Concept A chapter on computer applications and business management modernization 1. Noun 1. Information *: (The P9) is the motion state of things and characteristics of the description; information is to know the data; information on the meaning of the data; information does not change with the vector nature of the change. 2. Data * (The P35) is the physical symbol load information; is a concrete expression of information; data on the nature of the specific form depends on the carrier. 3. Management Information * (The P23) is the result after processing the data; on the impact of production operations data. 4. Recursive definition of information between the P11 Refers to the use of low-level decision-making information can be of a high-level processing of information for decision-making data. 5. P12 Feedback Logistics refers to the control input acting on the controlled object, the result message back to the inputs, through processing and information re-enter the process of an impact. 6. Fixed Information * (The P47) is a relative stability of the information; in a period of time in various administrative tasks in the re-use information. 7. Flow of information * (The P60) is the progress with the production and business activities continuously updated; time-sensitive; generally only have a one-time useful information. 8. Information stability factor P12 Is the total number of certain types of information items within the prescribed period (usually one year) does not change the proportion of the project. Stability factor can be the following formula: Total number of items of information - change in the number of items Information stability factor = total number of information items 9. Fixed standard information P12 Refers to the product structure, process documentation, all kinds of consumption of fixed, fixed standard and effectiveness of evaluation criteria and other information. 10. Strategic Information * (The P60) is provided to senior corporate executives for strategic decision-making use. 11. Tactical information * (The P84) is available to corporate middle managers, for their large amount of planning, resource allocation, etc. to use. 12. Business Information P12 ? Is the primary provider of enterprise management aspirations has developed planning, organization of production or service activities. Include direct and production, business activities, reflecting the current situation of information. The large amount of information generally does not require long-term preservation. 13. Management Information System (MIS) * (The P35) is formed by the people and computer systems for the realization of their overall objectives, the management information system processing, management personnel at all levels to provide business information and decision-making information systems. 14. Decision Support System (DSS) P12 In the semi-structured and unstructured decision-making process, through man-machine dialogue, to provide decision makers with information to help decision makers identify and analyze problems, to explore policy options, evaluation, prediction and principles of the program, to enhance effective decision-making Of a computer-as a means of information systems. DSS does not replace the decision-makers to make decisions, but to provide decision makers with an analysis of the problem, structure model and simulate the election process and effect of the decision making environment, to improve decision Personnel policy decision-making skills and the quality of decision-making support system. 15. Competent support system (ESS) * (The P47) ESS is a competent support system for short; ESS is dedicated to assist senior management to obtain and use information to support decision-making as the main task of information systems. 16. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) * ? (The P23) EDI is short for electronic data interchange; EDI is a structured data according to a set of rules to automatically transfer between the participants; EDI functionality is the use of a computer transmission and receiving between buyers and sellers to trade with the standard format documents . 17. Computer Integrated Manufacturing System (CIMS) * ? (The P10) is the CAD (computer aided design), CAM (computer aided manufacturing), MIS (management information system) and other different types of subsystems each connected to work together to become an organic whole system. 18. COPICS (for the communication of production information and control system) P13 Is for the communication of production information and control system abbreviation. It is developed by the U.S. IBM manufacturing plant for all types of management information systems. Chapter II the basic knowledge of database 19. Relational model * P26 (The P35) to data elements (files) within the various links between data items and the links between data elements to meet certain conditions are expressed as the form of two-dimensional table model is the relational model. 20. Database P26 To some outside organization is stored in the computer memory, and inter-related or application for multiple users to share data sets. 21. Database System * (The P24) refers to the database management of large computer systems to share data; basic component for database, computer hardware systems, database management systems and users. 22. Database management system (DBMS) * (The P72) DBMS is a database management system for short. DBMS is to help users use and management of database software. DBMS consists of three parts. Data Description Language DDL: used to describe the structure of the database for users to set up the database. Data manipulation language DML: data for the user to query the database and storage operations. Other management and control procedures: such as safety, communication control, and other public management. 23. Select P26 From two-dimensional tables (relations) to select the tuples satisfy the condition part of the operation is called selection. 24. Projection P26 In the two-dimensional table (relation) on attribute selection operation is called projection. 