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  A chapter on computer applications and business management modernization
    1. Noun
    1. Information *:
    (The P9) is the motion state of things and characteristics of the description;
information is to know the data; information on the meaning of the data; information
does not change with the vector nature of the change.
    2. Data *
    (The P35) is the physical symbol load information; is a concrete expression of
information; data on the nature of the specific form depends on the carrier.
    3. Management Information *
    (The P23) is the result after processing the data; on the impact of production
operations data.
    4. Recursive definition of information between the P11
    Refers to the use of low-level decision-making information can be of a high-level
processing of information for decision-making data.
    5. P12 Feedback
    Logistics refers to the control input acting on the controlled object, the result
message back to the inputs, through processing and information re-enter the process
of an impact.
    6. Fixed Information *
    (The P47) is a relative stability of the information; in a period of time in various
administrative tasks in the re-use information.
    7. Flow of information *
    (The P60) is the progress with the production and business activities continuously
updated; time-sensitive; generally only have a one-time useful information.
    8. Information stability factor P12
    Is the total number of certain types of information items within the prescribed
period (usually one year) does not change the proportion of the project. Stability
factor can be the following formula:
    Total number of items of information - change in the number of items
    Information stability factor = total number of information items
    9. Fixed standard information P12
    Refers to the product structure, process documentation, all kinds of consumption of
fixed, fixed standard and effectiveness of evaluation criteria and other information.
    10. Strategic Information *
    (The P60) is provided to senior corporate executives for strategic decision-making
    11. Tactical information *
    (The P84) is available to corporate middle managers, for their large amount of
planning, resource allocation, etc. to use.
    12. Business Information P12
Is the primary provider of enterprise management aspirations has developed planning,
organization of production or service activities. Include direct and production,
business activities, reflecting the current situation of information. The large amount of
information generally does not require long-term preservation.
   13. Management Information System (MIS) *
   (The P35) is formed by the people and computer systems for the realization of their
overall objectives, the management information system processing, management
personnel at all levels to provide business information and decision-making
information systems.
   14. Decision Support System (DSS) P12
   In the semi-structured and unstructured decision-making process, through
man-machine dialogue, to provide decision makers with information to help decision
makers identify and analyze problems, to explore policy options, evaluation,
prediction and principles of the program, to enhance effective decision-making
Of a computer-as a means of information systems. DSS does not replace the
decision-makers to make decisions, but to provide decision makers with an analysis of
the problem, structure model and simulate the election process and effect of the
decision making environment, to improve decision
Personnel policy decision-making skills and the quality of decision-making support
   15. Competent support system (ESS) *
   (The P47) ESS is a competent support system for short; ESS is dedicated to assist
senior management to obtain and use information to support decision-making as the
main task of information systems.
   16. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) *
(The P23) EDI is short for electronic data interchange; EDI is a structured data
according to a set of rules to automatically transfer between the participants; EDI
functionality is the use of a computer transmission and receiving between buyers and
sellers to trade with the standard format documents .
   17. Computer Integrated Manufacturing System (CIMS) *
(The P10) is the CAD (computer aided design), CAM (computer aided
manufacturing), MIS (management information system) and other different types of
subsystems each connected to work together to become an organic whole system.
   18. COPICS (for the communication of production information and control system)
   Is for the communication of production information and control system
abbreviation. It is developed by the U.S. IBM manufacturing plant for all types of
management information systems.
   Chapter II the basic knowledge of database
   19. Relational model * P26
   (The P35) to data elements (files) within the various links between data items and
the links between data elements to meet certain conditions are expressed as the form
of two-dimensional table model is the relational model.
   20. Database P26
   To some outside organization is stored in the computer memory, and inter-related or
application for multiple users to share data sets.
   21. Database System *
   (The P24) refers to the database management of large computer systems to share
data; basic component for database, computer hardware systems, database
management systems and users.
   22. Database management system (DBMS) *
   (The P72) DBMS is a database management system for short. DBMS is to help
users use and management of database software. DBMS consists of three parts.
   Data Description Language DDL: used to describe the structure of the database for
users to set up the database.
   Data manipulation language DML: data for the user to query the database and
storage operations.
   Other management and control procedures: such as safety, communication control,
and other public management.
   23. Select P26
   From two-dimensional tables (relations) to select the tuples satisfy the condition
part of the operation is called selection.
