French Fifth Republic Attractions Paris Arc de Triomphe (L&#39;arc de Triomphe) is located in the heart of Paris Star Plaza (now known as General de Gaulle Square) in central France to commemorate Napoleon in February 1806 to defeat Russia in the Battle of Austerlitz, Austria coalition built, 12 Avenue to the Arc de Triomphe as the center, the surrounding radiation, magnificent, the shape of a spark. Designed by the architect Xiaergelan Arc de Triomphe, in August 1806 the foundation, which lasted for 30 years, completed in July 1836. Arc de Triomphe high 49.54 meters, width 44.82 m, 22.21 m thick. It has four doors, the center arch width of 14.6 meters, with two high pier gatehouse as the pillar, lift up and down the middle. In the vaulted dome over a three-tier veranda, the highest level is a showroom, where the Arc de Triomphe display a variety of historical artifacts and pictures of Napoleon&#39;s life story; second collection of various French decorations, medals; the lowest layer is the Arc de Triomphe of the Security Service and the Accounting Office. Center of the south bank of the Seine in Paris, the Eiffel Tower is a steel structure of the world&#39;s first tower is seen as a symbol of Paris. Because of the famous French architect Gustave Eiffel designed and built its name. Built in 1887-1889 years. 300-meter high tower, the tower weighs 9,000 tons, three points. The first level platform from the ground 57 meters of shops and restaurants; second platform 115 meters high, with cafes; third tier platform up to 276 meters for visitors to overlook the bottom area of 10,000 square meters, in the third floor office building structure suddenly shrink, the blue sky. Looked from one side, write down the letters as &quot;Y&quot;. The towers consist of components from the 1.8 million and more than 250 million rivets form. Elevator or walking denta top. At night, the top issue of turning the searchlight of light colored, anti-aircraft collisions. Tower erected next to a rectangular white marble columns, gilded capitals head placed Gustave Eiffel. ?Louvre (Palais du Louvre) is one of France&#39;s largest royal palace building, the right bank of the Seine in central Paris, the Paris Opera House Square, south side. Was originally a medieval castle, 16th century, after numerous alterations, extension to the existing scale of the 18th century. Covering about 45 hectares. Back in 1546, King Francois I decided on the basis of the original castle, built a new palace, then after nine monarchs continued expansion, which lasted more than 300 years, forming a U-shaped in the magnificent splendor of the palace buildings. August 10, 1793, the anniversary of the overthrow of the monarchy, the French &quot;National Association&quot; decided to side as the old National Palace Museum of Fine Arts; the same year on November 18, the Louvre museum officially opened to the public. The whole project was completed in 1857. I shaped main hall in the Louvre, the west side, stretching out the two side rooms, the space in square formation Carew game. Temple colonnade east have long list of building majestic. The 900-foot long gallery, large collection of Renaissance in Europe during the seventeenth century, many artists. Collection of over 400,000 products. Louvre Museum and Art Gallery is divided into six parts: the Greek and Roman Art; Eastern Museum of Art; the Egyptian Museum; the European Middle Ages, Renaissance and modern sculpture museum; ancient art museum. Exhibition by different schools, school and age division. Layer display sculpture, painting the second floor, three are drawings and color pastels. The early eighties, the French government to implement the expansion and restoration of the Louvre&#39;s &quot;big Louvre plan.&quot; Notre Dame (Notre-Dame de Paris) is the most famous medieval Gothic cathedral, with its size, age and archeology, architecture known value. Paris, Maurice Bishop Bruce Lee had assumed the two earlier Basilica (rectangular) synthesis of a large cathedral church in 1163 by Pope Alexander III laid the foundation at the high altar at the 1189 dedication ceremony in 1240 sing Class I, west front and hall completed, porch, prayer rooms and other decoration in a hundred years later built one after another. Within the plane 130 × 48 meters, 35 meters high roof, 68 meters high tower. Tower&#39;s spire is not always built. Damage to the church through the ages have rebuilt in the 19th century, only three large rose windows remain a 13th century stained glass. Hall after flying buttresses and beautiful especially vigorous. Bastille ruins (Place de la Bastille) is located east of Paris, the right bank of the Seine, where the year 1369-1382 was established in a military fortress. &quot;Bastille&quot; in French means &quot;castle.