# Calculating Fluency Rate

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```					Presented by Lynn Hoover, M.Ed., CALT-QI
Assistant Director
Rawson-Saunders School
Austin, Texas
Automatic Instant Retrieval
A.I.R.

Building Automaticity to Increase
Fluency and Comprehension
Why?

   Children who struggle the most with learning
structured, systematic training in this area

   Overlearning
   Early preventive intervention
may be particularly important
in the development of
automaticity and fluency.
(Torgesen et al., 2001)
Fluency Training

   Practice should only require
minutes a day
   Consistent and over time
   Builds on accuracy
   Practice with known words
Automatic Instant Retrieval
A.I.R.

   One minute practice

   Practice not assessment
Instant Letter Recognition

   Reading becomes fluent as a result of
the development of fluency of reading
subskills (e.g., naming letters).

   LaBerge and Samuels (1974)
   Good, Simmons, and Kame’enui (2001)
Instant Letter Recognition
Hierarchy of Skills

   Capital Letters – 5 or 6 letters
   Capital Letters - Mixed Practice

 Lower Case Letters – 5 or 6 letters
 Lower Case Letters - Mixed Practice

 Mixed Capitals and Lower Case Letters
Teacher Preparation

   Prepare Grid Template for use on

   Begin after students recognize
letters
J   K   L   M   N

L   J   K   N   M

M   K   L   N   J

N   L   M   J   K

N   J   K   M   L

K   M   J   L   N
Procedure for Instant
Letter Recognition
Activity One
 Practice first line with students. Students name
letters as teacher touches each letter.
 Teacher starts one minute timer and says, “Ready
 Students name letters as teacher touches each letter
on each row.
 If chart is completed in less than one minute, go to
top of chart and point to random letters or repeat
rows.
J   K   L   M   N

L   J   K   N   M

M   K   L   N   J

N   L   M   J   K

N   J   K   M   L

K   M   J   L   N
t   r   u   s   v

u   t   v   u   s

v   u   s   t   r

t   u   r   s   v

s   v   u   t   r

r   s   t   v   u
Activity Two
Phoneme Segmentation

   When children learn to distinguish
individual sounds, they are better able
to remember which letters make those
sounds and relate them when they can
see them.
Activity Two: Phoneme
Segmentation/Blending

   Auditory Activity

   One Minute Only

   Hierarchy
Hierarchy
   Words with 2 or 3 phonemes
   Words with 3 or 4 phonemes
   Words with final blend
   Words with initial blend
   Words with mixture of three, four, and
five phonemes
Blending Practice
   Teacher gives individual phonemes
segmented

   Students blend to make a word

   Provide both segmenting and blending
practice for students
Teacher Preparation
   Teacher prepares stimulus words to dictate
to students based on hierarchy of skills

   Teacher prepares words for a one minute
activity
Procedure for Phoneme
Segmentation
   Teacher dictates word to students and cues
students to segment into sounds. Students
will NOT echo in this activity.
   Teacher says, “Ready, (dictate word).”
   Give visual cue to keep students together
   Students give segmented phonemes
   (b) (l) (o) (t)
   STOP after one minute
Procedure for
Phoneme Blending

   Teacher says, “Look and listen”.
Teacher dictates segmented phonemes.
   Teacher gives visual cue for students to
respond with the blended word.
   Example: Teacher dictates – (f) (l) (i)
(p) Students respond – (flip)
   STOP after one minute
Activity Three
Rapid Word Recognition
   One minute activity
   Use Word Recognition Charts
   Only use words that have been
practice
   Words should be easy to read for Rapid
Word Recognition Practice
Procedure for Rapid
Word Recognition
   Teacher practices by having students read aloud the first
row.
   Teacher starts one minute timer and says, “Ready,
   Students read words as teacher touches each word in
each row.
   If chart is completed in less than one minute, teacher
goes to top of chart and points to random words or
repeats rows.
   STOP after one minute.
nap   sap   it    nip   at

it    nip   nap   sap   at

at    sap   nap   nip   it

sap   it    at    nip   nap

nip   sap   nap   it    at

at    sap   nip   nap   it
is     of    said    to    was

said    is     to    was     of

of    said   was     is     to

to     of     is    was    said

is    was    said    of     to

was     to     of    said    is

would     laugh      could    because    your

Friday      Sunday     Monday    Thursday    Wednesday

Thursday    Saturday    Tuesday   Wednesday    Sunday

Wednesday   Thursday    Friday    Saturday     Friday

Monday      Friday     Sunday     Tuesday    Wednesday

Saturday    Wednesday   Friday    Thursday     Tuesday

Sunday      Tuesday    Monday    Saturday    Thursday
on the hill   at the door    pass the hat     in a bag     with the pen

