Computer Architecture Computer Architecture Computer Architecture major research basic working principle of the computer system, as well as hardware, software interface classified balance strategy, establish a complete system of computer hardware and software as a whole concept. Computer system structure refers to what? Is the appearance of a computer? Or is a computer placed inside a block of board structure? Not, then what is it? Computer system architecture is a computer programmer or machine langua ge compiler writers have seen the external characteristics. The so-called external characteristic is the computer&#39;s conceptual structure and functional properties. With an inappropriate analogy, such as animals, it, its &quot;system architecture&quot; What are they? Its conceptual structure and functional properties, is equivalent to the composition of animal organs and their functional characteristics, such as chickens stomach, can digest food. As for the chicken stomach what shape, what the composition of the chicken stomach is not from the &quot;system architecture&quot; of the problem. System architecture is only targeted to this level. On the computer system of multi- level structure, with &quot;people&quot; of this animal is not a case in point list of comparison as follows: (this link is very scientific, just to relax). Computer System People Applied Language Level Serving class High- level language class Reading, learning level Assembly language level Language, thinking level Operating system level Physiological function of class Conventional machine level Level of human organs Micro-program the machine- level Tissue level Electronic circuit level Molecular level Traditional machines and above all the machines are called virtual machine, which is a software machine. Hardware and software features are logically equivalent, that the overwhelming majority of part of the hardware features are available software to implement, and vice versa. External characteristics of the structure of the computer system, should cover the following aspects (that is, we have to learn a few sections of Chapter) clarified these aspects, the basic system structure also clear: (1) instruction (2) data representation (3) a comprehens ive and balanced way of addressing (4) The register constitutes the definition of (5) interruption of institutions and exceptional conditions (6) storage systems and management (7) I / O structure (8 ) working state machine definition and switch (9) Information Protection. So after learning the system often look back and think this is what aspects of the structure, which grasp the overall situation is good. Mention here the structure of the internal characteristics of computer systems, computer systems within the structure of the external characteristic features that will be that &quot;logic implementation&quot; of the basic properties. The so-called &quot;logic implementation,&quot; is how to implement this logic function, such as &quot;God&quot; to the design of a certain size of the chicken&#39;s stomach, the stomach&#39;s function is to digest food, which is an external characteristic of the chicken system, then how digestion then, we must by eating chicken Hui food and gravel, then through the stomach peristalsis, relying on the grinding gravel to digest the food, where to eat and creep characteristics of such operation is within. Another is the computer implementation, which is composed of the physical realization of the computer. It is mainly focused on device technology and micro-assembly technology. Take the example above, the organizations from which a few stomach muscles and nerves to promote its campaign is the &quot;chicken to achieve.&quot; Accordingly we can distinguish the external characteristics of computer systems, internal characteristics and the relationship between the physical implementation. Characteristics of the structure in all systems, the command system is the most critical external characteristics. Therefore, the computer system architecture is sometimes referred to as the instruction set architectures. We focus on this course to learn the computer system architecture, the traditional speaking, at the interface between hardware and software description, that is external characteristic. The analogy is not appropriate to help understanding of the corresponding sera, or would be detrimental to scientific rigor. Classification of Computer Architecture By &quot;flow&quot; classification method, which is proposed by Professor Flynn instruction flow and data flow of the times the concept of classification methods. A total of four categories, namely: (S-single single I-instruction command M- multiple times in the D-data data) SISD single instruction stream single data stream, the traditional single-processor computers are SISD. SIMD single instruction stream multiple data stream SIMD parallel processor is a typical representative of the computer. China YH-I type is such a computer model. MISD Multiple Instruction stream single data stream, does not actually exist, but some scholars believe that there is. MIMD multiple instruction multiple data streams, including most of the multi-processor and multi-computer system. China YH-II-type computer is this type of computer. Generally regarded as SISD scalar type water machine, water machine as the vector SIMD type. By &quot;parallel class&quot; and &quot;pipeline&quot; Category: This is a computer system in the three sub-level and line level by parallel processing methods to classify the degree. Computer System Design criteria 1. Only accelerate the use of high frequency components This is the most important and most widely used computer design criteria. Expedite the processing of the event because of frequent impact on the system than expedite the processing of rare larger impact of the incident. 