&quot; This ancient castle has eight towering rugged forts, built at the beginning is to resist the British invasion. 1380-1422 years, the castle was changed to royal prison. The whole area of 2670 square meters castle, built around a wall of tall, thick stone walls and eight towers over 30 meters high, surrounded by digging a deep trench 24 meters wide, set up bridge and out. Early in the 16th century, where political prisoners held on the beginning, the French Enlightenment thinker Voltaire once held here twice. In the eyes of the people of France, the Bastille has become a symbol of the French feudal autocratic rule. July 3, 1789, Paris, naturally excited the people revolt, 14, captured the Bastille marked the prelude to the French Revolution. In 1791, the people of Paris destroyed the Bastille, built on its site the Bastille Square and the stone removed to Concord shop to the Seine bridge for pedestrians trample. In 1830, the French people has set up a memorial in the square center of revolutionary martyrs monument in July. This martyr monument 52 meters high, cast bronze sculpture is a cylinder, called the &quot;July cylinder&quot; in the column top is a right hand holding the torch of the Statue of Liberty gold wings and statues were smashed off his left hand carrying a symbol of the chains were obtained free. Stand in front of the prison site was a sign that read: &quot;People here dance!&quot; In June 1880, France July 14 Bastille in Paris the people that day as the French National Day. ?Panthéon (le Panthéon) left bank of the Seine in central Paris&#39;s Latin Quarter, built in 1791, is a permanent memorial temple famous French history. It was originally built in St. Louis 15 times thermal Neiweiyewa church was nationalized in 1791 after separated from religion, to bury the &quot;great men&quot; of the cemetery. 1814 to 1830, it returned to the church. Pantheon of Art Deco is very beautiful, its dome is a large mural painter Antoine Grothe creation. 1830 &quot;July Revolution&quot;, the painting&#39;s subject to change, Pantheon has a &quot;purely patriotic and national&quot; characteristics. Pantheon in the tomb of Voltaire, Rousseau, Victor Hugo, Emile Zola, 马塞兰贝托 Luo, let Jaures, Berlioz, Malraux, Dumas, Pierre and Marie Curie and so on. To November 2002, a total of 72 pairs of French people who have made extraordinary contributions to the honor. Georges Pompidou National Art and Culture Center (Centre National d&#39;art et de Culture Georges Pompidou) in the Latin Quarter is located north of Fort Avenue Bo the right bank of the Seine, the locals often also referred to as &quot;Bo Castle.&quot; Cultural Center of the external steel lined, vertical and horizontal pipes, and painted according to different functions are red, yellow, blue, green, and white. Because of this very modern building appearance as a factory, it has &quot;refineries&quot; and &quot;cultural facility,&quot; said. This novel design, modeling specific modern building is the late President Pompidou decided to build in 1969, officially started in 1972, built in 1977, opened in February the same year. The building covers an area of 7,500 square meters, construction area of 100,000 square meters, 6 floors. The building is divided into industrial creation center, public knowledge, Library, Museum of Modern Art and music sound harmonized with the four major research centers. Union Square (Place de la Concorde) is located in the heart of Paris, Seine River North, is France&#39;s most famous square and the world&#39;s most beautiful squares. Square was founded in 1757, is based on the design of renowned architect 卡布里埃尔 built. Center for Place Louis XV had a ride like plastic, 1763, has been named &quot;Place Louis XV.&quot; 1793 Revolution, the people of Paris rose up and destroyed the statue of Louis XV and Louis XVI sent to the guillotine, now renamed the &quot;Revolution Square.