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Consortium

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					Consortium


financial group
The history of the basic concepts of financial oligarchy controlled by a handful of
large banks and large enterprises a combination of monopoly. Also known as
Financial Capital Group. Consortium generally includes a few large banks, insurance
companies and the relatively large number of industrial and mining enterprises,
commercial enterprises and transportation companies. It is through participatory
activities in all sectors of the economy, and extended to culture, education, science,
health, publishing, and government agencies in various fields such as superstructure
sector. Late 19th early 20th century, the U.S. formed the first consortium. The
composition according to the form of these consortia are divided into two types: one
is the formation of a consortium of family-centered, such as the Morgan Foundation,
the Rockefeller Foundation, etc.; a class where the center is the formation of consortia,
such as the Cleveland Foundation, Chicago consortium. After World War II, a
consortium of the major capitalist countries have a more rapid development, and have
new features. The main features are: ① the consortium's strength and
stability of enhanced color industry increasingly weak. On the one hand, the
consortium under the control of capital is high; on the other hand, the consortium
controlled by the increasing number of departments throughout heavy industry, light
industry, traditional industries, new industries, the production department, circulation
department. ② consortium of national control and use of the stronger. Personally
leading the consortium of giant heads of state and government departments as
positions, come forward to organize civil society institutions, government influence
and pressure, to control the state apparatus. ③ family consortium color dilution.
Between the penetration and integration of the consortium to make a number of
consortia from the pre-war control of a single family into a more family control,
although many of the consortium to maintain the original family name, but the actual
number has been even more dominated by the family, the consortium further
socialization of capital.
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What is a consortium
〕 〔Financial group is a consortium of financial capital group for short. Means
controlled by a handful of huge banks financial oligarchy and a combination of large
corporate monopolies. They usually consists of one or several families gathered
together.
Consortium usually includes a few large banks, insurance companies and the
relatively large number of industrial and mining enterprises, commercial enterprises
and transportation companies. All consortium activities in many sectors of the
economy, but also extended to culture, education, science, health, publishing and
government agencies in various fields such as superstructure sector. They not only use
their own capital, and is mainly controlled by large number of others use the capital to
make high monopoly profits.
Lenin pointed out: "Now that the formation of monopolies, and the
manipulation of the billions of capital, it is absolutely inevitable that permeated all
aspects of social life to go." ("Selected Works of
Lenin," Vol 2 No. 779) in all major capital nations, there are some big
businesses in the economic, political, cultural and social life who played a dominant
role. Therefore, the activities of these consortia, concentrated expression of the full
ruling financial oligarchy, and they also often go beyond the scope of a country, the
power extends to many parts of the world.
Control of the capitalist society that many companies, banks and monopoly capitalists
or group of enterprises.
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Generation and development of international consortia

▲ U.S.
The United States is typical of highly developed monopoly capitalism countries. Back
in the late 19th century early 20th century, formed in the eastern United States the first
group of the consortium.
They are usually one or several families gathered together to New York's
Wall Street as the center, firmly in control of the U.S. financial control. Therefore, the
eastern part of the consortium in the U.S. economy plays a decisive role in life.
Among them, Morgan Foundation (started from the financial sector) and the
Rockefeller Foundation (started from the oil industry) is the most abundant strength.
20 years beginning from the 20th century, and quickly formed a family does not have
obvious characteristics of local consortia, such as the Midwest consortium (including
the Cleveland Foundation, and Chicago, mainly the consortium), the western
consortium (mainly Bank of America Foundation) and the Southern Foundation (to
Texas-based consortium).
Before World War II, the U.S. economy is basically Morgan, Kuhn - Loeb,
Rockefeller, Chicago, Mellon, DuPont, Boston and Cleveland, under the control of
the eight consortia.
After the war, particularly after the mid 50's, the U.S. consortium of power
and the further growth of the various consortia more competitive. It is estimated that
ten major consortia in the United States in 1974 (the original eight consortia in the
Kuhn - Loeb Foundation to be out of the top ten, while new consortium first Citibank,
Bank of America Foundation and the Foundation of Texas is listed as the top ten)
control total assets, accounting for all U.S. 30% of the total assets of the company,
which is the fastest growing Rockefeller Foundation, followed by Morgan consortium.
The first post-war new Bank of America Citibank consortium and the consortium, it is
by the militarization of the national economy, started as abnormal development of
military industry, they are rockets, planes, missiles and other advanced aerospace
industry, plays an important role.
These features are mainly: ① the strength and stability of the consortium increased,
the industry increasingly weak color. On the one hand, the consortium under the
control of capital is high; on the other hand, the consortium controlled by the
increasing number of departments throughout heavy industry, light industry,
traditional industries, new industries, the production department, circulation
department. ② consortium of national control and use of the stronger. Personally
leading the consortium of giant heads of state and government departments as
positions, come forward to organize civil society institutions, government influence
and pressure, to control the state apparatus. ③ consortium of family color dilution.
Between the penetration and integration of the consortium to make a number of
consortia from the pre-war control of a single family into a more family control,
although many of the consortium to maintain the original family name, but the actual
number has been even more dominated by the family, the consortium further
socialization of capital.
▲ Japan
Japan's financial oligarchy rule before World War II, due to the formation
and development of Japanese capitalism different historical conditions, the
performance of the zaibatsu domination. They are family-centered Mitsui, Mitsubishi,
Sumitomo, Yasuda, "Four zaibatsu." After the war, the
disintegration of the original zaibatsu, based on monopoly capital, supported by the
United States, after regrouping resumed and developed. Now living in the highest
monopoly, Mitsubishi, Sumitomo Mitsui, Fuji, Sanwa and Dai-Ichi Kangyo and other
six consortia.
▲ Germany
Although Germany is the late-capitalist countries, but the emergence of monopoly
capital, but earlier, the higher the degree of monopoly. Germany was known as the
cartel countries. To the pre-World War I, the monopolies have been in various
important sectors of the economy dominated. Large banks and large industrial
monopolies phase fused, forming a small group of financial oligarchs control the
country's economic lifeline, manipulate political life. World War I, trust,
and concern the major industrial sectors in Germany increasingly dominant. As the
role of war and economic crisis, Germany's state monopoly capital has also
been rapid development. After World War II, in the U.S. monopoly capital support,
the history of long-term control method of the German economic lifeline, Thyssen,
Frick, Siemens, Krupp, Mannaisiman, three major banks (Deutsche Bank , Dresdner
Bank, and commercial banks) and other monopolistic Capital Group, in West
Germany's economic life, to re-establish a dominant position.
▲ UK
Britain is the old capitalist countries, but the development of monopoly capital came a
little later than the United States and Germany. The late nineteenth century already
had a large number of cartels, there have been some huge trust. World War I, in
particular, two mid-seventies, began to appear a number of huge monopolies, such as
Imperial Chemical Industries, unilever companies. To the global economic crisis in
the thirties, there are further developments. After World War II, take advantage of U.S.
capital. British monopoly capital to streng

				
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