1, visual simulation and related technologies concept
As the core of information technology, computer technology since its date of birth
through 50 years of development, are widely used in national economic and social life.
As an important part of computer technology, computer three-dimensional visual
simulation technology, its effectiveness, economy, security, intuitive features such as
being widely used. It is developed on the basis of computer graphics as a simulation
According to the latest statistics show that the application of computer simulation
technology is currently one of the most widely applied technology, virtual reality (VR,
Virtual Reality) is the world&#39;s most popular computer of a word. Visual
simulation technology is an important branch of computer simulation technology,
computer technology, graphics, image processing and generation technology,
multimedia technology, information synthesis technology, display technology, and
many other high-tech integrated use.
2 Computer Graphics
Human understanding of nature through the eye to observe things first appearance of
the image, the image of the brain good thinking, good at logical thinking computer.
Example: Mother and children learn to understand 1 +1 = 2. Let the computer
observation, expression of object knowledge is more difficult.
Computer graphics is to study how to use digital computer generation, processing and
display graphics of a discipline, its development, growth, popularity lags behind
computer development for many years. But with the hardware (raster scanning display)
and graphics software (such as the cad, 3dmax, etc.) due to the development of
computer graphics into the vast world of development.
The task of computer graphics: a computer generated landscape digital model from
scratch, and it shows on the computer screen, or plotted on a graph paper and film.
The main object it is: the geometric scene modeling, digital model of the rendering,
graphic input and control of man-machine interface, and computer animation.
3 Application of Computer Graphics
Application of computer graphics can be everywhere, computer animation and
scientific visualization to become the most successful of the two computer graphics
(1) scientific visualization
The rapid development of computer, allow scientists and engineers can handle rolling
torrent of information each day from the ground, sea, space came a lot of data,
analysis and interpretation of the human brain is far more than the ability of these data,
the absence of large amounts of data effective analytical tools, about 95% of the
information is wasted, severely hampered the progress of scientific research, scientists
have exclaimed, &quot;We can do only part of the data collected.&quot;, so
that a new technology &quot;may of &quot;(visualization) came into being.
Visualization is the essence of &quot;representation with graphic and image
Intuitively speaking, is to examine: how the scientific data, whether calculated or
obtained from the measured values, or pass back from the satellite image, or to
medical CT (Computer aspects of X-ray photography) and MRI (magnetic resonance
imaging ) into the visual, the information can help scientists understand the
calculation. In short, scientific visualization is to computer graphics and image
processing technology in computer science subjects.
It examines two aspects: (a) how scientific data - values and image, into a visual
graphic (image) and understandable information tool. (B) of the visualization tools
used in the various disciplines of science and engineering.
(2) Computer Animation
In the early stages of computer animation into animation technology is only used to
control animation of mechanical devices such as cameras and animation console.
Computer graphics technology with the rapid development of image processing,
computer animation in the increasingly wide range of applications, current
applications in two categories: computer-aided animation (that is two-dimensional
animation) and computer-generated animation (the animation). 3D animation of its
three-dimensional data in computer generated, its orbit is inside the computer to
determine the three-dimensional data. Animation technology as an expression of the
fourth dimension of information technology, not only can be used to express the
change of time can also be used to indicate changes in other parameters.
Three-dimensional graphics computer graphics applications in the visual knowledge
of technology, enables people to use computer graphics in the 3D world directly with
the physical operation of the information, and and their direct interaction, visual
technology to give people objects simulation and real-time interactive capabilities.
The machine in an intuitive and natural way to unify the world in 3D graphics in an
unprecedented means to access information and play their thinking and get creative.
Three-dimensional mechanical parts such as the design model.
3D graphics animation technology used to generate three-dimensional animation, you
can make arbitrary designers get their imagination to play. Difficult pieces such as the
design and advertising for film and television, the film &quot;Titanic,&quot;
&quot;Jurassic Park&quot;, &quot;Terminator II&quot; and so
was the film camera is brilliant computer animation and real product of the integration
4, simulation development
According to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard was
&quot;data processing vocabulary&quot; to explain some of the rankings,
&quot;simulation&quot; (Simulation) and
&quot;simulation&quot; (Emulation) the meaning of the words were:
&quot;simulation&quot; that select a physical or abstract Some behavior
characteristics of the system with another system that they process.
