I. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate negative by chrisandersen


									                          Lesson 1

Review of Consonant Sounds 辅音复习
These consonants are pronounced similar to pinyin. If you want, you can write a
Chinese word next to each consonant to help you remember the sound.
这些 辅音 发音 跟 拼音差不多 一 样。如 果你 希望 ,你能 写一个 中 文字 在
每个 辅 音 旁边 帮助 你 记住 它的发音。

t                         m
p                         k
w                         s

Dialogue      對話
              Mary: Hello. My name is Mary.
              What is your name?
      John:   Hi. My name is John.
              Nice to meet you.
      Mary:   Nice to meet you, too.
      John:   Where are you from?
      Mary:   I am from Boston.
              Where are you from?
              John: I am from Beijing, China.
      Mary:   When did you come to the United States?
      John:   I came to the United States in 1996.
              我 1996 年來到美國.
      Mary:   Where do you live now?
      John:   I live in Cambridge. And you?
      Mary:   I live in Boston, and I am retired now.

            What do you do?
      John: I am a student at Harvard.

Vocabulary and Phrases       生詞和片语
Hello!      你好         What is your name?
My name is _______________. 你的姓名是什么?
- 我的名字是_______________。                 What is your first name?
My first name is _______________.    你的名字是什么?
- 我的名字是_______________。                 What is your last name?
My last name is ______________.      你的姓氏是什么?
- 我的姓名是_______________。                 Where are you from?
I am from _______________.
 Examples: China, Hong Kong, Taiwan,
 Singapore, Vietnam, America   你是从哪里来的?
例如: 中国,香港,台湾,新加坡,越南,美国
Nice to meet you! 很高兴认识你!
How are you? 你好吗?
I am ________________.
 Great    Good    OK   Not good Bad           Terrible
  好       挺好     不错 不好           坏            很不好
And you?        你呢?
- I am ______________.
               Happy    Sad    Excited      Tired    Hot   Cold    Sick
我____。         高兴       伤心      兴奋          累        热      冷      生病

Goodbye!    再见

Interrogatives       疑問詞
When you meet someone, you may want to find out more about them. When you
need to get information, you may want to ask someone. So, it is important to
learn the words that English-speakers use to ask questions.
当你认识新人的时候,你可能 会想多了解一些关于他们的事情。 还有,当你需要
调查信息的时候,你可能要问别人。 所以学会英文里的疑问词很重要。

1. What…? 什麼      ?         2. Who…? 誰 ?         3. When…? 什麼時
間        ?       4. Where…? 那裡     ?       5. Why…? 為什麼      ?
      6. Which…? 哪 ( 一)個 ?        7. How…? 怎麼     ?

Practice     练习

In English, question words go in the beginning of the sentence.

Example 例子
你是从哪里来的? Where are you from?
她是谁?    Who is she?
你为什么来了美国?           Why did you come to America?
他的名字是什么? What is his last name?
你想要哪一个?       Which one do you want?

The word “when” is used for an event,for example:
什么时候 这个字是用在一个事件上,例如:

When did you come to America? 你什么时候来美国的?
When does your store open?    你的商店什么时候开门?
When can I pick it up?  我什么时候能来取(它)?

If you want to know the time, use this sentence:

What time is it?

Review of “Time” 复习表述时间

整点: 1:00                   one o‟clock
半点: 1:30                   half past one

                     Or      one thirty
一刻: 1:15                     a quarter past one
三刻: 1:45                     a quarter to two
                      Or     one forty-five
        不到 30 分,用 past :
        1:25         twenty-five past one
                Or   one twenty-five
        过了 30 分,用 to:
        1:35         twenty-five to two
                Or   one thirty-five

                                     Lesson 2

Sound exercise 发声 练习
     - th

英文有兩種“TH” 音:一種是我們上星期學的比較輕的音,另一種是個更重的音.

                                      輕 TH 的口形 重 TH 的口形
       There are two kinds of TH sounds in English: one kind is a softer one we learned
last week, and another kind is a harder sound.

      Without vocalization: (轻)
thanks think        thing       teeth             mouth      math

       With vocalization: (重)
this      that        these         those         there      they

Dialogue 对话
       Teacher: Mr. Li, Can you read this dialogue?

