Instrumental Music Appreciation: Piano

					Instrumental Music Appreciation: Piano
Instrumental Music Appreciation: Piano
One of the most favorite instrumental music:

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Piano gāngqín

A kind of standard 88-key keyboard. Principle depends on the sound board sound of
metal strings, the keyboard felt mallet percussion and string quality sound, along with
the role played sustain pedal, thereby enhancing the musical effect.
   People would say the king of instruments is the piano, and music followed by the
violin is a classical guitar music prince.
Countries in the world among the thousands of ancient and modern instruments,
modern piano is a large number of musicians as "the king of musical
instruments." This is not only because of its size the most, the most
complex internal 结构, more important thing is full of Xingneng because it Youliang
and extensive Yongtu are things that other Renhe instrument (except a few of the Jiao
Tang, concert hall organ in the Wai) Wu Fa and s comparable to.
In Europe, about 14 - 18 centuries, has had two kinds of popular keyboard, a keyboard
called the attack string, a name plucked harpsichord (or harpsichord, harpsichord).
Both instruments are due to be considered the predecessor of the piano was what we
call the ancient piano. Two ancient principles of piano sounds different from each
other, but there is a common weakness, that is: complete with little or no finger touch
key strength of the different intensity of different sounds to pop-up. Despite this
weakness, but the old piano as a keyboard, already has a different sound, different
tunes while combining functions. When the different sounds, different melodies at the
same time (not have) together, the music becomes more sound, composite,
three-dimensional, and this is undoubtedly the deepening of the human's
mind. The advantage of keyboard is that it can adapt to the need to deepen. Also turn
to more acoustic music to create the conditions for the development.
At that time the European music, is exactly the era of rapid evolution of polyphony.
Accordingly, the old piano has prevailed for centuries. Many composers have
composed for the harpsichord. Such as Bach, Scarlatti and enjoy del piano, are for the
old piano. Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven works of a number of large works are also
made for the old piano. In addition, there are ancient piano sound its unique slim.
Therefore, the modern piano fortepiano generally replaced after that by 19, at the turn
of the twentieth century, even in modern times, there are few pianists to re-promote
the use of the ancient piano. Today, many types of electronic keyboard system also set
the old piano sound (Harpsichord), is for this reason.
The evolution of musical instruments, is accompanied by music at a deeper change.
The deepening of music, it is more delicate, vivid demonstration of the human heart to
the infinite wealth of natural and social life, feelings, and the resulting feeling of
infinite wealth and changes color. At this time, the lack of intensity changes and
contrast the ancient piano, you can not fully meet the needs of the development of
musical art. The new piano is against this background that appears.
The world's first piano, by the Italian Cristofori (B · Cristofori) in 1710
produced around in Florence, was named as "weak and strong"
(Piano e forte). Later, almost all languages are known piano for Piano, Piano e forte is
short. Chinese piano Piano said, This is one of the Chinese name.
Only from the piano book called "weak and strong," This is
already stated: the player can arbitrarily weak pop-up, strong, weak gradually,
gradually strong, sudden weak, strong and so sudden changes in intensity, contrast,
this is the piano sound principles and clavichord fundamental differences. This is
different, the development of the art of piano playing, to promote the creation of the
piano, has great significance, which has been subsequently verified by the history of
piano music. Cristofori's great contribution, this is it. Everything is difficult
at the beginning, even though he made that piano and grand piano common today
(that is platform-style piano) and compared with vertical piano, or different, but after
all, where Piano is in the hands of Christopher was born. Several hundred years later,
another by numerous countries craftsmen, from the type system, structure, materials,
range, tone, volume, etc., continue to be improved before they become
today's look.
The middle and the other on the piano and the whole art of music has a far-reaching
progress in a matter of general application that is tempered. The so-called tempered,
that is, within an octave of twelve semitones, the sound of all distance between the
two chromatic "distance value" are equal, which is not available
in any other legal system characteristics. The advantages of this feature is that music
from this can be "smooth" to facilitate the free transfer and
application of sound techniques. As a result, music and more sound mind can only fly
an unprecedented freedom of flying the wide sky.
Tempered the first inventor of the great Ming Dynasty China mathematician,
astronomer, with Orientals Zaiyu. According to history books, the latest was in 1584
before he founded the law tempered this great theory, but due to prevailing social
conditions, did not promote the use of in our country. Practice in music, especially
music, the earliest confirmed the success of the advantages and tempered indicate a
bright future, is the German Bach. In 1722 he wrote a "law of averages
Piano"         (formerly     known     as    "Tempered         Clavier
Collection"), using all 24 size adjusted, in 1744 also completed the same
size adjustment applied the second part of the 24 . Two-steps to set, to be called
Christian music and arts of Western musicians, "Old Testament",
which shows the classical music and cultural value and significance.
Piano English name is Piano, Piano is the pianoforte (with changes in the strength of
Harper Court and the West) is referred to as formerly: Harper West Lookout. The
mechanical devices are: keyboard, hit string machine, piano hammer, damper, piano
strings and pedal. Modern piano keyboard up to seven octaves, lowest note is A2; also
add a small three times, and the highest sound as c5 (88 keys). The first instrument for
solo piano in 1768 at a JC in the UK show. Modern piano for the different shapes and
sizes, divided into vertical piano and grand piano. Concert grand piano used is the
instrument of the leviathan, 9 feet long, the most important of up to 79 tons. Far the
most expensive piano is a 1888 production of Steinway (steinway) brand grand piano,
in New York in 1980 to 180,000 pounds of high prices to be auctioned. Piano because
of its unique sound, 88 keys full range, has always been a favorite composer. In the
pop, rock, jazz and classical music forms such as almost all have played an important

