export restricted), the corresponding business The cost will
increase. Although lithium is not pollution, but from the perspective of resource
conservation. Lithium battery recycling, recovery security, recovery costs are to be
considered. (10) a security risk; because of high energy lithium battery, poor stability
of materials, lithium prone to security problems, the world's leading mobile
phone and notebook computer batteries (lithium cobalt oxide cathode materials and
ternary material) manufacturer in Japan Sanyo, Sony and other companies require
battery explosion spray rate control at 40 ppb (one billion) below, the domestic
companies to ppm (parts per million) level was already pretty good, but the capacity
of the cell phone battery hundred times more battery capacity, and therefore the safety
of lithium is highly demanding. Although the Cobalt and ternary materials, lithium
batteries have a lighter, smaller, etc, but they are not suitable battery for electric cars.

(11) high price; the same voltage and same capacity lithium battery is lead acid 3-4
times the price. With the lithium battery market expansion, cost reduction,
performance improvement, and increase the price of lead acid batteries, lithium
battery is likely to cost more than lead-acid batteries.
There are usually two lithium battery shape: cylindrical and rectangular. Internal
spiral wound battery structure, with a very fine and highly permeable material in
polyethylene film isolation positive and negative interval made. Dioxide anode
include lithium and lithium-collector composed of cobalt and aluminum films formed
by the current collector. Formed by a sheet of carbon anode materials of lithium and
copper film collector current collector composition consisting of. Cell filled with
organic electrolyte solution inside. PTC is also equipped with safety valves and
components to the battery without the normal state and output short circuit protection
of the battery from damage.

Single lithium battery voltage is 3.6V, the capacity can not be infinite, therefore, often
a single lithium battery for serial, parallel processing, in order to meet the
requirements of different occasions.
As the twentieth century, the development of microelectronics technology, the
increasing miniaturization of devices, made of the high power demands. Lithium
battery had entered a large step. Can be used in the first pacemaker. As the lithium
battery self-discharge rate is very low, flat discharge voltage. Pacemaker implanted in
human long-term use make it possible.

Lithium battery generally higher than the nominal voltage of 3.0 volts, more suitable
for integrated circuit power supply. Manganese dioxide battery, it is widely used in
computers, calculators, cameras, watches.

Now, a large number of lithium battery used in mobile phones, the application can be
said to be the largest group.

For example:

1, substitution of products for battery maintenance, many batteries: notebook
computers, such as those used by maintenance found that this damage the battery pack
is only a problem of individual batteries. Can choose a suitable single lithium battery

2, production of micro-torch I have used bright single 3.6V1.6AH lithium battery with
an ultra-high brightness white light-emitting tube made of a micro-torch, easy to use,
compact appearance. And because the battery capacity, an average of half an hour
each evening, still has more than two months without charge.

3, instead of 3V power supply. As a single lithium battery voltage is 3.6V. So just a
lithium battery can be replaced two batteries, a radio, music players, cameras and
other small household electrical appliances power, not only lightweight, and long
continuous use.
In order to develop better performance of varieties, people of various materials
studied. Thereby creating an unprecedented product. For example, lithium sulfur
dioxide batteries and lithium thionyl chloride batteries on the very characteristics.
Their positive active material is also solvent electrolyte. This structure only in
non-aqueous electrochemical system appear. Therefore, the lithium battery research,
but also for non-electrochemical water system development of the theory. In addition
to using various non-aqueous solvent, the polymer films was also carried out cell

The 21st century, scientists have developed a new type of hydrochloric acid iron
lithium battery. Lithium iron phosphate power battery characteristics can be
summarized as follows. A high efficiency output: standard discharge for the 2 ~ 5C,
continuous high-current discharge up to 10C, instantaneous pulse discharge (10S) up
to 20C; 2 high temperature performance is good: when the outside temperature is
65 ℃ internal temperature is as high as 95 ℃, the battery discharge the end of the
temperature up to 160 ℃, the structural safety of the battery, good condition; 3 even
when the battery internal or external injury, the battery does not burn, explode, safety,
best; 4 excellent cycle life, after 500 cycles, its discharge capacity is still more than
95%; 5 through discharge to zero volts and no damage; 6 quick charge; 7 low cost; 8
on environmental pollution.

As the lithium iron phosphate battery with the above characteristics, and produce a
variety of different sizes of batteries, widely used soon. Its main application areas: 1
large electric vehicles: buses, electric cars, tour buses and hybrid vehicles and other
attractions; two light electric vehicle: electric bikes, golf carts, small flat battery
vehicles, forklifts, trucks, electric wheelchair etc.; 3 power tools: electric drills,
electric saws, lawn mowers, etc.; 4 remote control cars, boats, aircraft and other toys;
5 solar and wind power energy storage device; 6 UPS and emergency lights, warning
lights and miner's lamp (safety of the most good); 7 one-time replacement
3V lithium battery in the camera and 9V of Ni-Cd or Ni-MH rechargeable batteries
(same size); 8 small medical equipment and portable instruments.
Component Performance
(1) the battery open circuit voltage (2) the battery internal resistance

(3) battery voltage

(4) charging voltage of secondary battery charging voltage is in charge, the external
power supply increases the voltage across the battery. The basic method of
time-honored charge current charging and constant voltage charging. Generally use
constant current charging, characterized the process of charging when the charge
current constant. As the charging progresses, the active substance is recovered, the
electrode reaction area is shrinking, the electrical polarization gradually increased.