         Mr. Li:    Yes, let me try.
                    好的, 让我试一下。
         (Mr. Li reads the dialogue.) (李先生读对话)
         Teacher: Do you understand the dialogue?
         Mr. Li:    Sorry, can you repeat your question?
         Teacher: Do you understand the dialogue?
         Mr. Li:    Not very well. I have a question.
         Teacher: Yes, please ask.
         Mr. Li;    what does this word mean?
         (Mr. Li asks about the meaning of “travel” and the teacher explains to
         Teacher: Understand?
         Mr. Li:    Yes. Thank you.
         Teacher: You are welcome. Mr. Li, please read the dialogue again.
                    (不客气。 李先生,请在读一遍对话。)
         (Mr. Li reads the dialogue.)(李先生阅读对话.)
         Teacher: Can you read louder?
         Mr. Li:    No problem.

Classroom words and phrases 教室 字 和 片语

        teacher 老师                         listen 听
repeat 重复                          read aloud/ out loud 响 读
homework 作业                        student 学生
dialogue 对话                        try 试
sentence 句子

     Do you have any questions? 有 没 有 问题
What does _______ mean?
How do you say ________ in English?

Can you please repeat? 你 能 不 能 重复一边
Can you speak slower? 你 能 不 能 说 慢一点
Can you speak louder? 你 能 不 能 说 响 一点
I have a question. 我 有 一 个 问题
[Use this word in a sentence. 用______在一个 句子里]

Grammar Overview 语法介绍

Present Tense       一般现在时

     Use present tense for a verb that is:

     1. Happening in the present     現在發生

     Now, I open the window.
     2. Happens repeatedly 習慣性的發生
              Every Saturday I go to class.
     Sometimes the bus comes late.
     3. To express a fact    貓吃魚.
           Cats eat fish.
        Dogs do not eat fish.

    Here are some useful verbs and their present tense form.
这里 有一 些 有 用 的 动 词 和 它 们 的 现 在 时

     Note: 3rd person singular (第三 人 成 单 数) form of the verb has an “-s” in
     the present tense.

        To eat 吃
I eat   我 吃 We eat 我们 吃            You eat 你 吃     You eat 你们 吃
        He, She, It eats 他 , 她 , 它 吃     They eat 他们 , 她们,它们
       To cook 烧
I cook 我 烧        We cook 我们         烧              You cook 你 烧 You
cook 你们        烧       He, She, It cooks 他 , 她 ,它 烧                 They
cook 他们 ,她们, 它们 烧
       To watch 看
I watch       我 看      We watch 我们           看            You watch 你 看
       You watch 你们     看             He, She, It watches 他 , 她 ,它 看
       They watch 他们 ,她们, 它们 看
       To work 工作
I work       我 工作      We work 我们           工作            You work 你 工
作      You work 你们      工作            He, She, It works 他 , 她 ,它 工作
       They work 他们 , 她们, 它们 工作
       To sleep 睡
I sleep      我 睡       We sleep 我们          睡             You sleep 你 睡
       You sleep 你们     睡             He, She, It sleeps 他 , 她 ,它 睡
       They sleep 他们,她们,它们 睡
       To live 住
I live     我 住    We live 我们       住                You live 你 住    You
live 你们      住         He, She, It lives 他 , 她 ,它 住                 They
live 他们 ,她们 , 它们 住
       To read 读
I read     我 读         We read 我们           读             You read 你 读
       You read 你们     读              He, She, It reads 他 , 她 ,它 读
       They read 他们,她们, 它们 读

        A few common verbs are irregular (不 规则). They do not follow a simple
        rule. For example:

      To be 是
I am 我 是         We are 我们      是       You are 你 是   You are 你
们    是           He, She, It is 他 , 她 ,它 是            They are 他
们 ,她们 , 它们 是
      To have 有
I have     我 有         We have 我们       有         You have 你 有
      You have 你们      有          He, She, It has 他 , 她 ,它 有
      They have 他们 ,她们,它们 有
      To go 去

I go    我 去      We go 我们        去    You go 你 去                       You go 你
们    去           He, She, It goes 他 , 她 ,它 去                           They go 他
们 ,她们, 它们 去
     To do 做
I do   我 做       We do 我们        做    You do 你 做                      You do 你们
做          He, She, It does 他 , 她 ,它 做         They                   do 他们 ,她
们, 它们 做

The 3rd person singular rule also applies to a singular person, object, institution,
or concept that is being referred to as a 3rd person.

              Jane eats a lot.
              This book is from China.
              Harvard helps students.
              Kindness is important.

