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Computer Architecture - Download as DOC


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									Computer Architecture
Computer Architecture

Computer Architecture major research basic working principle of the computer
system, as well as hardware, software interface classified balance strategy, establish a
complete system of computer hardware and software as a whole concept.
Computer system structure refers to what? Is the appearance of a computer? Or is a
computer placed inside a block of board structure? Not, then what is it? Computer
system architecture is a computer programmer or machine langua ge compiler writers
have seen the external characteristics. The so-called external characteristic is the
computer's conceptual structure and functional properties. With an
inappropriate      analogy,     such as animals,           it, its   "system
architecture" What are they? Its conceptual structure and functional
properties, is equivalent to the composition of animal organs and their functional
characteristics, such as chickens stomach, can digest food. As for the chicken stomach
what shape, what the composition of the chicken stomach is not from the
"system architecture" of the problem. System architecture is
only targeted to this level. On the computer system of multi- level structure, with
"people" of this animal is not a case in point list of comparison
as follows: (this link is very scientific, just to relax).
Computer System
Applied Language Level
Serving class
High- level language class
Reading, learning level
Assembly language level
Language, thinking level
Operating system level
Physiological function of class
Conventional machine level
Level of human organs
Micro-program the machine- level
Tissue level
Electronic circuit level
Molecular level
Traditional machines and above all the machines are called virtual machine, which is
a software machine. Hardware and software features are logically equivalent, that the
overwhelming majority of part of the hardware features are available software to
implement, and vice versa.
External characteristics of the structure of the computer system, should cover the
following aspects (that is, we have to learn a few sections of Chapter) clarified these
aspects, the basic system structure also clear:
(1) instruction (2) data representation (3) a comprehens ive and balanced way of
addressing (4) The register constitutes the definition of (5) interruption of institutions
and exceptional conditions (6) storage systems and management (7) I / O structure (8 )
working state machine definition and switch (9) Information Protection.
So after learning the system often look back and think this is what aspects of the
structure, which grasp the overall situation is good.
Mention here the structure of the internal characteristics of computer systems,
computer systems within the structure of the external characteristic features that will
be that "logic implementation" of the basic properties. The
so-called "logic implementation," is how to implement this
logic function, such as "God" to the design of a certain size of
the chicken's stomach, the stomach's function is to digest food,
which is an external characteristic of the chicken system, then how digestion then, we
must by eating chicken Hui food and gravel, then through the stomach peristalsis,
relying on the grinding gravel to digest the food, where to eat and creep
characteristics of such operation is within.
Another is the computer implementation, which is composed of the physical
realization of the computer. It is mainly focused on device technology and
micro-assembly technology. Take the example above, the organizations from which a
few stomach muscles and nerves to promote its campaign is the "chicken
to achieve."
Accordingly we can distinguish the external characteristics of computer systems,
internal characteristics and the relationship between the physical implementation.
Characteristics of the structure in all systems, the command system is the most critical
external characteristics. Therefore, the computer system architecture is sometimes
referred to as the instruction set architectures. We focus on this course to learn the
computer system architecture, the traditional speaking, at the interface between
hardware and software description, that is external characteristic.
The analogy is not appropriate to help understanding of the corresponding sera, or
would be detrimental to scientific rigor.
Classification of Computer Architecture
By "flow" classification method, which is proposed by
Professor Flynn instruction flow and data flow of the times the concept of
classification methods. A total of four categories, namely: (S-single single
I-instruction command M- multiple times in the D-data data)
SISD single instruction stream single data stream, the traditional single-processor
computers are SISD.
SIMD single instruction stream multiple data stream SIMD parallel processor is a
typical representative of the computer. China YH-I type is such a computer model.
MISD Multiple Instruction stream single data stream, does not actually exist, but
some scholars believe that there is.
MIMD multiple instruction multiple data streams, including most of the
multi-processor and multi-computer system. China YH-II-type computer is this type
of computer.
Generally regarded as SISD scalar type water machine, water machine as the vector
SIMD type.
By "parallel class" and "pipeline"
Category: This is a computer system in the three sub-level and line level by parallel
processing methods to classify the degree.
Computer System Design criteria
1. Only accelerate the use of high frequency components