   24. Projection P26
   In the two-dimensional table (relation) on attribute selection operation is called
   25. Connect P26
   By comparison, the projection operation, the two two-dimensional tables (relations)
connecting the two-dimensional table to generate a new operation called the
   26. Database Application System P26
   In the database management system (DBMS) support to run the computer
application system, abbreviated DBAS. FoxBASE the command and operation of
three chapters
   27. Database file P48
   FoxBASE is the relational database management system, called FoxBASE in
relation to a database file that is stored in external memory in the computer, its file
extension is. DBF.
   28. Record
   FoxBASE is the relational database management system, called FoxBASE in
relation to a database file, in the relationship of each tuple is called the database file
   29. Field
   FoxBASE is the relational database management system, called FoxBASE in
relation to a database file, in the relationship of each attribute as the field.
   30. Constant
   During operation, its value does not change the two named constants. Of which
numerical constants, also known as constant. It consists of positive and negative
certificate can participate in operations, and zero decimal form.
    31. Variable
    During operation, its value can change the amount of known variables. FoxBASE
variable in two forms, one is in the database file in the field variable, one is divorced
from outside the database memory variable.
    32. Expression
Generally to connect through the operator of similar data (such as constants, variables,
functions) is called the expression expression. Computational results of the expression
is called the value of the expression. FoxBASE in the broader meaning of the
expression, it can be a constant, variable or function can also be an expression.
    33. Functions
Function is essentially a system of pre-programmed to call the function is actually the
implementation of procedures, but it is relatively easy call format. Each function is
constituted by the function name and parentheses. Some functions need to add
parameters in parentheses, some functions do not need to add parameters in
    34. The current work area
    FoxBASE for the support provided for 10 work area, you can also open the
database file 10, but any time, can only operate on one file. This document is the work
area where the current work area.
    35. Sort P49
    Sort of action is to create a database file records with the current order of different
and identical files. Require the user to specify the size of the field values by which to
arrange the order of records, this field is called keywords.
    36. Index Brief 2000: Using index file and sort documents the difference between
    Index files can be sorted by file to achieve full functionality. The index file is only
sort of index entries and generate a corresponding table. This would eliminate a lot of
data redundancy, but also improves the speed of sorting; but only because of the index
Is a corresponding table rather than a complete library file, so the index file can not be
divorced from the original library file and independent use. System default index file
extension is. IDX. Chapters FoxBASE programming
    37. The main program P75
    According to the principles of structured programming, the application for a
complex, often make it into a simple hierarchical subdivision issue to resolve. Each
issue can be viewed as a simple stand-alone processing module, to solve this problem
The process can be accomplished through a process. We put the top layer of a
program (process) is called the main program, main program can call other
subroutines layer by layer, and its own state from the dot command is executed.
    38. Subroutines
According to the principles of structured programming, the application for a complex,
often make it into a simple hierarchical subdivision issue to resolve. Each issue can be
viewed as a simple stand-alone processing module, the process to solve this problem
by a process to complete. Each program is designed to solve a problem of the process,
also known as subroutines.
   39. Process P76
According to the principles of structured programming, the application for a complex,
often it is broken down into a layer by layer to solve a simple problem. Each issue can
be viewed as a simple stand-alone processing module, the process to solve this
problem by a process to complete. This process is called process.
   40. Structured Programming
   Also known as structured programming, program design of today's
advanced methods and tools. The so-called structured programming refers to using
only three basic control (sequence, selection and repetition) Structures of the program
   41. Algorithm
Algorithm is the so-called problem-solving method or process, or steps to solve the
problem. Can generally be divided into the numerical algorithm and two types of
non-numerical algorithms. Numerical algorithms can often be found ready-made
mathematics, physics or chemical formula; rather than numerical algorithm is
essentially the problem of processing steps.
   42. Compile
   FoxBASE procedures generally run by interpretation. Although this method is easy
to use, but efficiency is not high, run fast enough, can not confidential. FoxBASE also
provides a program compiler, can
Procedures FoxBASE compiled into extension. FOX target program. The so-called
pre-process the source program is compiled to generate the target program process.
   Chapters Management Information System Development
   43. Software P91
   Is the process and the development, use and maintenance of all documents required
for these procedures.
   44. System P91
   In the computer field, people often use the "System" a
general management information system to make straight-line running from the
project to evaluate the whole process so far. This process is sometimes referred to as
"System              Analysis          and        Design"           or
   45. "From the top down" principle developed by P92
Is part of the whole to the exterior to interior, from abstract to concrete, stepwise
refinement, analysis of the components of the system correlation gradually deepened.
