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Gothic (gothic) 3) An architectural style Gothic architecture is the second half of the 11th century, originated in France, 13 to a 15th century architectural style popular in Europe. Mainly seen in the Catholic Church, also affected the secular building. Gothic architecture with its superb technical and artistic achievement, occupies an important place in architectural history. Gothic stone church in the structure of the skeleton by the voucher system and the composition of flying buttresses. The basic unit is a square or rectangular plane in the four corners of the pole tip vouchers to do double center of the circle frame, all four sides and one diagonal, slate roof rack in the coupons, the formation of the vault. In this way, you can make a vector of different span the same high coupons, dome light, intersections clear, reducing the coupon foot thrust, simplified construction. Flying buttresses outside the hall by the side of the dolphins send coupons to balance the side thrust of the Office of the foot arch. In order to increase stability, often dolphins on the puzzle steeple. As a result of tip tickets, pointed arches and flying buttresses, Gothic church interior Gaokuang, simple, unified. Decorative details such as the canopy, with a pointed niche, also have coupons for theme, style and structure approach to form an organic whole. Europe&#39;s classic Gothic architecture Half of the 11th century, Gothic-style building the first rise in France. Some churches have emerged in France at that time frame rib vaults and flying buttresses of the prototype. Generally considered the first truly Gothic church is the church Shengdanni the suburbs of Paris. The church four tickets to solve cleverly pointed arch between the arch rib frame structure, a large area of the stained glass windows for many churches are to follow later. Although the French Gothic church is a Latin cross plane, but very few prominent horizontal wing. The west is the main entrance, Tung Tau Wan hall there react building, many small prayer room into a radial shape. Office within the church, especially in high-rise, there is a large stained glass universe. Its appearance is the distinctive feature of many large and small minaret and spire, tall clock tower on the west also excuses some spire. Plane cross at the intersection of the roof has a very high spire, buttresses and Qiangduo also have exquisite spire, small windows high up momentum throughout the church, strong, extremely rich in sculpture. West front is the focus of architecture, the typical composition is: on both sides of a pair of tall clock tower, below the level of the transverse coupons gallery contact, 3 gate layers back from the perspective of the tip of the composition of the door tickets, coupons face full of statues. Above the main entrance has a big round-chou, known as the rose window, carved exquisite gorgeous. French masterpiece of early Gothic church of Notre-Dame de Paris. Amiens Cathedral is French Gothic masterpiece Flourishing Period, 137 meters long, 46 meters wide, cross-wing protruding little east of the house into a ring-shaped arrangement of radiation seven vestry. 15 meters wide in the room, vaulted as high as 43 meters, the Office of the arch in the plane for the rectangular room, each with a cross vault, vaulted room with the corresponding side. Column is no longer round, four small columns attached to a cylinder, forming beam column. Column and on top of the ticket fine rib momentum linked to enhance the upward momentum. Large stained glass inside the church all over the universe, could barely see the wall. Outside the church carved beautiful, magnificent. This church is Gothic architecture maturity. Flourishing Period of the famous church in France and Lance Chartres Cathedral and the main church, and along with Amiens and Beauvais Cathedral Cathedral together with four known as the French Gothic church. Strasbourg is also famous cathedral, its spire 142 meters high. After the Hundred Years War, France in the 14th century, almost no construction of the church. Gothic revival building up, the flame pattern has been to the period of this style due to lattice-shaped, such as flame named Zhou. Architectural decoration tends to &quot;flow&quot; complex. Beam columns are not stigma, and many fine column from the ground directly to the vault, a rib rack. There have been decorated ribbed vault, rib rack into a star or other complex forms. At that time, few large-scale construction of the church. This style often seen in the cathedral&#39;s additions or alterations section as well as more minor new church. Secular Gothic buildings in France during the large number of Gothic churches and the structure and form are very different. As the years of war, the city&#39;s defense is strong. Mostly built castle on high ground, thick stone walls, bunkers everywhere, strict form. However, limits the development of the city walls, crowded noisy city, living conditions are very poor. Multi-storey public house close to the narrow streets, Mountain Wall Street. Start overhangs to extend the second floor space, a layer is usually workshops or shops. Mostly wood frame structure, the formation of beautiful patterns are exposed, rather Rao joyfully. Rich pavilion, City Hall, Workers, the multi-purpose masonry construction, with many of the Gothic church decoration technique. British Gothic architecture emerged later than in France, popular in 12 to the 16th century. Church of England church did not like France stood in the crowded urban centers, and strive to tall, the control city, but are often located in open rural environment, as the complex part of the monastery buildings, Bijiao low, along with with Xiudao Yuan Fang Xiang Shui 1000 stretch. They do not like the French