&quot;Simulation&quot; that uses another data processing system, mainly
in hardware to mimic all or part of a treatment system, so that the system can emulate
the system as to imitate the same subject to the same data, perform the same
procedure to obtain the same results. Current &quot;analog&quot; and
&quot;simulation&quot; are both included in the contents of the category of
&quot;simulation&quot; aspect, with the &quot;Simulation&quot;
Also known as Monte Carlo simulation method, it is a random number by experiment
to solve the technical problems were. Monte Carlo (Monte Carlo) method, also known
as random sampling or statistical testing methods, is a branch of computational
mathematics, which is four decades of this century in order to meet the mid-career
development of atomic energy was developed.
The basic idea of Monte Carlo method is: when the required solution of the problem
is that the probability of some event or the expected value of a random variable, they
can be a &quot;test&quot; the method, the frequency of occurrence of such
events , or the average of the random variables and use them as a solution of the
Monte Carlo Methods grasp the movement of the geometric volume and geometry,
using mathematical methods to simulate, namely, a digital simulation. It is based on a
probabilistic model, in accordance with the process described in this model, through
simulation results, as the approximate solution. Monte Carlo problem solving can be
attributed to three main steps: constructing or describing the probability of the process;
sample from a known probability distribution; the establishment of various estimators.
Monte Carlo method originated in 1876, but until 75 years before being named
because until before the advent of digital computers, the method in a number of
important issues can not be used, from 1946 to 1952, the digital computer in a number
of research institutions to develop, so long to be calculated, this calculation is required
by the Monte Carlo method.
5, system simulation
Simulation industry experts and academics, under the simulation had a lot of
definitions, comprehensive domestic and foreign scholars on the system simulation
simulation definition, do the following definition: system simulation is based on
control theory, similarity theory, information processing theory and computing
technology above, computer and other specialized equipment as a tool for physical
effects, using the system model of the real or imaginary system test, and the help of
expert experience, statistics and information on the test results were examined, and
then make a decision a comprehensive and experimental subjects.
To conduct simulation, system and system model are the two main factors, and
because models of complex systems can not do without high-performance handling
and solving the model of information processing devices, computer duty-bound to act
on this role, so the system simulation of real should include three basic elements:
system, system model and the computer, the basic activities include: modeling,
simulation modeling and simulation. Figure:
In accordance with the participation of the different types of simulation models,
system simulation is divided into:
Type type type of computer simulation model economy
(Simulation) computer model to simulate the high cost of physical
(Hybrid simulation) physical - moderate cost of hybrid computer model
(Numerical simulation) model and low-cost digital computer
Physical simulation: the physical properties of the actual system structure of the
physical model and physical model were tested. Visual images, real high, but the high
cost of long period. In the absence of a computer before, simulation is used or its
physical model for the study.
Semi-physical simulation: the simulation of physics and mathematics, as part of a
mathematical model to describe, and a simulation model of it, part of the simulation
circuit in kind introduction. There is a mathematical model for the difficult situation
of subsystems, such simulation must be used, such as aerospace, weapons systems
and other fields of study.
Digital simulation (computer simulation): first, the mathematical model, and
mathematical models into simulation models, by running the model to achieve the
purpose of the system operation. Modern computer simulation by the simulation
system software / hardware environment, animation and graphics, input / output
6 Computer Simulation
Can be seen from the classification, computer simulation has become an important
branch of system simulation, system simulation largely refers to the computer
simulation. Computer simulation technology and control engineering, systems
engineering and computer engineering development are closely linked. On the one
hand, control engineering, systems engineering, has contributed to the extensive
application of simulation technology; the other hand, the emergence of computers and
computer technology, but also for the development of simulation technology provides
a powerful support. Computer simulation has been as an essential tool in reducing
losses and saving expenditure, shorten the development cycle, improve product
quality play an important role.
Can be drawn from the above analysis of computer simulation of the definition:
Computer simulation technology is based on mathematical theory, similarity theory,
information technology, systems technology and its applications based on the relevant
expertise to the computer and various physical effects of equipment as a tool, the
system model using the actual or envisaged to test the system study a comprehensive
technology. It integrates computer technology, network technology, graphic image
technology, object-oriented technology, multimedia, software engineering,
information processing, automatic control and other high-tech fields of knowledge.