First consider the global issues, global issues beyond the basic solution, in accordance
with levels of decomposition, layer by layer analysis of the development system.
    46. Life-cycle method *
    (The P35) to manage information systems development process is divided into
system analysis, system design, system implementation of the three stages, each stage
is divided into a number of steps, is the life-cycle method.
    47. Object-oriented development methods in the "object" *
    (The P48) in object-oriented approach, the object is an abstraction of objective
reality, the object is relatively stable.
    48. Object-oriented development methods in the "class"
    The so-called "class" is a group with the same structure,
operations and constraints of the object.
    49. Class inheritance mechanism
The upper class can have a super-class, lower class can have children, form a
hierarchy. A class can have more than one super class, but also can have
sub-categories. Super-class is a subclass of the general lower, following the deposit so
you can subclass superclass attributes, operations, and constraint rules, this is the class
inheritance mechanism.
    50. "CASE"
    The computer-aided software engineering, the goal is to achieve the system
development life cycle phases within the computer-based automation.
    51. Commissioned the development
    Commissioned by the enterprise software companies or research institutes for
enterprise information systems development, known as the commissioned
    52. System Development Leading Group
Is responsible for the development of management information systems planning,
decision-making process in the development, coordination, control of the body.
Usually by a corporate leadership, systems development project team leader, systems
analyst and the user is responsible for all major sectors of the business members.
    VI System
    53. Service Flow *
    (The P83) is a business object as a description of business processes and the
description of the information involved; matters is the system operational flow chart
most commonly used in the survey, the most important tool.
    54. Data flow chart *
    (The P24) is the original system to analyze and abstract tools; data flow diagram is
used to describe the new logic model of the main tools.
    55. Data flow diagram of an external entity (external entities) *
    (The P72) that are not described control system, independent of the system outside
the department, group or other information systems. External entities described in the
system to transport data, to describe the system to issue or receive data.
    56. Data stream into a diagram of the processing P114
    Is the input data stream processing, transformation logic and output data stream
   57. Data stream into a diagram of data storage
   Refers to the logical storage of data required, without regard to the specific data
storage media and techniques.
   58. Data flow into data flow diagram
   Refers to the system described in the information processing all types of
information related to the carrier, is the deal with input and output data sets.
   59. Data Dictionary
Is to the data flow diagram on the definition and description of each ingredient to the
tools. Its data flow diagram of the various components, including data entry, data
structure, data flow, data storage, processing, external items such as content and
features of the logical components to be detailed, is after the system design, system
implementation and maintenance an important basis.
   60. Decision Tree *
   (The P48) is a tree of graphical tools were suitable for describing the treatment
process with a variety of strategies to be judged according to certain conditions,
establish the strategic situation.
   61. Decision table
   Called decision table is a table-like graphical tools were applied to determine the
conditions described in dealing with more terms and conditions are combined with
each other, making the program a variety of situations.
   62. Grid map data capabilities
Is a table. It's the first line lists the system name of each function, the left in
the first column is the system name of the data. Table of contents express the
relationship between the various functions and data. Features in the data grid map can
be expressed clearly what features of each data by the processing; each function to be
input, which data processing and output.
   Chapter VII Design
   63. Module P136
Is a structured system of basic elements, from a logical point of view, the module is
the processing, give it some input, it can be processed on the processing, the output
information. From the physical point of view, it is a name used to represent a set of
procedures, such as FoxBASE a PRG file.
   64. Control Chart
   Also known as the software module structure diagram or map, it expressed a
systematic relationship between levels of decomposition, the module calls the
relationship between data flow between modules and control information flow at the
relationship between the physical structure of the system which is the main tool.
   65. Module cohesion *
   (The P10) is a measure of their function within a module are closely linked within
the target, is to measure an important indicator of good or bad quality of the module.
    66. Module coupling
    Contact between the module is called module coupling, which is a measure of
modules important indicator of structural performance.
    67. In order to convert the central structure of the module decomposition
    If we wait until the module is a data decomposition module cohesion, which
includes a number of order execution and processing of certain data conversion,
known as the center of the structure to convert. This module can be decomposed into
input, processing, output of three parts.
    68. To business-centric structure of the module decomposition
Decomposition of the module to be logical to deal with a number of similar
businesses that it is a logical cohesion of the module. This is the module can be
decomposed into an examination of the business types of modules and a control
module, according to different business types, different scheduling module calls the
lower module, for different treatment.