(These are all examples of “To express a fact,” the third use of present tense. )

Review of months and days           复习表述星期

Days of the Week
Monday     Tuesday       Wednesday        Thursday      Friday     Saturday
星期一        星期二             星期三              星期四         星期五         星期六          星

注意介词: 表示”在 xx 天”的介词是 “on”

Cultural note: Many Americans consider Sunday to be the first day of the week.

                                    Lesson 3

Sound exercise 发声 练习

Pronunciation: V vs. F

发音:V 与 F

                      V 声的嘴形        F 声的嘴形

fan 扇子    van 面包车                  belief 信念 believe 相信       safe 安全
save 搭救,省                    leaf 叶子      leave 离开      life 生命
live 住,生活

Pronunciation Exercises 發音練習
           1. - in           tin         pin          win
- en           ten         pen          when           men
- ing          king        sing         ring

Dialogue 對話

    David: I have a great book.
大卫: 我 有一本 很 好 的 书

     Mary: What is your book about?
玛 利: 你的 书 是 讲 什么 的

        David: It is a book that helps you learn English.
               这 本 书 帮 你 学 英文

        Mary: Where is this book from?
              这 本 书 是 从 哪 里来的

        David: You can borrow it from the library for free.
               你 能从 图书馆 免费地借

        Mary: Who can borrow it?
        David: Anyone can if they have a library card.
               任何人 有 图书馆 卡 就能借

        Mary: What is the name of the book?
              书 名 是 什么

        David: I am sorry. I do not remember. My book is at home.
               对不起 ,我不 记的 。我的 书 正在家里。

        Mary : Who is the author?


     David: I do not remember. I can call my wife and ask. Usually, she goes
            home at 7PM, but she is on vacation now.
     我 不 记 得。我 能 给我的 妻子 打 电 话 问她 。她 大 多 七 点钟 回家 ,
     不过 她 现 在 休假 。
Vocabulary 生词

about 关于
can 可以
help 帮助
borrow 借
library 图书馆
card 卡
free 免费
anyone 任何人
I am sorry 对不起
remember 记住
author 作者
ask 问
usually 大多
vacation 休假

Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives          代詞

                 代名詞      Possessive Adjectives
  I     我   My   我的       You 你       Your 你的           He  他
  His 他的       She 她    Her 她的            It     它  its    它的
             We 我們 Our 我們的                    You 你們
    Your 你們的         They 他們          Their 他們的

My name                  My name is Jia Baoyu.
My house/apartment       My apartment is in Newton.
My family                I miss (想念 ) my family.
My daughter              My daughter lives in New York.

Your name                Your name is very beautiful (美丽 ).
Your house               I also live in Newton. Where is your house?
Your family              When did your family come to America?

Your son                    How old is your son?

Review of Ordinal Numbers

First   第一   Fourteenth    第十四                 Second 第二 Fifteenth         第十五
                 Third 第三 Sixteenth          第十六                  Fourth 第四
      Seventeenth 第十七                  Fifth 第五 Eighteenth          第十八
          Sixth 第六 Nineteenth       第十九                    Seventh       第七
      Twentieth     第二十                Eighth 第八 Twenty-first 第二十一
      Ninth 第九          …        …             Tenth 第十 Twenty-ninth 第二十
      九             Eleventh     第十一           Thirtieth     第三十
        Twelfth       第十二         Thirty-first   第三十一                 Thirteenth
The Months 复习月份
January      February      March       April           May           June

July         August         September   October      November       December


八月三日         August third         Or          the third of August

注意: 日期前的介词也是 “on”

                                  Lesson 4
Sound exercise 发声 练习

Pronunciation: 复合辅音
ch      China, chair, cheap
sh      she, sheep, short
tr      tree, try, train
dr      dry, draw, drive

Open Dialogue 开放式对话 (About personal information 有关个人信息)

A: What is your telephone number?

B: My telephone number is________.

A: Where do you live?

B: I live in _________________.

A: What is your address?

B: My address is _______________.

A: What street do you live on?

B: I live on __________________.

A: What city do you live in?

B: I live in _________________.

A: What state do you live in?

B: I live in _________________.

A: What is your zip code?

B: My zip code is __________________.

A: What country do you live in?

B: I live in _____________________.

A: How old are you?

B: I am ____________

A: When is your birthday?

B: My birthday is ____________

A: What year were you born in?

B: I was born in _______________

A: What month were you born in?

B:I was born in __________________

An article placed before a noun determines whether the noun is definite or indefinite.