Extensive use of computer simulation has permeated all areas of society. As in the
nuclear field, the future of nuclear testing nuclear bombs but not carried out by
computer simulation. September 10, 1996 the United Nations adopted the
&quot;Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty&quot;, but the treaty only
to illustrate aspects of the nuclear test explosion in the end real, the Russian military
expert said: &quot;Many Western countries, even without nuclear testing, but
also the use of high-speed large-scale computer, the three-dimensional space of the
full simulation of the entire process of nuclear explosions. &quot;This is the
present reality, it was estimated that the outside world, so far, to carry out computer
simulation of nuclear tests of countries and regions are: the United States, Russia,
Britain, France, China, Japan and Taiwan.
7 Simulation Visualization
90 years from the 20th century, along with the application of complex system
simulation and application of rising demand for ever-expanding field of computer
simulation have been from a purely numerical simulation, the development of the
human in the loop simulation of virtual environments a new stage. Now the
simulation system is already integrated simulation systems, and network.
Simulation and simulation visualization is the combination of visualization
technology is the simulation of digital information into an intuitive, graphical image
representation, changes with time and space simulation presented in front of the
researchers, so researchers to know the system variables, variables and parameters,
variables and the relationship between the external environment, direct access to the
system of static and dynamic characteristics. Observational data and provides a means
of interaction, real-time data to track and effectively manage the process of simulation
Visual simulation has two connotations: Simulation results visualization process
visualization and simulation.
8, simulation animation
Simulation animation is simulation technology and animation combined use of
animation to describe the simulation process more images more intuitive.
Performance model is the most direct method of acts of graphics technology.
Simulation animation technology used in two ways:
u non-real-time simulation animation: the post-processing animation output, first run
the simulation program, and store simulation data, after the end of the drive as
animation data, do not have the animation and simulation of interactive capability
(separation), are widely used in simulation do not interact and processing areas such
as architectural design, urban planning, film and television production. Then do a
more realistic model can be certain.
u real-time simulation animation: the synchronization of real-time animation and
simulation, a real-time simulation animation. Focused primarily on the results of
simulation and real-time performance and interaction, and realistic animation of the
simulation by the wayside. Widely used in simulation of real-time processing
demands, and interactive areas such as aviation, surveying, construction, chemical
molecular modeling, military training and other fields.
9, visual simulation
Visual simulation is a simulation of the advanced stage of animation, virtual reality
is the most important forms of expression, it is to make users feel immersive
interactive generated simulation environment, to achieve the user directly with the
natural environment interact.
Visual simulation using computer graphics technology, according to the purpose of
the simulation, three-dimensional structure simulation object model or reproduce a
real environment, to achieve a very realistic simulation results.
Visual simulation of computer technology, graphics and image generation technology,
three-dimensional imaging and audio technology, information synthesis, display
technology, the integrated use of high-tech. Simulation System Software to become a
major component of virtual reality, distributed interactive simulation technology one
of the main content.
A visual simulation system consists of three parts: visual database, image generator
and display system. Scene database, including geometric definition data, the
simulation environment requires the color and texture; image generator emulator
content drawn from the viewpoint definition, the data stored in the scene database;
display system can be a projector, CRT (cathode-ray tube) display or helmet-mounted
Applied to urban planning simulation, large-scale projects roaming, attractions virtual
tour, virtual reality real estate marketing, operations training and weapons
development and other fields.
Currently the field of visual simulation applications in military, national state in the
competition. U.S. is the world&#39;s use of computer technology to simulate the
first military training. U.S. military believes that the use of computer simulation
training, is a real battle can maximize training methods. According to U.S. statistics,
has never participated in actual combat pilots, the first implementation of the tasks in
the survival probability of only 60%, after a computer simulation of combat training,
the probability of survival can be increased to 90%. In 1995 NATO forces against
Bosnian Serb forces carried out massive air strikes, the U.S. on the use of computer
technology to high-resolution satellite images combined with digital map of Bosnia
and Herzegovina generate realistic battlefield, a battlefield simulation environment for
pilots in the real-time simulation environment exercise, which greatly improved the
success rate of air raids.