2. Amdahl (Amdahl) Law The Law is a formula: the Using this formula should do some calculation or analysis, so to remember and understand its significance. 3. Program visit the locality rule Procedures to access the localized mainly localized in time and space to reflect the two aspects of temporal locality refers to the process recently accessed information items may soon be re-visited, spatial locality means the models are very close to those who visit the address information items are likely to be a visit. Development of computer architecture Von Neumann computer&#39;s main features: stored procedures approach; order serial execution to be centralized control by the controller; unit fixed length of one-dimensional linear space of memory; use of low- level machine language, data in binary representation; single-processor architecture to computing device as the center. Improved von Neumann computer to make it from the original computing device for the center evolved with memory as the center. From the system of structure, mainly by means of a variety of high-parallel processing to improve computer system performance. Software, applications and devices on the system architecture Development Software should be compatible with, or portability. In order to achieve software portability, using the following method: Simulation: software method in a computer implementation of existing instructions on another computer system, such a machine language used to explain the actual existence of transplantation is to achieve software simulation. Simulation: Using A Machine (host) in a micro-program to explain the realization of B machine (target machine) instruction for each instruction and the implementation methods of instruction system B, said simulation, it explained some of the hardware involved in the process of . General mixing of the two methods, the instructions for the use of high frequency simulation method used, while for low frequency and difficult to achieve in order to use simulation modeling approach to achieve. Series of machines using the method, so to speak, series machines are the same system architecture, such as we use the 80X86 microcomputer INTEL series and compatible system structure is the same, of course, in the development process in its architecture can get a new expansion, such as the original 586 machine does not support the MMX multimedia extension instruction set, but later expanded the instructions chips, instruction set to expand, but they are still the same series of machines. This series machine method, mainly for software compatibility. If expansion instructions above will make the future of software optimized for these instructions before the machine can not run (or can not play the corresponding function) results in poor forward compatibility. But it is important to ensure backward compatibility to do, that is pushed by a certain time to market of the file machine software can be compiled without modification after its run on the machine to market. In the series machine, the software can be said plant is determined by the file using the same high- level machine language, assembler language and machine language, but using a different micro-program to achieve. Unified high- level language Nothing to do with the machine model with high- level programming language standards such as FORTRAN, COBOL, etc., this method provides a different hardware platform portability between different operating systems. Open system: refers to an independent vendor, and follow the relevant international standards, established with the system portability, interoperability, so that it can allow the user to choose specific products of technology and multi- vendor system integration technology channel system . Applications development impact on the system structure Computer applications continue to make the system structure of the basic requirements for high computing speed, large storage capacity and large I / O throughput. (We must faster motherboard CPU and memory, larger hard drives we want more we have to display more colors and higher refresh rate ... This is the demand) Computer Applications from the original to the more advanced scientific computing application development more complex, evolved from data processing, information processing, knowledge processing and intelligent handling four escalating stages. Devices on the system architecture Development As technology advances, the rapid increase device performance and low cost, more powerful chips, so that the performance of system architecture from mainframe to minicomputers and even higher computer down. In summary: Software is to promote the development of a computer system architecture of the most important factor (not the software, the machine can not run, so in order to facilitate the use of existing software, it must consider the system architecture design. Software, the most important) Application requirements is to promote the development of computer systems structure the most fundamental driving force (people with machines, we pursue a better place, the machine would have done better and faster. So the most basic needs) Device is to promote the development of computer systems structure the most active factor (no devices not on the production computer, the device brings every update to improve the structure of computer systems. Did not see in the first half just bought the machine, in the second half, just want to throw it into the dustbin of history ^ _ ^ What, so the most active devices).
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