    69. "Record"
Is composed of a number of data items to describe a thing (or the links between things)
- the entity. In total there is usually a record or a set of data items to determine their
worth, there are other data items to determine the value of the corresponding, the data
items as identification code or keyword.
    70. "File"
    Is a combination of the same type of record. File is used to describe the
combination of the same type entities - homogeneous overall.
    71. OS P137
    Is the computer hardware to manage, maintain, control and operation of large-scale
programming system. In general the operating system has five major components:
    (1) arrange multiple operating system process management processes;
    (2) supervision and control operations for the operational management procedures;
    (3) distribution, protection and shared memory for storage management procedures;
    (4) management of data into and out of document management procedures;
    (5) management of input and output device equipment management procedures.
    72. Detailed Design
Application software system design is complete, but also determine the application
software system and the realization method of each module, this part of the work
called for the detailed design. Include code design, user interface design and computer
design process.
    73. Sequence encoding
Encoding order of appearance by entities, or by letter (number) of ascending order.
Coding sequence of the advantages of a simple, versatile and often used in
combination with other coding methods, the additional convenience of the new code;
but there is no logical meaning of this code, which itself does not indicate any
information characteristics; append the data can only be listed last, delete data is
caused by empty code.
    74. Decimal encoding
This code, give each category a number of decimal digit mark. When the entity has a
number of signs, and to do all these signs data processing should be used decimal
encoding. Decimal code has the advantage of strong logical, easy computer
processing; drawback is more space code, the code is rather long.
    75. Complex (combination) coding
    Complex code is composed by several kinds of simple code. Combination coding
method according to the physical characteristics of signs, using different
combinations to meet the application requirements and to ensure the uniqueness of the
code. It is the most widely used encoding method.
    76. User Interface
    Refers to the application software systems and interfaces with the user interaction,
often including the man-machine dialogue, the computer output and to the
people's input to the computer.
    77. System Design Manual
    Also known as the System Design Report, which is the outcome of the system
design phase, is the physical model and the implementation of the system starting
point and basis.
    Eight chapters system implementation
    78. Source of the correctness of P154
The accuracy of the source program is the most basic requirements of quality
programming. To achieve the preparation of the source is correct, one should use the
right programming language, to avoid syntax errors; other hand, to make the program
described in the processing and algorithm design to meet the functional requirements,
to avoid semantic errors.
    79. Source code readability * P154
    (The P72) into the computer source code must not only be able to run correctly, it
must make people understand, well read, that is readable.
    80. Testability P155 source
    Source code for testability is that it should be conducive to error and
troubleshooting. Made to develop the software after testing and debugging to be able
to eliminate most of the hidden errors, achieving normal and stable operation.
    81. Maintainability of source code
Is put into operation at the source and found the problems or errors should be easy to
modify and can be run under the user's requirements easier to expand its
capabilities, or when the operating environment changes, will be able to adapt a little
Gai Dong Xin environment, under normal and stable operation of the new
    82. Black box testing method
   Also known as functional testing, it is software as a black box. Without considering
the process in the content structure and characteristics of the case, the external
characteristics of test software. From the program's input and output
characteristics to meet the test of whether the function set.
   83. White box testing the
   Also known as structural testing, which is transparent to software as a white box, in
accordance with the procedures of the logical path and process to test, check its
compatibility with the design.
   84. Unit test (module sub-adjusted)
   That is each module can be used as a single test unit, design test cases for testing.
Unit testing found errors, programming and detailed design is often wrong.
   85. Subsystem test (module FBI)
   After unit testing is to modules together to form a subsystem to be tested.
Subsystem testing to test the correctness of the interface between modules.
   86. System Testing
Subsystem is tested, assembled into a complete system for testing. In this test, we
found the error not only design and programming errors, there may be errors in
requirements analysis. Therefore, it is tested whether the system really can provide
system solutions manual functions specified in an effective way.
   87. System initialization
System initialization system to input completed application from the development to
go through an initialization process, initialization, including the operation of the
system to set the environment and resources, system operation and control of
parameter setting, data load and adjust the systems and operations synchronization
and so on.
   IX system management and maintenance
   88. Information Center P167
Computerized management information system is a human - machine system. It is
established, it must be by the people and organizations to manage the organization in
different enterprises are not exactly the same title. Some called the Information Center,
Computer Center; some called the Information Department, Ministry of Electronics,
Information Department. In the book called the information center.