In the early 20th century, early 80s, the U.S. military began training in computer
simulation technology into the field. Into the 90&#39;s, the computer simulation
in order to fully promote the training of U.S. troops set up a dedicated research and
development, management simulation training systems (equipment) and support for
U.S. military simulation training --- the executive arm of the U.S. National Simulation
Center, which promoted Computer simulation training extensively developed, and led
to U.S. military training concepts, training theory, training methods, training methods
and content of training and a series of profound changes. 80 U.S. troops in the 20th
century, proposed the &quot;distributed simulation&quot; of the new
concept of training simulation, its essence is to spread different locations independent
of each simulation system or computer network connected together with a simulator,
composed of highly integrated analog network system. In this simulation of network
systems, training of all units or individuals within the network can be simulated
training alone, but also with other units or individuals for integration with the
co-simulation training. U.S. forces in July 2002 at the &quot;Millennium
Challenge 2002&quot; exercise, U.S. military enabled the two sets of network
simulation systems, decentralized command center in the nation&#39;s 26
training bases and command of the various arms and services personnel, the
background in the same war, the same battlefield situation, the same operation to set
the same time as the organization of joint operations command of large-scale
January 18, 2003, before the war in Iraq, the northern area of Japan Ground
Self-Defense Force and U.S. Army stationed in Japan, Chitose, Hokkaido, Japan East
Japan and the U.S. Army at the resident began to exercise joint command. This is
Japan and the U.S. Army used a computer simulation exercise, the Japanese
Self-Defense Force and the Army about 4,500 of about 1,500 people participated in
the exercise. Exercise continued until February 1. The exercise is in the imaginary
events that took place around Hokkaido, Japan, held in the case of integrated
exercises using satellite maps and computer simulation of operations, aimed at
checking the implementation of the Japan-US joint military command system and the
combat effectiveness of information transmission, etc., which improve operational
command capability. Since 1981, Japan and the U.S. held twice a year such
10 Virtual Reality (VR)
VR is developed in the late 20th century a number of disciplines involved in high-tech
practical techniques, also known as &quot;Inspiration&quot;
&quot;fantasy.&quot; It is a new man-machine interaction system that
integrates advanced computer technology, sensing and measurement technology,
simulation technology, microelectronic technology, and use of computer-generated
virtual environment, it could have led to the involvement of various sensory stimuli
such as vision, hearing, touch, smell, etc., gives a sense of immersive, and people can
in a natural way to interact with the environment, stressed in the leading role of the
Definition of VR: Virtual reality is a simulation using computer-generated
environment (such as aircraft cockpit, the operation site, etc.), through a variety of
sensing devices allows users to &quot;immersion&quot; into the
environment, to achieve the user with the natural environment interact directly
Simulation environment - is computer-generated three-dimensional graphics with
surface color, it can be a true reflection of the real world can be pure vision of the
Sensing devices - including three-dimensional helmet, data gloves, data suits, and
other devices and settings in the reality of the sensing device.
Natural interaction - refers to the use of everyday objects using the method to operate
on the environment.
VR&#39;s basic features:
Immersion (Immersion): not the traditional computer interface technology, natural
way users interact with computers to create a fully immersed in the virtual
Interaction (Interaction): and the difference between traditional animation features,
users do not passively receive information, or to look on, but the use of interactive
manipulation of virtual objects, input devices, change the virtual world.
Concept (Imagination): users to get emotional and rational VR understanding, to
deepen the concept and the germination of new ideas.
11 Virtual reality and computer simulation, visual simulation of the relationship
Although VR is multi-disciplinary complex, but it is a simulation technology as the
core, so you can see it as a type of simulation system, in the VR simulation can be
considered as three-dimensional simulation model of high-level interface. Simulation
aims to decision-making, decision making is divided into macro and micro
policy-making, the current application of VR systems are a class of micro-decisions,
although some large-scale VR system, but they are all involved in local
(1) visual simulation is an important branch of computer simulation, which focuses on
achieving a very realistic three-dimensional simulation results;
(2) VR visual simulation is an important form, use a lot of VR technology, VR visual
simulation in a sense an extension of three-dimensional scene of the advanced stage;
(3) visual simulation now focus more on the immersive visual and auditory, VR
immersive to the all-round development, touch, smell and other senses. VR is a more
advanced computer interface technology.
Depending on the application of view computer simulation, visual simulation and VR
Simulation and VR in the relationship between the need for further research, although
not completely consistent view of their peers, this is the result of cross-disciplinary,
but after thorough research and then will gradually integrate the current primary task
is to advanced technology to use to practice.