25. Connect P26 By comparison, the projection operation, the two two-dimensional tables (relations) connecting the two-dimensional table to generate a new operation called the connection. 26. Database Application System P26 In the database management system (DBMS) support to run the computer application system, abbreviated DBAS. FoxBASE the command and operation of three chapters 27. Database file P48 FoxBASE is the relational database management system, called FoxBASE in relation to a database file that is stored in external memory in the computer, its file extension is. DBF. 28. Record FoxBASE is the relational database management system, called FoxBASE in relation to a database file, in the relationship of each tuple is called the database file records. 29. Field FoxBASE is the relational database management system, called FoxBASE in relation to a database file, in the relationship of each attribute as the field. 30. Constant During operation, its value does not change the two named constants. Of which numerical constants, also known as constant. It consists of positive and negative certificate can participate in operations, and zero decimal form. 31. Variable During operation, its value can change the amount of known variables. FoxBASE variable in two forms, one is in the database file in the field variable, one is divorced from outside the database memory variable. 32. Expression ? Generally to connect through the operator of similar data (such as constants, variables, functions) is called the expression expression. Computational results of the expression is called the value of the expression. FoxBASE in the broader meaning of the expression, it can be a constant, variable or function can also be an expression. 33. Functions ? Function is essentially a system of pre-programmed to call the function is actually the implementation of procedures, but it is relatively easy call format. Each function is constituted by the function name and parentheses. Some functions need to add parameters in parentheses, some functions do not need to add parameters in parentheses. 34. The current work area FoxBASE for the support provided for 10 work area, you can also open the database file 10, but any time, can only operate on one file. This document is the work area where the current work area. 35. Sort P49 Sort of action is to create a database file records with the current order of different and identical files. Require the user to specify the size of the field values by which to arrange the order of records, this field is called keywords. 36. Index Brief 2000: Using index file and sort documents the difference between Index files can be sorted by file to achieve full functionality. The index file is only sort of index entries and generate a corresponding table. This would eliminate a lot of data redundancy, but also improves the speed of sorting; but only because of the index generated Is a corresponding table rather than a complete library file, so the index file can not be divorced from the original library file and independent use. System default index file extension is. IDX. Chapters FoxBASE programming 37. The main program P75 According to the principles of structured programming, the application for a complex, often make it into a simple hierarchical subdivision issue to resolve. Each issue can be viewed as a simple stand-alone processing module, to solve this problem The process can be accomplished through a process. We put the top layer of a program (process) is called the main program, main program can call other subroutines layer by layer, and its own state from the dot command is executed. 38. Subroutines ? According to the principles of structured programming, the application for a complex, often make it into a simple hierarchical subdivision issue to resolve. Each issue can be viewed as a simple stand-alone processing module, the process to solve this problem by a process to complete. Each program is designed to solve a problem of the process, also known as subroutines. 39. Process P76 ? According to the principles of structured programming, the application for a complex, often it is broken down into a layer by layer to solve a simple problem. Each issue can be viewed as a simple stand-alone processing module, the process to solve this problem by a process to complete. This process is called process. 40. Structured Programming Also known as structured programming, program design of today&#39;s advanced methods and tools. The so-called structured programming refers to using only three basic control (sequence, selection and repetition) Structures of the program design. 41. Algorithm ? Algorithm is the so-called problem-solving method or process, or steps to solve the problem. Can generally be divided into the numerical algorithm and two types of non-numerical algorithms. Numerical algorithms can often be found ready-made mathematics, physics or chemical formula; rather than numerical algorithm is essentially the problem of processing steps. 42. Compile FoxBASE procedures generally run by interpretation. Although this method is easy to use, but efficiency is not high, run fast enough, can not confidential. FoxBASE also provides a program compiler, can Procedures FoxBASE compiled into extension. FOX target program. The so-called pre-process the source program is compiled to generate the target program process. Chapters Management Information System Development 43. Software P91 Is the process and the development, use and maintenance of all documents required for these procedures. 44. System P91 In the computer field, people often use the &quot;System&quot; a general management information system to make straight-line running from the project to evaluate the whole process so far. This process is sometimes referred to as &quot;System Analysis and Design&quot; or &quot;system.