Indefinite article – 不定冠詞: a, an (一個)

         --以輔音作為發音開始的詞,前面用 “a”. 例如:
              I have a book. 我有一本書.
              I went to a supermarket. 我去了一家超級市場.
         --以元音作為發音開始的詞,前面用 “an.” 例如:
              I work at an office. 我在一個辦公室工作.
              I ate an apple. 我吃了一個蘋果.

Definite article – 定冠詞: the
         幫助說明該名詞所指稱的事物是特定的. 例如:
         I have a book, the book is called “Learning English.”
         我有一本書, 該本書叫做 “學習英文.”
         The supermarket was called “Star Market.” 該超級市場叫做 Star Market.
         The office is near Boston Common. 該辦公室離波士頓公園很近.
         The apple was very good. 該蘋果非常好吃.

       相似詞: this (這個), that(那個), these(這些), those(那些).


Proper nouns (專有名詞) 前不加冠词:
專有名詞是指稱某個獨一事物的詞, 一般是人名或地名. 例如: John, George W.
Bush, United States, China, Hong Kong, Boston…

有些單數不定名詞是不可以用數字衡量的, 它們也不需要冠詞.

例: water (水), freedom (自由), money (錢)…
     I don’t drink water, I drink Coke.
     I came to America for freedom.
     I want to have a lot of money.

Geography 地理
Vocabulary 生詞

Boston 波士頓       New England 紐英格蘭
Chicago 芝加哥      Midwest 中西部                        Seafood 海鮮
Pizza 批薩餅              History 歷史
Texas 德州 Cowboy 牛仔                           Boston Common 波士頓公園
Steak 牛扒         New York 紐約         Statue of Liberty 自由女神
Las Vegas 拉斯維加斯               Casino 賭場                    Broadway 百老匯
Magic 魔術               Times Square 時代廣場            California 加州
West Coast 西岸                 Tom Cruise 湯.告魯斯
Weather 天氣       Washington D.C     華盛頓首府                  President 總統
Los Angeles 洛杉磯        Hollywood 荷利活                       Capital 首都
Movies 電影              White House 白宮                      Celebrities 名人
Florida 佛州 Beach 沙灘           San Francisco 舊金山
Chinatown 唐人街                 Vacation 度假<名,動>
Computers 電腦                  Disney World 迪士尼

                                Lesson 5
Pronunciation 發音

1) Z-的发音
                                   Z 音的嘴形

   Zoo   動物園                 Zip code     郵政編碼              Zipper 拉鍊
                      Zero   零            Crazy 疯狂

2) 发音规则

/ei/    -- a     name 名字,same 相同
        -- ai    rain 雨、下雨, train 火车, afraid 害怕的
        -- ea    great 好极的、伟大的,
        -- ay    day 天, play 玩
        -- ey    grey 灰的
/ i:/   -- ea    teacher 老师,leave 离开,reach 到达, beach 海滩
        -- ee    free 自由, see 看见,meet 会见,agree 同意
        -- ie    niece 侄子, believe 相信、认为
        -- ei    receive 收到

May:        How many people are living in your family right now?
May:         你们家现在住着几口人?
 Joe:       There are five people.
 Joe:        有五个人
May:        Who are they?
May:         他们是谁?
Joe:        My wife, my son, my mother-in-law, my father-in-law and I.
Joe:         我妻子,我儿子,我丈母娘,我丈人和我。
May:        Are you living in an apartment or a house?
May:         你们住在公寓里还是房子里?
 Joe:       We are living in a house.
 Joe:        我们住在房子里。
May:        What is your wife doing at home now?
May:         你妻子现在在家做什么?
 Joe:       My wife is cooking Chinese food.
 Joe:        我妻子正在做中国菜。
May:        Is she a good cook?
May:         她做饭做得好吗?
 Joe:       Yes, she definitely is. Today is my cousin‟s birthday, so my wife is
            preparing some food for her birthday party.
            Joe:       是的,她绝对是。今天是我表姐的生日,所以我的妻子在为生
May:        Is everyone in your family going to the party?
May:         你家里每个人都去聚会吗?
Joe:        No, my mother-in-law is traveling in China and my father-in-law doesn‟t
            like parties.
             Joe:       不,我丈母娘现在在中国旅行,我丈人不喜欢聚会。
May:        What about your son?
May:         那么你儿子呢?(去聚会吗?)