church structure is so highly technical, but the decoration is more free and diverse. British churches are generally long duration, during which continued alteration, addition, it is difficult to find the overall style of uniform. Britain&#39;s Salisbury Cathedral and the construction of the cathedral of Amiens, France&#39;s close, the Office of the lower deep, on both sides of each side of the hall, more prominent cross-wing, and after a short cross wing, can accommodate more priests, this is the layout of the UK common practice. Also in the west facade. East end of the first multi-Israel Chamber, little house with a ring. Salisbury church despite flying buttresses, but not significant. Church of England in the plane of the steeple cross at the intersection are high, a composition center, west of the clock tower behind. Salisbury center of the church spire is about 123 meters high, is the highest in the Church of England. The church features the appearance of the British, but the interior is still a French style of decoration simple. Later, inside the church have a strong British style. York west of the church complex window grilles, window lattice composed of many curves and vivid patterns. Vault rib rack that period is rich in Exeter church rib rack like tree branches open general, very powerful, also used by the bundle composed of many cylindrical column. Church of East Gloucester head and Canterbury Cathedral in the west, great windows, with many direct lattice partition through windows, at most, four-center of the circle for the cheaper tickets. Coiled stretch rib slim frame, very ornate. Cambridge King&#39;s Chapel&#39;s dome as many open fan, called fan arch. Wesminster Henry VII chapel monastery in the vault made many drooping funnel-shaped flower decoration, Handicraft very poor. This time, the role of rib frame structure has been lost, became the superb skills of British craftsmen performance targets. The United Kingdom a large number of rural small church, very simple and friendly, often one of a tower, using a variety of elaborate wooden frame, very unique. Secular Gothic architecture during the British high achievement. Popular in the early Gothic architecture, feudal lords of the castle has a strong defensive, very thick walls, there are many towers and forts, there are high walls of nuclear Fort. After the 15th century, royal and further consolidation of the castle wall to open the window, and give more consideration to live in comfort. British residents in apartments with semi-timber wood columns and wood as the framework for cross-file, add a decorative pattern, dark wooden beams and white walls and white columns, look lively. Germany, one of the earliest Gothic churches of Cologne Cathedral in 1248 sowed by the construction of over Amiens Cathedral in the French design, Flourishing Period of the French Gothic style church, with the singer and the Temple Church of Amiens similar. It&#39;s in the Office of Internal up to 46 meters, second only to France, Beauvais Cathedral. 152 meters west of the high towers, very spectacular. German church very early to form their own shape and characteristics, its height in the same hall and side room, neither the high side windows, and no flying buttresses, completely on the side windows of the Office of the external walls of thin and light. Dome atop the overall steep roof layer, the internal is a multi-pillar hall. West of St. Elizabeth Church of Marlborough has two towers, more elegant appearance, is representative of this church. Germany there is a positive only in the church to build a high clock tower of the Gothic-style church. Well-known example is the Ulm Cathedral. Its bell tower up to 161 meters, controls the entire building composition, can be described as the wonders of the medieval church building. Brick church is very popular in Scandinavia, northern Germany, there are many brick Gothic church. After the 15th century, the German stone technique reached its peak. Stone window lattice knife skillful, delicate China and the United States. Sometimes, two overlapping patterns with different stone window grilles, exquisitely carved. Decoration inside the building pieces, there are some beautiful masterpiece. Secular Gothic architecture in Germany during the masonry construction of multi-purpose building. Double-sloping roof is steep, there are loft, and even multi-storey loft, roof and gable walls, layers of open windows, light wood walls often singled out, balcony, or niche, the appearance of very special features. Italian Gothic architecture in the 12th century imported from abroad, mainly affects the northern region. Italy did not really accept the Gothic structural system and modeling principles, just take it as a decorative style, so here is extremely difficult to find a &quot;pure&quot; Gothic-style church. Italian church does not emphasize the height and vertical sense, positive and no high clock tower, but with the gable-screen composition. Than the flat roof, small windows, often semi-circular tip vouchers and coupons and have a very rare flying buttresses, carvings and decorations of the Roman classical style obviously. Siena Cathedral rib rack using coupons, but only until the dome slightly tapered, the other is still semi-circular. Orvieto Cathedral, it is still the top sub-frame huts. This is similar to the front of two churches, the overall composition is the development of screen-style gables, intermediate high, low side, there are three mountain tip. Although the use of a number of external Gothic pinnacle and London as a wall decoration, but in the wall of the large circular windows and a continuous coupon Gallery, is still the inherent style of the Italian church. Italy&#39;s most famous Gothic cathedral is the Cathedral of Milan, which is one of the largest church in medieval