&quot; 1795 pushed it renamed the &quot;Union Square&quot;, after renovation by the architect Xituo Fu hosted the final in 1840 formed the present scale. Center of the square stands a 23 meter high, with 3,400 years of Egyptian history, the obelisk, which is Louis - Philippe Luxor in 1831, moving from Egypt to the well-known artifacts, written records of ancient monument with Pharaoh Ramesses II deeds. Each side of a stone fountain. Pool exquisite carving work is Xituo Fu. Square around the statue placed eight were a symbol of 8 in France played an important role in the history of the city: Lyon, Marseille, Bordeaux, Nantes, Rouen, Brest, Lille and Strasbourg. ?Champs Elysees (Avenue des Champs-Elysees) west to east from Union Square, Star Plaza, total length of about 1800 meters, the street about 120 meters at its widest point, is running through Paris, and the most unique, one of the busiest streets . In French, &quot;Champs Elysees&quot; is &quot;paradise garden&quot; means. In the past, there was a low-lying wet ground. 17th century reign of Louis XIV, was here afforestation, making it exclusively for pleasure of the closed court and aristocracy. Later, Abdul things in the park west axis of the extension built here nearly 1 km long avenue. Extension was added later, in 1709 it will be named the Champs Elysees. Avenue to north-south Roosevelt Avenue (Av. Roosevelt) for the sector, divided into two different styles of things. East reflects the quiet rural scenery, about 700 meters, the rows of dripping green parasol, garden caught in the middle of the street trees is plexus and disappeared. More than one thousand one hundred meters long western section, west of the star center of the square there are high and lofty, well known as the Arc de Triomphe. North and south ends of the eastern end of Union Square, there Bourbon House, Magdalene Cathedral. Place de la Concorde in Paris, another hub. Champs are large and small exhibitions Elysee Palace and other historical sites. Some of the major festivals in France ─ ─ 7 月 14 National Day parade, New Year&#39;s gathering in the streets of this famous hold. Historical Figures French playwright Moliere: January 15, 1622 Health. Entitled to - 巴蒂斯特波 Crane. Moliere Theatre after he participated in with the list. Moliere 10-year-old mother died, my grandfather often took him to see a farce, comedy and tragicomedy. 50&#39;s, started to play some of Moliere farce and comedy, such as &quot;Daredevil&quot; (1653). 1658 back to Paris, engaged in classical comedy creation, a series of works appeared, such as &quot;lovely woman wit&quot; (1659), &quot;斯卡纳莱尔&quot; (1660), &quot;the husband Lovers&quot; (1661), &quot;Mrs. Lovers&quot; (1662). 1664-1668, is Moliere&#39;s creative peak stage, and plays a &quot;hypocrite&quot; (1664), &quot;Don Juan&quot; (1665), &quot;The Miser&quot; (1668) and so on. After 1668, Molière also wrote some satire. Moliere wrote a life of more than 30 comedy. Characters in his proper shape factor into a farce, full use of everyday language, the arts comedy has made outstanding contributions. Moliere died in 1673. Voltaire (1694-1778 years): 18th century French Enlightenment thinkers, known as &quot;the king thought,&quot; &quot;the best French poet.&quot; Formerly Francois - 玛利阿鲁埃, Voltaire is the pen name. Born in Paris to a wealthy middle-class family, well educated young age. Voltaire experienced a Louis XIV, 15, 16 rule of the three feudal dynasty, witnessed the feudal despotism to slow down, feeling the decadent feudal autocracy and reactionary rule. Youth against the feudal aristocracy having published works, two were sent to the Bastille. After his release in 1725, lived in Britain for three years. He advocates an &quot;enlightened monarch&quot; rule, a constitutional monarchy. Created many works of Voltaire, his opposition to the feudal autocracy, against religious superstition, to promote the principles of freedom and equality, advocating that people are equal before the law. His major works include: &quot;Dictionary of Philosophy,&quot; &quot;On the customs and spirit of all peoples,&quot; &quot;Louis XIV era,&quot; and so on. Also wrote about China&#39;s historical drama &quot;China&#39;s orphans.