&quot; 45. &quot;From the top down&quot; principle developed by P92 ? Is part of the whole to the exterior to interior, from abstract to concrete, stepwise refinement, analysis of the components of the system correlation gradually deepened. First consider the global issues, global issues beyond the basic solution, in accordance with levels of decomposition, layer by layer analysis of the development system. 46. Life-cycle method * (The P35) to manage information systems development process is divided into system analysis, system design, system implementation of the three stages, each stage is divided into a number of steps, is the life-cycle method. 47. Object-oriented development methods in the &quot;object&quot; * (The P48) in object-oriented approach, the object is an abstraction of objective reality, the object is relatively stable. 48. Object-oriented development methods in the &quot;class&quot; The so-called &quot;class&quot; is a group with the same structure, operations and constraints of the object. 49. Class inheritance mechanism ? The upper class can have a super-class, lower class can have children, form a hierarchy. A class can have more than one super class, but also can have sub-categories. Super-class is a subclass of the general lower, following the deposit so you can subclass superclass attributes, operations, and constraint rules, this is the class inheritance mechanism. 50. &quot;CASE&quot; The computer-aided software engineering, the goal is to achieve the system development life cycle phases within the computer-based automation. 51. Commissioned the development Commissioned by the enterprise software companies or research institutes for enterprise information systems development, known as the commissioned development. 52. System Development Leading Group ? Is responsible for the development of management information systems planning, decision-making process in the development, coordination, control of the body. Usually by a corporate leadership, systems development project team leader, systems analyst and the user is responsible for all major sectors of the business members. VI System 53. Service Flow * (The P83) is a business object as a description of business processes and the description of the information involved; matters is the system operational flow chart most commonly used in the survey, the most important tool. 54. Data flow chart * (The P24) is the original system to analyze and abstract tools; data flow diagram is used to describe the new logic model of the main tools. 55. Data flow diagram of an external entity (external entities) * (The P72) that are not described control system, independent of the system outside the department, group or other information systems. External entities described in the system to transport data, to describe the system to issue or receive data. 56. Data stream into a diagram of the processing P114 Is the input data stream processing, transformation logic and output data stream processing. 57. Data stream into a diagram of data storage Refers to the logical storage of data required, without regard to the specific data storage media and techniques. 58. Data flow into data flow diagram Refers to the system described in the information processing all types of information related to the carrier, is the deal with input and output data sets. 59. Data Dictionary ? Is to the data flow diagram on the definition and description of each ingredient to the tools. Its data flow diagram of the various components, including data entry, data structure, data flow, data storage, processing, external items such as content and features of the logical components to be detailed, is after the system design, system implementation and maintenance an important basis. 60. Decision Tree * (The P48) is a tree of graphical tools were suitable for describing the treatment process with a variety of strategies to be judged according to certain conditions, establish the strategic situation. 61. Decision table Called decision table is a table-like graphical tools were applied to determine the conditions described in dealing with more terms and conditions are combined with each other, making the program a variety of situations. 62. Grid map data capabilities ? Is a table. It&#39;s the first line lists the system name of each function, the left in the first column is the system name of the data. Table of contents express the relationship between the various functions and data. Features in the data grid map can be expressed clearly what features of each data by the processing; each function to be input, which data processing and output. Chapter VII Design 63. Module P136 ? Is a structured system of basic elements, from a logical point of view, the module is the processing, give it some input, it can be processed on the processing, the output information. From the physical point of view, it is a name used to represent a set of procedures, such as FoxBASE a PRG file. 64. Control Chart Also known as the software module structure diagram or map, it expressed a systematic relationship between levels of decomposition, the module calls the relationship between data flow between modules and control information flow at the relationship between the physical structure of the system which is the main tool. 65. Module cohesion * (The P10) is a measure of their function within a module are closely linked within the target, is to measure an important indicator of good or bad quality of the module. 66. Module coupling Contact between the module is called module coupling, which is a measure of modules important indicator of structural performance. 67. In order to convert the central structure of the module decomposition If we wait until the module is a data decomposition module cohesion, which includes a number of order execution and processing of certain data conversion, known as the center of the structure to convert. This module can be decomposed into input, processing, output of three parts. 68. To business-centric structure of the module decomposition ? Decomposition of the module to be logical to deal with a number of similar businesses that it is a logical cohesion of the module. This is the module can be decomposed into an examination of the business types of modules and a control module, according to different business types, different scheduling module calls the lower module, for different treatment. 