Europe, 14th century, started 80 years until the early 19th century was finalized. Pillars within the church by the four rows separated by wide and 49 meters. About 45 meters high in the hall, and in the cross-wing with the Office of the intersection, even dial up to 65 meters above a octagonal pavilion lighting. Little higher than the side of the room in the hall, the high side of the window is small. Comparing the dark interior, exterior building entirely by dazzling white marble was constructed. Tall flower windows, vertical buttresses and spire 135, have shown upward momentum, like a statue on top of the tower was about to mount up. West gable front is the Italian word, but also decorated with a very sharp coupons Duo Gete-style minaret. But it&#39;s doors and windows have been with the late Renaissance style. Also in this period, the Italian city&#39;s secular high architectural achievement, especially in the many rich cities of the Republic, the construction of municipal buildings and many famous sites. City Hall Plaza, generally located in the center of the city, thick stone walls, seriously heavy; more clock tower with a lanky frame, building a rich composition, a square sign. Cities are generally built many towers, the overall contour is beautiful. Many buildings of Venice&#39;s secular masterpiece. Piazza San Marco on the Governor&#39;s Palace is considered secular medieval building in one of the most beautiful works. Facade with a row of Gothic-style pointed coupons and vouchers Gallery flame patterns, unique composition, bright colors. Venice there are many sites with a Gothic portico, standing near the water, very elegant. ? 4) a dress style Something any black or other dark, such as navy blue, dark red. Can through the (thin nylon fishing net fabric), but not exposed. Silver. Pale skin. This may be because they need a the appearance of the living dead, it may be because we wanted to reflect the Victorian era of &quot;pale skin is a sign of nobility,&quot; the aesthetic, it may be against the beach culture, &quot;the sun is out of the bronze America&#39;s &quot;health theory. Black hair, very light bleached blonde hair, red hair or purple hair. Black and white makeup. White Foundation. Black lipstick, black eye shadow, insignificant. Self bondage and fetish clothing decoration. Leather, PVC, rubber, latex, are essential fabric. Medieval tunic is also very common. Wide collar tie or succeed nails or tied tightly around the neck of the velvet rope. T-Cross chapter (the ancient Egyptian symbol of eternal life). Five-pointed star. This is a heretic on the fire, land, air, water, symbol of the soul. Cross (Christian symbol). Opera-style cape, cloak and long gloves. Gothic family who were generally not as extreme as punk, they speak some taste. 5) a class of printed or handwritten fonts A class of printed or handwritten font, very beautiful. Others: Moonlight strewn earth the dark is one single song of all special dynasty Numerous play black night, the moonlight surrounded by everything coolly. Air across the sharp lines, such as exploring the world&#39;s most evil. Tightly attached to the life and death, rendering the darkness and despair. Gothic (Gothic) the name is from Germany, &quot;Goth&quot; tribal origins, Goth who invaded Italy and overthrown the Roman Empire. In the 15th century, it is generally with the concept of the Renaissance, hope to return to the classical era. Between classical and Renaissance period is known as the Middle Ages. Goth unpopular with the Italian people as they destroyed the Roman Empire, Renaissance, medieval people always with the negative terms, they call this period as &quot;Gothic&quot;. Means the barbaric and savage. Of course, we want to see things as double-sided nature of the Middle Ages to the world left a lot of valuable cultural heritage and outstanding works of art. This breakthrough technology during the construction of modified and produced as NOTRE-PAME this Gothic cathedral. Gothic art is not only reflected in the architecture, from the 12th century to the early 16th century, sculpture, glass, decoration and so labeled Gothic Art label. Religion in the Gothic works of art played a very important factor. Painters, sculptors have used the realistic approach than the performance of the use of religious themes more sense. After all, the Renaissance man door is clearly &quot;Gothic&quot; is the implicit denial of the term. Gothic is not a religion, not political, and racial, gender has nothing to do. Most of Gothic bands are non-religious or even anti-religious band positive. Those vampires, Catholic, pagan ancient Egypt and convey visual signals only in the &quot;dark forces&quot; to link to the song the feeling of special music. Gothic family had with other social groups with the same age also exists in the social tendencies, you will find the largest Gothic family is actually a political tendency to the extreme cold, since almost all political parties and the views are the same sounds, but useless. Gothic reason to exist Many people have no happiness and success by a life dominated, it is very unfortunate. However, special envoy of this depressed feeling song became a way of life, in other words: pain is my life choice - it is an art. Gothic and perhaps is a kind of spiritual therapy. If you are a white-collar workers belong to mainstream society carefully about you after the last suicide attempt, he may be hiding with a strange vision of you stay away, on a sunny day you might be able to get cheap companion will never feel sorry for you, your wrist will be seriously wounds the respect, &quot;you&#39;re cool!&quot; all the people who are misfits in society will be in the song to find their own special family place, because here each one is unique.
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