   Vertical piano cheap, small space, as lovers to buy the object. Piano (grand piano)
is used for a concert or professionals. Vertical piano strings using a staggered design,
effectively saving the height and thickness. Before the vertical height of 2.4 meters
piano. Now only 1-2 meters. Piano 2.7 meters long. Application clef: Treble
Department: treble clef, unwavering tone notation; bass: bass clef, unwavering tone
notation. Structures: the strings out, sound boards, frame, keyboard systems
(including black and white keys, and hit open string Chui), pedal mechanical
(including plunger and pedals) and the shell of six major components. Use of
materials: the strings out: High, Middle strings made from the wire; bass strings
together by a wire made of copper wire wrapped around. Sound Board: wood
structure. Wood asked soft, flexible, easy to transfer vibration to the best white pine or
parasol. Support: Cast iron and wood stand including two parts. Keyboard: black and
white keys are made from the ivory or bakelite; sound Chui commonly used wood.
Pedal Machinery: metal structure. Shell: Lacquer decorated wooden structure.
Instrument features: wide range, great volume, tone varied, can express a variety of
musical mood, or just, or soft, or can be acute or slow just right; crisp treble, alto full,
rich bass, you can copy the entire symphony orchestra effect.
Piano is a keyboard, with keys to beating the strings pulling piano hammer. Since
from the eighteenth century, in Europe and the United States, the piano has been the
most important family keyboard. Piano originated in Europe, the 18 century, the
Italian Cristofori (Bartolommeo Cristofori) invented a similar instrument of modern
piano keyboard. So far, 300 years of history.
"Of all the instruments, the piano is most like the machine. It is simply a
machine, human hands operate the machine. Not to mention its beautiful countenance,
so artists rarely make it picturesque. However, human-computer integration,
human-computer with event, it Sutherland informed the! to bomb the Beethoven, as
philosopher of meditation eloquently; shells Chopin, such as the poet; shells Debussy,
such as painting. It actually both the poets, painters, philosophers, agitators function .
Nietzsche, Tolstoy, Adorno who love, bomb, of course, was not without reason.
"" Think about it Look, the world without the piano, we would
be no more than a dozen pianos of Mozart's two Concerto in a; there is no
Beethoven's Sonata a; not those piano poetry of Chopin;
Debussy's 'piano painting' has not Ke Deer
Appreciation. What about the human will is how desolate, lonely! "Xin
Fengnian Mr. "300 years of piano culture" in the discourse is
not only brilliantly revealed the piano's appearance, meaning and spiritual,
but also points to the piano indispensable social function.
The reason why a large family of piano music in the "Kings" of
human civilization and spiritual civilization and technology development of granting
it, the piano as an instrument of the emergence of human social life needs, the
development of the piano is more a reflection of the the continuous development of
human society and the state of spiritual life. Piano as a material basis, provided for the
creation of conditions for musicians, musicians create and develop piano piano culture
and structure and function to promote the further maturation. Thus we say that the
piano is a piano part and parcel of culture, understanding of the piano, know the piano,
became a musician and cultural understanding must be a piano. Usually people think
that piano of nearly 300 years of history, that in 1709 by Italian violin by master
B · Cristofori created the predecessor of the modern piano. In the subsequent 200
years, has been improved, and side as we see today, the modern piano. However, the
entire evolution of the piano can be traced back 600 years ago, before the advent of
the modern piano, the piano has been in existence for 300 years, we call this phase of
the piano for the harpsichord. The predecessor of the modern piano old piano only in
1709 the development and quality leap. Without the development of the ancient piano,
the "quantity" of accumulation, there will be no production in
1709 fortepiano "quality" of the leap.
Piano origin, dating back to ancient Egypt and ancient Greek in the string even (a
harp). The strings strings even increasing gradually formed a multi-stringed
instrument. Then it evolved into a multi-stringed instrument played two forms of
musical instruments. First to finger pluck at the strings of multi-stringed instrument
sounds. Combined with the keyboard after a harpsichord. The other is a finger toggle
keys, installed in the key end of a small hammer blow sounds of the old piano strings.
These two instruments are the originator of the modern piano, so piano system called
1. Harpsichords
Harpsichord - 哈 普 西 科 德 (Harpsichord) in the source and the performance
characteristics of the two major forms, all with the clavichord has exactly the same
characteristics. Is also basically the same shape, and even today we can hardly
distinguish them only from the shape what kind of piano. Appearance of two ancient
piano, audio, performance characteristics are identical, but they play the sound effect
is completely different. This is due to the different ways 使然 excited strings.
Harpsichord is plucked with the end of the keyboard device, which plucked the
plectrum is made of foil wrapped leather, also used as a bird's feather Ling
picks, it is also known as birds such piano control keyboard. Pressing keys on the
plucked, fingers simultaneously with, play out the sound, polyphony. This inspired
approach has its string sound insurmountable shortcomings. First of all, plucked the
way to the volume, tone is difficult to change, and the insurmountable toggle in the
toggle string generated when the noise. Also, because dial-chip time in the string can