&quot; Rousseau (1712-1778): French Enlightenment thinker, philosopher. Geneva watchmaker born in the family. Worked as servants, secretaries, tutors, music copyist. Advocate the establishment of a bourgeois democratic republic, that the people subjected to private ownership is the root of social oppression, but does not advocate complete elimination of private ownership. His major works include &quot;The Social Contract&quot; (the old translation of &quot;The Social Contract&quot;), &quot;On the origin and basis of human inequality,&quot; &quot;Confessions&quot; and so on. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821 year): French politicians and military strategists, the first Emperor of France (1808-1814 years). Born in Corsica Ajaccio city. He graduated from military academy in Paris, a former artillery lieutenant, Major. 1793 Battle at Toulon set exploits, is subject to breaking Gatti. Governor&#39;s administration led his army attack on Italy (1796) and Egypt (1798). November 1799 coup, the establishment of executive government. 1804 became the emperor. Defeat of 1812 war with Russia, the Empire disintegrated. 1815 defeat at Waterloo. Was exiled to St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean. Victor Hugo (1802-1885 years): the history of French literature&#39;s greatest writers. He talented, creative enduring literary career for half a century. Humanitarianism is the main line runs through his works. Victor Hugo on February 26, 1802 was born in Besan?on, France a military family, childhood, father went to Italy, Spain, in 1814 settled in Paris. In his youth he took to the struggle for social progress and the road. 1831 published the novel &quot;Notre Dame de Paris&quot; show writer, strong anti-feudal, anti-Christian ideas. 1848, &quot;February Revolution&quot; began, Victor Hugo has become a strong Republican and was elected a member of the Constituent Assembly, the French National Assembly, leader of the Social Democratic Left. 1851 路易波拿巴 coup. Victor Hugo immediately issued a declaration to resist, unfortunately, failed. In the same year in December, Victor Hugo was forced to flee to Brussels. Up to 19 years in exile during the Victor Hugo has always insisted on the struggle against dictatorship of Napoleon III, and adhere to write. 1862, completed the novel &quot;Les Miserables.&quot; The fall of 1870, the Second Empire, Victor Hugo returned to their homeland. 1872, completed his last novel, &quot;2093.&quot; May 22, 1885 died in Paris. Victor Hugo, the pace of life following the progress of the times is the history of French literature, an important writer. Particularly worth mentioning that in 1861, when Victor Hugo that British and French invaders set fire to the Summer Palace issued a furious indignation. He stated rightly wrote: &quot;France has gained a half of the stolen goods, and now it was as if his innocence is like a real owner, the Yuanmingyuan glorious loot out the exhibition. I look forward to one day France to get rid of the weight, clean the guilt of these were looted wealth back to China. &quot; Claude Monet (1840-1926) famous French artist, painter. Born in Paris in 1840, spent his childhood in Havre, he came to Paris in 1859, witnessed several well-known at the time of early impressionist painters. His appreciation of their work, but Monet is not their followers but a rebel. Monet on the form do not care, his concern is that level is out of tune because of Monet on the shape, so he can easily see the demonstration of the things he did, but because of this, he has the illusion of things can not be displayed realistic. In 1872, Monet created the famous known to the world&#39;s &quot;impression, sunrise.&quot; The painting depicts the sunrise through the mist watching A Foer port scene. Poke point directly to the painting brush paint the morning fog did not clear the background, giving the surface an infinite variety of colors brilliant, is not accurately depict those boats can still be seen. The painting in the March 25, 1874 opening of the Impressionist painters on display at the first joint exhibition, Monet painting is a painting of the most unique. Pasteur (L. Louis Pasteur 1822-1895), French microbiologist, chemist, the founder of modern microbiology. Pasteur in Besan?on 1839-1842 Royal Academy ,1843-1846 Senior Normal School in Paris, awarded a doctorate. Pasteur and pathogenic microorganisms in the microbial fermentation of research laid the industrial microbiology and medical microbiology base and create a microbial physiology. Invented the &quot;pasteurization.&quot; Rodin (1840-1917), French sculptor, the father of modern sculpture. 