(5) battery capacity battery capacity is the amount of power from the battery was
commonly used C, said unit, said common Ah or mAh. Capacity is an important
indicator of battery performance. Battery capacity is usually divided into theoretical
capacity, practical capacity and rated capacity. The capacity of the battery capacity of
the decision by the electrodes, if the electrode capacity varies depending on the
capacity of the battery capacity of the small electrode, but it is not the sum of positive
and negative capacity.

(6) storage performance and battery life of one of the main characteristics of chemical
power sources is used to release electrical energy can be stored when not in power.
The so-called secondary batteries for storage performance for the charge retention.
For the secondary battery, battery life good or bad time to measure an important
parameter. Following a secondary battery charge and discharge, called a cycle (or in
this cycle). Discharge in a certain system, the battery capacity reaches a certain
specified value before the battery can withstand the charge and discharge times
referred to as secondary batteries life cycle. Lithium battery with excellent storage
performance and long cycle life.

(7) protection circuit consists of two FET and special protection Manifold S - 8232
composition, over charge and over discharge control tube FET2 control tube FET1
series in the circuit, the protection IC to monitor and control the battery voltage, when
the battery voltage up to 4.2V, the over charging protection tube FET1 closing, stop
charging. To prevent malfunction, usually outside the circuit plus a delay capacitor.
When the battery is in discharge mode, the battery voltage down to 2.55V, the
excessive discharge control tube FET1 closing, stop power to the load. Over-current
protection is greater when the load current flows out of date, control FET1 to close,
and stop to load discharge, designed to protect the battery and the FET. Over-current
detection is the use of FET on-resistance as a sense resistor to monitor its voltage drop,
when the voltage drop exceeds a set value, to stop discharging. In the circuit with
delay circuit generally also added to distinguish between inrush current and
short-circuit current. The circuit functional, reliable performance, but the highly
specialized and dedicated integrated block is not easy to buy, easy imitation amateur.
Because the lithium battery overcharge or over discharge may cause an explosion and
resulting damage, so the use of such batteries, security is a major concern. Therefore,
the commercial lithium group usually includes a protection circuit such as the DS2720
(Figure 7). DS2720 provides a rechargeable lithium battery all the necessary
protection features such as: protection of the battery during charging to prevent the
circuit overcurrent, by limiting the discharge voltage of the battery to extend battery
  ?Comply with energy saving and environmental protection requirements of the times,
in 2010 China International energy storage, power battery industry and technology
exhibition will be held 8-10 September 2010 at the Tianjin Binhai International
Convention and Exhibition Center was held.

International energy storage, power battery industry and technology exhibition
  ?China International Energy storage & Power battery show
Time: 8-10 September 2010
Venue: Tianjin Binhai International Convention & Exhibition Center
Supported】   【NDRC Department of Industry and Information Technology Ministry of
Environmental Protection
       ?Tianjin People's Institute of China Electronics Technology Group
       ?"The new secondary battery of basic research related to energy
materials" National 973 Project Team
【Organizer】 Functional Materials of China Instrument Society of Professional
Committee of the battery energy storage and power
        China's energy storage battery Chan Xueyan Innovation Alliance
【Organization】 Joint Institute of Chemical Physics, Nankai University, Chinese
Academy of Sciences, Dalian Institute of New Energy
       ?Beijing Nonferrous Metal Research Institute, Central South University
Institute of Chemical Power Sources and Materials
【Sponsor】 Tianjin Xin Shen Shi Exhibition Service Co., Ltd.
CIEP 2010 ---- negotiate the scope of procurement
l Power battery: a variety of vehicles, power tools (lead-acid batteries, nickel
hydrogen batteries, nickel cadmium batteries, lithium ion batteries, lithium polymer
batteries, zinc air batteries, fuel cells, flow batteries, sodium sulfur batteries and
battery group), etc.;
l storage battery: (wind, hydropower, solar energy, energy storage, etc.) with battery
and defense, military, communications, digital, UPS, miner's lamp and
signal systems, emergency lighting, batteries and super capacitors;
l Battery Equipment: All kinds of secondary battery manufacturing equipment,
packaging equipment, welding equipment, laser equipment, dehumidification
equipment, testing equipment, air handling equipment, maintenance equipment,
tooling, raw materials, spare parts, battery labels, adhesives and charger; waste battery
recycling and waste treatment equipment, recycling technology and equipment;
l research institutes: the research / institutions, associations / institutes, media and
other enterprises.
CIEP 2010 ---- Organizing Committee
Address: Tianjin big selling until the fifth Road (Po Ling Building) A Block 401
Tel :022-58853141
Fax :022-58853141
Contact: Tong Jing Yue 13821095285