not stay on strike as string Hammer tone when the strings stay as short (0.3 seconds),
so the full vibration of the strings can not, voice is weak and short. These
shortcomings can make it less than musical expression. But it sounds thin and full of
flavor has its own unique, in the ancient palace chamber, represented by the form of
popular music, the sound quality has no substitute for this unique function of its stage
in the history in music scene 300 in the coming year is proof of that.
2. Clavichord
Clavichord as 科拉维科德 (Clavichord), which in terms of audio, play forms,
inspired the way the strings are closer to the modern piano. However, because its
structure is too simple, not three as a lever for a transmission mode; two did not hit
immediately after the string from the strings of the device; 3 can not play in rapid
succession; 4 no modern piano has a "hard-soft" in Hammer .
These four aspects of a modern piano chord plane hit the main features of the
keyboard. For these reasons, the volume of clavichord small and thin, has a tranquil
sound of metal, and some percussion celesta like the sound characteristics of sound
has its charm. In the small-scale chamber music works with other instruments are hard
to replace and sound effects, and even in 1709, after the advent of the modern piano is
still active in the European music scene at more than 100 years. With the constant
improvement of modern piano, the rapid pace of social life arising from jazz, rock and
roll needs, old piano - like soft and delicate but shy lady - could only return home to
the modern stage, after the big screen the. Since the 19th century, the last years the
rise of Europe has a retro style, and major cities in Europe, well-preserved ancient
architectural splendor of community, Renaissance literature, art, music ... ... and so the
long-term vitality of classical culture and the arts to ancient piano again the costumes,
took to the stage. This is what we human being in the fast-forward look back on the
road looked discovered a valuable asset should not be discarded. Baroque music was
re-played the ancient piano has opened a new chapter. It is true that it does not occupy
the mainstream of the modern music scene, but we believe it will add to our spiritual
life, the magnificent sunset. Of course these ancient cultural heritage should not be
abandoned, because it not only adds to our lives sublime sunset, so we can see that
human ancestors who created the culture, and we more clearly see the richness of
modern instruments, The king of modern musical instruments - piano, then the
brilliant sun at high noon.
   3. The modern piano
There are two main forms of the modern piano: one for the upright piano (upright
piano), a triangular platform type (grand piano). There are standard size vertical
upright piano and trumpet, piano triangular platform, there are many sizes, from
smallest to use the large concert grand piano. There is also a piano in early
four-square style and a long triangular upright piano. Piano basically 85 to 88 keys,
piano pedal with two to three most important are two, one on the right, called the
strong pedal to get all off audio device is removed, so that any string is free vibration
when hit until the pedal is liberation; the left called the soft pedal, can build a voice
soft pedal.
4 automatic piano
Automatic piano original form (in the late 19th century) is in the ordinary piano plus a
removable "playing device" (player), shape mimicking a small
feet on reed organ, a row of 65-88 months, "Wood finger
"placed above the ordinary piano keyboard. Used for punching paper roll
play (hole position in line with the piano score) manipulation; box with feet on the
wind blowing, the wind slowly through the rotation of the roll on roll of holes, drive
the corresponding mechanical linked "wooden fingers" strike
keys to play the music. Thereafter there will be designed to perform outside the
device directly attached to the internal device on the piano, and can control the speed,
strength, pedal and so on. Automatic piano in the 20th century in Europe 20 years has
been widely popular in home entertainment, with over 500,000 units within two years
of production records; to 30 years since the rise of radio and record player, only
gradually be eliminated. But because drilling in the number of rolls from the
limitations of manpower fingers, the piano sound can maximize the number and range
use, it still automatically piano composers of all ages.
   Rachmaninoff, Debussy, Mahler, Gershwin, R ? Strauss have written music for this
instrument, made of paper tape for play use.
Modern Automatic Piano (80 years in this century) with the rapid development of
electronic technology, integrated circuit and CPU control with automatic piano
playing device possible. With this basic principle of automatic piano playing device
into a world-renowned enterprises U.S. PIANODISC, Japan and the United States
QRS YAMAHA Corporation. Its principle is to use a computer MIDI signal theory,
the piano keyboard speed and intensity of the signal and converted into a specific
notation for piano CPU can automatically identify the signal, drive 40V electric
signals to the bottom of the power installed in the keyboard part to promote the piano
hammer sound. As the sampling rate to further increase the performance of the piano
playing ability greatly enriched. Automatic piano in promoting the process of
localization in China, Shanghai overtone piano Technology Center, Beijing Institute
of companies such as musical instruments, for the automatic piano local R &
D, technology import in the effort.
   ?The piano is an expensive instrument, and therefore must be very careful when
purchasing. The best way to choose the piano is to pay special attention to sound,
touch, tuning stability, durability, appearance and tension of six.