69. &quot;Record&quot; ? Is composed of a number of data items to describe a thing (or the links between things) - the entity. In total there is usually a record or a set of data items to determine their worth, there are other data items to determine the value of the corresponding, the data items as identification code or keyword. 70. &quot;File&quot; Is a combination of the same type of record. File is used to describe the combination of the same type entities - homogeneous overall. 71. OS P137 Is the computer hardware to manage, maintain, control and operation of large-scale programming system. In general the operating system has five major components: (1) arrange multiple operating system process management processes; (2) supervision and control operations for the operational management procedures; (3) distribution, protection and shared memory for storage management procedures; (4) management of data into and out of document management procedures; (5) management of input and output device equipment management procedures. 72. Detailed Design ? Application software system design is complete, but also determine the application software system and the realization method of each module, this part of the work called for the detailed design. Include code design, user interface design and computer design process. 73. Sequence encoding ? Encoding order of appearance by entities, or by letter (number) of ascending order. Coding sequence of the advantages of a simple, versatile and often used in combination with other coding methods, the additional convenience of the new code; but there is no logical meaning of this code, which itself does not indicate any information characteristics; append the data can only be listed last, delete data is caused by empty code. 74. Decimal encoding ? This code, give each category a number of decimal digit mark. When the entity has a number of signs, and to do all these signs data processing should be used decimal encoding. Decimal code has the advantage of strong logical, easy computer processing; drawback is more space code, the code is rather long. 75. Complex (combination) coding Complex code is composed by several kinds of simple code. Combination coding method according to the physical characteristics of signs, using different combinations to meet the application requirements and to ensure the uniqueness of the code. It is the most widely used encoding method. 76. User Interface Refers to the application software systems and interfaces with the user interaction, often including the man-machine dialogue, the computer output and to the people&#39;s input to the computer. 77. System Design Manual Also known as the System Design Report, which is the outcome of the system design phase, is the physical model and the implementation of the system starting point and basis. Eight chapters system implementation 78. Source of the correctness of P154 ? The accuracy of the source program is the most basic requirements of quality programming. To achieve the preparation of the source is correct, one should use the right programming language, to avoid syntax errors; other hand, to make the program described in the processing and algorithm design to meet the functional requirements, to avoid semantic errors. 79. Source code readability * P154 (The P72) into the computer source code must not only be able to run correctly, it must make people understand, well read, that is readable. 80. Testability P155 source Source code for testability is that it should be conducive to error and troubleshooting. Made to develop the software after testing and debugging to be able to eliminate most of the hidden errors, achieving normal and stable operation. 81. Maintainability of source code ? Is put into operation at the source and found the problems or errors should be easy to modify and can be run under the user&#39;s requirements easier to expand its capabilities, or when the operating environment changes, will be able to adapt a little Gai Dong Xin environment, under normal and stable operation of the new environment. 82. Black box testing method Also known as functional testing, it is software as a black box. Without considering the process in the content structure and characteristics of the case, the external characteristics of test software. From the program&#39;s input and output characteristics to meet the test of whether the function set. 83. White box testing the Also known as structural testing, which is transparent to software as a white box, in accordance with the procedures of the logical path and process to test, check its compatibility with the design. 84. Unit test (module sub-adjusted) That is each module can be used as a single test unit, design test cases for testing. Unit testing found errors, programming and detailed design is often wrong. 85. Subsystem test (module FBI) After unit testing is to modules together to form a subsystem to be tested. Subsystem testing to test the correctness of the interface between modules. 86. System Testing ? Subsystem is tested, assembled into a complete system for testing. In this test, we found the error not only design and programming errors, there may be errors in requirements analysis. Therefore, it is tested whether the system really can provide system solutions manual functions specified in an effective way. 87. System initialization ? System initialization system to input completed application from the development to go through an initialization process, initialization, including the operation of the system to set the environment and resources, system operation and control of parameter setting, data load and adjust the systems and operations synchronization and so on. IX system management and maintenance 88. Information Center P167 ? Computerized management information system is a human - machine system. It is established, it must be by the people and organizations to manage the organization in different enterprises are not exactly the same title. Some called the Information Center, Computer Center; some called the Information Department, Ministry of Electronics, Information Department. In the book called the information center. 