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Depletion of Energy in the World and Alternative Forms of Energy

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Depletion of  Energy in the World and  Alternative Forms of  Energy Powered By Docstoc
					Depletion of Energy in the World and Alternative Forms of Energy
Nathan Jansen Deep Ecology Honor Seminar

California
 A record heat wave in the summer of 2000
sent energy demand soaring.  A drought caused the amount of energy from hydroelectric power to dwindle  Rolling blackouts were caused by lack of energy sources to the state.

1973 Oil Crisis
 Arab countries decide
not to ship oil to countries that supported Israel during the Yom Kippur War  OPEC decides to quadruple the price of oil

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill
 March 24, 1989 – oil tanker Exxon Valdez
hits a reef and spills between 11 million and 35 million gallons of crude oil  1900 km of coastline affected  Thousands of animals perished immediately

Natural Resources
 A natural resource is a material source of
wealth that occurs in a natural state and has economic value.  Examples
    Timber Fresh water Mineral deposits Energy

Energy is a Natural Resource
 About 80% of all energy consumption
comes from non-renewable sources  Renewable energy is energy captured from a natural process that can be replaced
 Example: solar, wind, hydroelectric  In theory fossil fuels are renewable energy sources

Mean Global Energy Consumption Rate
 Mean global energy consumption rate is
about 12.8 TW a year  Oil, gas, and coal account for 80%  Oil is by far the largest source of energy being consumed in the world (4.52 TW a year)

Oil
 In 2004, the World
uses 30 billion barrels per year (1 barrel = 42 gallons)  82 million barrels/day are consumed

Oil
 Number of barrels of oil used by an
average citizen per year: United States - 23.4 Japan - 14.0 Spain - 13.8 Mexico - 6.0 Brazil - 3.5 China - 1.5 India - 0.8

Problems with Oil
 Hard to estimate how much oil is left in the
world’s oil reserves  Currently only 30-35% of the oil is extracted from oil wells  Oil demand is increasing 1.6%/year  Currently, the US produces less than ½ of its peak production of oil in the continuous 48 states which was in 1970

Peak Oil
 Peak oil is the point where oil production
peaks and goes into decline  Results in massive economic depression and skyrocketing fuel prices

Energy
 World Energy demand is growing about
2% per year.  Estimated by the year 2040, that energy demand will be 40% more than 2004.

Fossil Fuels
 It appears that fossil fuels are the answer
to energy problems in the United States
 Cheap  Apparently abundant

Fossil Fuels
 However, there are grave and serious
drawbacks
 Government subsidies depress the costs of fossil fuels  The cost of creating fossil fuels is not considered because it is of no cost to mankind  Costs do not take into account the societal costs to mankind

Alternate Energy Sources
 Hydroelectric power  Wind power  Solar power  Nuclear power  Hydrogen

Wind Power/Solar Power
 Practical when wind speed is more than
12.5 miles/hour  Only practical in 27% of land on earth  Solar has extremely large potential (1.2e5 TW)  With existing technology, large land mass needed to be applicable

Hydrogen Fuel
 Hydrogen is the most abundant element in
the universe  Easily stored and clean burning  Chemical energy from hydrogen can be obtained without combustion or pollution

Problem with Hydrogen
 Technology is still rather expensive  Most designs are not practical enough to
withstand real world problems  Hydrogen is not an energy source and still must be produced by another energy source.

The Hydrogen Car
 Hydrogen reacts with oxygen in fuel cells
to produce energy  Exhaust is water vapor which is environmentally friendly  A different version of hydrogen cars is the hydrogen internal combustion engine car

Ethanol in Transportation
 Ethanol – Easily renewable and derived
from many products  Gasohol

Why Should This Matter?
 Air pollution is the cause of over 3 million
deaths yearly (50k-100k in the US)  We depend on energy to live  Alternative energy sources are currently a great deal more expensive

Deep Ecology
 Reasons why we need to switch to
alternative fuels as soon as possible
 Longer the wait, the harder it will be  Large costs to society

 What can we do?
 Always drive less  Fuel efficient cars  Conserve electricity

Sources
 http://www.answers.com/topic/natural-resource  http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2000/12/20/nati     
onal/main258564.shtml http://www.eere.energy.gov http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exxon_Valdez_oil_sp ill http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309087414/html/ 33.html http://www.oilcrisis.com http://www.undp.org/seed/eap/activities/wea/


				
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