This is the most important and most widely used computer design criteria. Expedite
the processing of the event because of frequent impact on the system than expedite the
processing of rare larger impact of the incident.
2. Amdahl (Amdahl) Law
The Law is a formula: the
Using this formula should do some calculation or analysis, so to remember and
understand its significance.
3. Program visit the locality rule
Procedures to access the localized mainly localized in time and space to reflect the
two aspects of temporal locality refers to the process recently accessed information
items may soon be re-visited, spatial locality means the models are very close to those
who visit the address information items are likely to be a visit.
Development of computer architecture
Von Neumann computer's main features: stored procedures approach; order
serial execution to be centralized control by the controller; unit fixed length of
one-dimensional linear space of memory; use of low- level machine language, data in
binary representation; single-processor architecture to computing device as the center.
Improved von Neumann computer to make it from the original computing device for
the center evolved with memory as the center. From the system of structure, mainly
by means of a variety of high-parallel processing to improve computer system
Software, applications and devices on the system architecture Development
Software should be compatible with, or portability. In order to achieve software
portability, using the following method:
Simulation: software method in a computer implementation of existing instructions on
another computer system, such a machine language used to explain the actual
existence of transplantation is to achieve software simulation.
Simulation: Using A Machine (host) in a micro-program to explain the realization of
B machine (target machine) instruction for each instruction and the implementation
methods of instruction system B, said simulation, it explained some of the hardware
involved in the process of .
General mixing of the two methods, the instructions for the use of high frequency
simulation method used, while for low frequency and difficult to achieve in order to
use simulation modeling approach to achieve.
Series of machines using the method, so to speak, series machines are the same
system architecture, such as we use the 80X86 microcomputer INTEL series and
compatible system structure is the same, of course, in the development process in its
architecture can get a new expansion, such as the original 586 machine does not
support the MMX multimedia extension instruction set, but later expanded the
instructions chips, instruction set to expand, but they are still the same series of
machines. This series machine method, mainly for software compatibility. If
expansion instructions above will make the future of software optimized for these
instructions before the machine can not run (or can not play the corresponding
function) results in poor forward compatibility. But it is important to ensure backward
compatibility to do, that is pushed by a certain time to market of the file machine
software can be compiled without modification after its run on the machine to market.
In the series machine, the software can be said plant is determined by the file using
the same high- level machine language, assembler language and machine language,
but using a different micro-program to achieve.
Unified high- level language
Nothing to do with the machine model with high- level programming language
standards such as FORTRAN, COBOL, etc., this method provides a different
hardware platform portability between different operating systems.
Open system: refers to an independent vendor, and follow the relevant international
standards, established with the system portability, interoperability, so that it can allow
the user to choose specific products of technology and multi- vendor system
integration technology channel system .
Applications development impact on the system structure
Computer applications continue to make the system structure of the basic
requirements for high computing speed, large storage capacity and large I / O
throughput. (We must faster motherboard CPU and memory, larger hard drives we
want more we have to display more colors and higher refresh rate ... This is the
Computer Applications from the original to the more advanced scientific computing
application development more complex, evolved from data processing, information
processing, knowledge processing and intelligent handling four escalating stages.
Devices on the system architecture Development
As technology advances, the rapid increase device performance and low cost, more
powerful chips, so that the performance of system architecture from mainframe to
minicomputers and even higher computer down.
In summary:
Software is to promote the development of a computer system architecture of the most
important factor (not the software, the machine can not run, so in order to facilitate
the use of existing software, it must consider the system architecture design. Software,
the most important)
Application requirements is to promote the development of computer systems
structure the most fundamental driving force (people with machines, we pursue a
better place, the machine would have done better and faster. So the most basic needs)
Device is to promote the development of computer systems structure the most active
factor (no devices not on the production computer, the device brings every update to
improve the structure of computer systems. Did not see in the first half just bought the
machine, in the second half, just want to throw it into the dustbin of history ^ _ ^
What, so the most active devices).

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