89. (Information) security of the system * (The P61) is the protection and management information systems from external damage from the system to prevent illegal users of the system resources, in particular the illegal use of information security and confidentiality measures taken. 90. Access Control ? Conditions in the sharing of resources to ensure safe and reliable information systems important measure. Information systems access control through user can determine under what conditions, to what extent can what kind of system resources operation. Through access control, that is, to provide the necessary resources to legitimate users, but will also prevent illegal ultra vires. 91. User operation authority Defined by the two aspects: one is the user&#39;s operational targets, that is, equipment, procedures, documents, data, the user can operate the object of these resources can be defined to the smallest operating unit, such as data items. The other hand, the user can be operational types, the right to use of system resources, run right, read right, right to amend, remove the right. 92. Systematic reviews P168 System conversion put into operation, the results are expected to reach development goals, the need for comprehensive testing and analysis, known as systematic review. 93. In the amount of P168 earnings growth 94. Investment in the coefficient of P168 95. P169 payback period 96. Application software maintenance P169 2000 the Year of Refers to the application of the developed software system operational changes or partial improvement activities. 97. Code maintenance That as the system scope and application of environmental change, all code on the system to add, delete, modify, and set the new code. 98. Database maintenance ? Put into the database after the system to constantly evaluate, adjust, modify, known as the database maintenance. Its main tasks are: database security control; system to protect the accuracy of transfer storage and recovery; database re-organization and re-construction. Computer Applications Management System Review Outline (noun and essays for 2) ? ? ? 1. Data file system of the P10 ? Is centrally stored data; data file system data files to data organization in a separate data files, each file has a complete architecture; document all data form by a number of rows, and record it by the composed of a number of data items; on the data access operation is by file name, according to records access, no relationship between the data file. 2. Systems Engineering P10 Reasonable to carry out the development, design and application of systems thinking used, steps, organization and methods of general. 3. Characteristics of the system P24 In accordance with the general principles of system theory, the system has a purpose, integrity, relevance, adaptability and other characteristics of the environment. 4. The physical data independence P35 The physical structure changes, the logical structure of the same, the corresponding application is also unchanged. 5. Data Sharing P47 A database for different organizations and regions of different users to enjoy, this is the sharing of data; data sharing is the purpose of the database system. 6. DDL P60 Is used to describe the structure of the database for the user to establish a database language. 7. Data flow P61 Refers to the information processing system described in various kinds of information related to the carrier, is the processing input and output data sets. 8. Information System Operational P71 Information Systems are two types of operations. Numerical calculation, including: simple arithmetic and algebra; Statistics in the calculation of various statistics and various tests; Operations research in a variety of optimization algorithms; Prediction method. Non-numerical processing: sorting; Incorporation; Classification; General word processing. 9. The basic relational operators P72 Selection, projection, connection, operation is a set of operations is based. 10. Structured Decision Making P83 Can make use of certain rules and formulas to solve routine and repeated decision-making problems. Application: for companies, lower management; MIS in solving the problem are structural. 11. Quality Control P84 Is designed to prevent the error from within the system, poor management, weak staff accountability and information distortion caused by processing errors, etc. and take protective measures. 12. Network selection principles of the mainstream P84 The selected network products to be the mainstream of current or future products, can be strong at home and abroad and the company&#39;s support of hardware and software manufacturers to ensure that hardware and software upgrades. 13. MBMS model base management system P95 MBMS is a model base management system for short. MBMS is a DSS on model base management systems, such as model base classification, use, operation and storage management. 14. Function P95 Is reading the data flow diagram of process features a detailed description of logical analysis. 15. ISS Intelligent Support System P95 ISS is the intelligent support system for short. The main difference between ISS and ESS has some of its artificial intelligence, with similar human expert knowledge and judgments inference. ISS features: master the wealth of knowledge, which is the basis for settlement; have run through the learning or knowledge in the growth and expansion of capacity; a judge inference. 16. Physical security control P96 Refers to a variety of equipment to ensure system safety and environmental facilities, the measures taken. 17. Data model the three elements of P96 Data structure, data manipulation, data integrity constraints are the three elements of the data model. ?