1. Sound: To select a clear and sustained with rich sound, the music played from the
very light to very loud music paragraph paragraph, should be wide dynamic range,
tone quality of sound in the key strike a harmonious balance within. The best piano
sound board can be designed as a permanent crown, then in the full direction of a few
ribs to be protected, thus enabling increased service life of the instrument.

2. Touch: touch can allow beginners to feel comfortable, they make the players feel
accomplished handy. Piano into a fine lead block, which is used to maintain the
balance of touch keys. Improve the touch of another key issue is to use an accurate
nor a failure of both bodies hit string. If the piano parts to tolerances of five hundredth
of a millimeter, the result is that the volume can mean, feel even better to reduce the
frequency of maintenance.

3. Tuning stability: Every piano must make regular adjustments to the piano to sound
caused by one of the reasons is the string tension suffered great? (About 20 tons).
Therefore, after the piano frame structure should be carefully designed to enhance the
efficiency and extend the anti-strain adjustment interval. Tuning pin and the tuning
method is also able to enhance the tuning stability and accuracy.

4. Durability: General I am afraid there is no property of his family is more durable
than the piano, and this why the durability of the piano is a very important reason.
Everyone hopes piano performance, voice and long-term to maintain the same
appearance, durability piano is through careful selection of materials, the use of
advanced production equipment (including the latest scientific data and acoustic
expertise), and in the whole the manufacturing process to a very strict quality control
to achieve.

5. Appearance: Because the piano at home is often the most compelling
"furniture", so most of the per capita attached great importance
to the appearance of the piano, so when the piano in the choice, we must first consider
what the room will be placed on the piano, and then select the most suitable for their
own piano style.

6. Tension (Tension): strings to be stretched tuning screw, so that hammer hit the
strings on the piano to sound. The tension is that the extent of the strings are taut.
』 Solo Strings

Fantasy Impromptu (Chopin)

Prelude in E (Bach)

F chanter (Rubinstein)

Clouds Chasing the Moon (Wang Jianzhong)

Lullaby (Brahms)

Chunzhi Ge (Mendelssohn)

Heroic Polonaise (Chopin)

Military march (Schubert)

Fifth Hungarian Dance (Brahms)
Moonlight (Beethoven)

Clair de Lune (Debussy)

Italian Polka (Rachmaninoff)

Nocturne (Schumann)

Brown hair girls (Debussy)

Hungarian Rhapsody No. 6 (Liszt)

Spanish Rhapsody (Liszt)

Dream of Love (Liszt)

Dog Waltz (Chopin)

Passion Sonata (Beethoven)

Pathetique Sonata (Beethoven)

Dawn Sonata (Beethoven)

Four Seasons divertimento (Tchaikovsky)

L c sharp minor Prelude (Rachmaninoff)

Ave Maria (Gounod - Bach)

Shepherd Piccolo (Luting)

Bell - Paganini Etude No. 3 (Liszt)

Serenade (Schubert)

Dedicated to Alice (Beethoven)

Turkish march (Mozart)

Blue Danube (Johann Strauss)