1874, Rodin&#39;s &quot;Bronze Age&quot; was selected the official Salon. &quot;Bronze Age&quot; is based on real people shaped the man nude sculpture, realistic approach. As with life-sized statue, it is very lifelike human musculoskeletal, after the display caused a sensation within the selection committee has even been claimed that he was down from the body on screen printing. Fortunately, Boucher came forward to defend Rodin, who they are not to suffer even more vicious slander. Ru 勒 昂 利 庞 加 Levin (Jules Henri Poincar é ,1854-1912), one of France&#39;s greatest mathematicians, theoretical scientists and philosophers of science. Poincaré is recognized as the 19th century and early 20th century leader of mathematicians, after following the Gaussian for Mathematics and its Applications with full knowledge of the last one. He mathematics, mathematical physics, and celestial mechanics make a lot of creative contribution to the foundation. ? BC Gaul national history people lived. 1st century BC, the Roman Governor of Gaul Caesar occupied the whole of Gaul, under Roman rule from 500 years. Franks conquered Gaul in the 5th century AD, the establishment of Frankish kingdom. One prototype of the French West Francia. After the 10th century, the rapid development of feudal society. 1337 King coveted the throne of France, the outbreak of &quot;Hundred Years War.&quot; Initial, large tracts of land by the British occupation of France, King captured the French people after the anti-aggressive war, the end of the Hundred Years War in 1453. The late 15th to early 16th century, centralized state. Mid-17th century, peaked in the autocratic monarchy. Voltaire and Rousseau&#39;s death 11 years later, with the development of bourgeois power, July 14, 1789, hand-held weapons, the people of Paris storming of the Bastille. Detained in prison was only 7 people, but people who are fighting this day, at the expense of 98 individuals. August 26, 1789, the French Revolution&#39;s program, &quot;Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Citizenship&quot; formally adopted. Revolution abolished the monarchy, and in September 22, 1792 to establish the First Republic. November 9, 1799 (18 Brumaire), Napoleon Bonaparte seized power, December 2, 1804, Notre Dame held a grand coronation, Napoleon Bonaparte became France The first emperor. February 1848 outbreak of the revolution, the establishment of the Second Republic. 1851 路易波拿巴 presidential coup the following year in December to establish the Second Empire. March 18, 1871, held in Paris, people armed uprising, the establishment of the Paris Commune. In the same year by the end of May, brutally crushed by French troops. In 1870, after defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, France in September 1871 the Third Republic was established, until June 1940 when the government of France surrendered to Germany, Tony, thus ending the Third Republic. The first time was during World War II German invasion of France. In 1944, a symbol of victory in the French Arc de Triomphe, has come a real triumph. Under the leadership of Charles de Gaulle, fighting for freedom not only to defeat France French nation to make its due contribution to the revival of France after the war but also paved the way for. In June 1944 announced the establishment of the interim government, de Gaulle as head of the Constitution, adopted in 1946, the establishment of the Fourth Republic. September 1958 through a new constitution, the establishment of the Fifth Republic, de Gaulle was elected president in December the same year. In 1959, the French colony of Algeria announced the acceptance of national self-determination, which began to bid farewell to colonialism. In 1963, France and West Germany sign a &quot;Franco-German friendship treaty&quot; with the old enemy from the German settlement. January 27, 1964, France established diplomatic relations with China, becoming the first Western countries to recognize New China. In 1966, France withdrew from NATO and ordered withdrawal of the United States in one year in the French territory of military bases. Adhere to independent foreign policy of France as the world&#39;s pattern of checks and balances. It is in this pursuit of the ideals of the French temperament for its prowess in their own way out.
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