   89. (Information) security of the system *
   (The P61) is the protection and management information systems from external
damage from the system to prevent illegal users of the system resources, in particular
the illegal use of information security and confidentiality measures taken.
   90. Access Control
Conditions in the sharing of resources to ensure safe and reliable information systems
important measure. Information systems access control through user can determine
under what conditions, to what extent can what kind of system resources operation.
Through access control, that is, to provide the necessary resources to legitimate users,
but will also prevent illegal ultra vires.
   91. User operation authority
   Defined by the two aspects: one is the user's operational targets, that is,
equipment, procedures, documents, data, the user can operate the object of these
resources can be defined to the smallest operating unit, such as data items.
   The other hand, the user can be operational types, the right to use of system
resources, run right, read right, right to amend, remove the right.
   92. Systematic reviews P168
   System conversion put into operation, the results are expected to reach
development goals, the need for comprehensive testing and analysis, known as
systematic review.
   93. In the amount of P168 earnings growth
   94. Investment in the coefficient of P168
   95. P169 payback period
   96. Application software maintenance P169 2000 the Year of
   Refers to the application of the developed software system operational changes or
partial improvement activities.
   97. Code maintenance
   That as the system scope and application of environmental change, all code on the
system to add, delete, modify, and set the new code.
   98. Database maintenance
Put into the database after the system to constantly evaluate, adjust, modify, known as
the database maintenance. Its main tasks are: database security control; system to
protect the accuracy of transfer storage and recovery; database re-organization and
re-construction. Computer Applications Management System Review Outline (noun
and essays for 2)
   1. Data file system of the P10
Is centrally stored data; data file system data files to data organization in a separate
data files, each file has a complete architecture; document all data form by a number
of rows, and record it by the composed of a number of data items; on the data access
operation is by file name, according to records access, no relationship between the
data file.
   2. Systems Engineering P10
   Reasonable to carry out the development, design and application of systems
thinking used, steps, organization and methods of general.
   3. Characteristics of the system P24
   In accordance with the general principles of system theory, the system has a
purpose, integrity, relevance, adaptability and other characteristics of the
   4. The physical data independence P35
   The physical structure changes, the logical structure of the same, the corresponding
application is also unchanged.
   5. Data Sharing P47
   A database for different organizations and regions of different users to enjoy, this is
the sharing of data; data sharing is the purpose of the database system.
   6. DDL P60
   Is used to describe the structure of the database for the user to establish a database
   7. Data flow P61
   Refers to the information processing system described in various kinds of
information related to the carrier, is the processing input and output data sets.
   8. Information System Operational P71
   Information Systems are two types of operations.
   Numerical calculation, including: simple arithmetic and algebra;
   Statistics in the calculation of various statistics and various tests;
   Operations research in a variety of optimization algorithms;
   Prediction method.
   Non-numerical processing: sorting;
   General word processing.
   9. The basic relational operators P72
   Selection, projection, connection, operation is a set of operations is based.
   10. Structured Decision Making P83
   Can make use of certain rules and formulas to solve routine and repeated
decision-making problems. Application: for companies, lower management; MIS in
solving the problem are structural.
   11. Quality Control P84
   Is designed to prevent the error from within the system, poor management, weak
staff accountability and information distortion caused by processing errors, etc. and
take protective measures.
   12. Network selection principles of the mainstream P84
   The selected network products to be the mainstream of current or future products,
can be strong at home and abroad and the company's support of hardware
and software manufacturers to ensure that hardware and software upgrades.
   13. MBMS model base management system P95
   MBMS is a model base management system for short. MBMS is a DSS on model
base management systems, such as model base classification, use, operation and
storage management.
   14. Function P95
   Is reading the data flow diagram of process features a detailed description of logical
   15. ISS Intelligent Support System P95
   ISS is the intelligent support system for short. The main difference between ISS
and ESS has some of its artificial intelligence, with similar human expert knowledge
and judgments inference.
   ISS features: master the wealth of knowledge, which is the basis for settlement;
have run through the learning or knowledge in the growth and expansion of capacity;
a judge inference.
   16. Physical security control P96
   Refers to a variety of equipment to ensure system safety and environmental
facilities, the measures taken.
   17. Data model the three elements of P96
   Data structure, data manipulation, data integrity constraints are the three elements
of the data model.

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