at the door    pass the hat    on the hill   with the pen     in a bag

pass the hat    in a bag      with the pen   at the door     on the hill

with the pen   on the hill    at the door      in a bag     pass the hat

in a bag     at the door    pass the hat    on the hill   with the pen

with the pen    in a bag       on the hill   pass the hat   at the door
tract     vis    struct   audi

graph     geo     bio     logy

scribe   auto     vis     tract

geo     audio   astro    struct

bio     tract   graph    audi
Automatic Instant Retrieval
A.I.R.
   Daily activity
   Three one minute activities
   Consistent repetition
   Easy practice to build automaticity
and fluency
Instructional Strategies to Increase

and with expression
Automaticity

 Automaticity is instant, accurate
recognition of letters and words
 Automaticity increases
meaning not decoding
Prosody

Prosody includes the rhythm of the language
Smooth, flowing reading, with natural pauses
fluency important?

Fluent readers are able to focus their
attention on understanding text.
Non-fluent readers focus on figuring out
words and have less attention available to
focus on comprehension.

Fluency ---> Comprehension
Calculating Accuracy
and Fluency Rates
How do we measure reading fluency?

RATE + ACCURACY = FLUENCY

COMPREHENSION
It is very important for students to practice
fluency at their independent or instructional level.

< 1 in 20 words is
Independent Level     95 % to 100 % accuracy
difficult

< 1 in 10 words is
Instructional Level   90 % to 94 % accuracy
difficult

> 1 in 10 words is
Frustration Level        < 90 % accuracy
difficult
Calculating Text Difficulty
 Subtract number of words read incorrectly from the number of
words in the passage (words read correctly)

 Divide the number of words read correctly by the total number
of words to calculate the percentage accuracy level

Example:

75 total words read - 12 errors = 63 words read correctly
63 / 75 = .84 (84% accuracy)

*This would be a frustration level text for this student.
Assessing
Fluency

Materials:
 2 copies of text at the students independent or

instructional reading level (one for the teacher to
record errors and one for the student to read)
 stopwatch or timer

 a tape recorder may be used
Assessing
Fluency

Procedure:

 Teacher tells the student:

 Try to read each word.

 If you come to a word you don‟t know, I will tell you the

word.

 Start timing when the student begins reading aloud.

Encourage the student not to “speed” read, but to do his/her
Count as Errors for
Fluency Assessment

   Omissions – omits a word
   Mispronunciations – words that are misread or are not
words
   Substitutions - says one word for another (ex. top for
tip)
   Reversals – reverses letters in a word (ex. „on‟ instead
of „no‟)
   Hesitations – does not say a word within 4 seconds
(after 4 seconds the teacher gives the word)
Do not count as
errors:

   Insertions – words that are added
   Self-corrections – errors that are corrected
within 3 seconds
   Repetitions – a repeated word or series of
words

 These    will lower fluency score, but do not

Total                                        Words
Number
of
_      Number
of          =        Correct
Per
Words                  Errors                 Minute

If a student reads 64 words and has 7 errors,
the student reads 57 words correct per
minute.
Establishing a Baseline

Average of 3 one-minute timings.
or
Use middle timing out of 3 one-
minute timings. (DIBELS)
To help students improve fluency,
it is important to…

Assess fluency regularly and systematically
Establish a baseline measure of fluency
Monitor progress
Practicing Fluency

Set fluency goals for individual students
Move to a higher level of text as students meet
their fluency goals
corrected feedback
Graphing Progress

   Graphing or charting progress is a good
tool for measuring and monitoring student
progress
   It is motivating for students to chart their
progress
   Students can easily graph their own
progress
Monitoring Fluency Practice

Read unpracticed text to the teacher and
graph wcpm
Practice rereading the same text several times
Read the text again to the teacher
Graph score in a different color

100

90

80

70
Nonsense Words CPM

60

50                                              1st gr. Avg.Score

40

30

20

10

0
1           2                         3
Benchm arks

35

30

25

20
WCPM

1st Average Score

15

10

5

0
1             2                             3
Benchm arks

40

35

30

25

Low est Score
WCPM

20                                                   Highest Score
Average

15

10

5

0
1               2                           3
Benchm arks

40

35

30

25

Low est Score
WCPM

20                                                   Highest Score
Average

15

10

5

0
1               2                           3
Benchm arks

140

120

100

80
Low est Score
WCPM

Highest Score
Average
60

40

20

0
1               2                           3
Benchm arks

180

160

140

120

100                                                   Low est Score
WCPM

Highest Score
80                                                    Average

60

40

20

0
1               2                           3
Benchm arks

140

120

100

80
Highest Score
CWPM

Low est Score
Average Score
60

40

20

0
1               2                           3
Benchm arks

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