Joe:       I think he is going to the party with my wife. But he has to finish his
           homework first. That is why he is studying really hard right now.
            Joe:      我想他会和我的妻子一起去聚会的。但是他必须先做完功课。

mother-in-law 丈母娘                             cousin 表(堂)兄弟姐妹
 father-in-law 丈人                             prepare 准备
apartment      公寓                             party 聚会
cook           烧饭,烧菜                          cook 厨师
definitely     一定的                             finish 完成

my cousin‟s birthday: 我表(堂)兄(弟姐妹)的生日。
          Something + „s 表:什么什么的
          My cousin‟s birthday = the birthday of my cousin
prepare something for something: 为…准备…
what about …? 那么…又怎么样呢?
have to do something: 必须做…
That is why + 句子:那就是(句子内容)的原因

Present Continuous 現在進行時態

現在進行時態由 [to be + Gerund] 構成. 它用來描述現在正在發生的事情.
                            To Be
I  am        You are           He/She/It   is We                            are
                You are           They are

Now            Right now        Presently      Currently     At this time


I am speaking English right now.
My parents are currently living in Florida.
He is sleeping right now.
My son is going to college right now.
I am walking to the supermarket.
What are you doing?



After class, I am going home.
Next week, I am traveling to Los Angeles to see Hollywood.
Tomorrow, I am visiting my friend in Chinatown.

At: “At” is used to describe a specific time of an event. “At” is also sometimes used to
describe the location of someone or something. At 是用來描述一件事發生的特定時間.
At 有時也可以用來描述一個人或一件東西的位置.
               I ate breakfast at 8:30 AM this morning.
               Where is he? He is at McDonald’s.
               I ate breakfast at McDonald’s at 8:30 AM this morning.

On: “On” is used to describe the day an event happens. It can be used for a specific date,
a day of the week, or a special day. On can also be used to indicate that the relative
position of something above something else. On 是用來描述一件事情發生的那一天.
它可以用來描述一個特定日期, 一星期的某一日, 或者一個特殊的日子. On 還可以用
              I came to America on September 20th, 1990.
              I go to Harvard to learn English on Saturday.
              On my birthday, my family and I ate dinner at Chinatown.
              I saw my friend on the #2 bus yesterday.
              He lives on Park Street.

In: “In” is used to describe a longer period of time when an event happens. It can be
used for a year, a month, or a season. In can also be used to describe the position of
something inside the bound of something else. In 是用來描述一件事發生的那一段時
間. 它可以用來說一年,一個月,或者一個季節. In 還可以用來代表一個東西的位置
              I was born in 1776.
              My birthday is in October.
              In winter, the weather is cold, so I go to Florida.
              Boston is in Massachusetts. I live in Boston.

                                         Lesson 6
Pronunciation 發音
1) 发音练习
    /j/       yet yesterday yes yogurt
/d3/          jeep join joke
/3/           pleasure treasure
/r/           write run every

/ai/ -- i        time 时间 bike 自行车 pilot 飞行员
      -- igh     night 晚上 right 正确的, 右边 high 高的
      -- y       cry 哭 fly 飞 sky 天空
      -- ai      Thailand 泰国
      -- ie      pie 派(一种甜点) lie 躺着,说谎 tie 领带,系
/Əu/ -- o        cold (冷的) go 走 nose 鼻子 home 家
      -- ow      snow 雪 grow 成长,增长 show 展示 window 窗
      -- oa      coat 大衣 soap 肥皂 road 路
      -- ou      soul 灵魂
/ Ə:/ -- er      her 她(宾格),她的 certain 确定的 term 学期
      -- ir      dirty 脏的 sir 先生 first 第一的 girl 女孩
      -- ur      nurse 护士 curtain 窗帘 Thursday 星期四
      -- or      work 工作 worse 更坏的

Doctor: How can I help you, Bob?
 医生:    我能怎么帮助你呢,鲍勃?
  Bob:  I don‟t feel well, Doctor.
 鲍勃:    我感到不舒服,医生。
Doctor: What is wrong?
 医生:    什么地方不对劲了?
  Bob:  I felt tired all day yesterday. I also had a runny nose and a sore throat.
        I feel worse today.
鲍勃: 我昨天一天都感到累。我还流鼻涕并且嗓子疼。今天我感到更糟了。
Doctor: Let me take the temperature for you.
        (The doctor took out the thermometer and put it into Bob‟s mouth)
 医生: 让我给你测一下体温。
Doctor: Bob, you have a fever. Let me examine your throat and chest as well.
 医生: 鲍勃,你发烧了。让我检查一下你的嗓子和胸。
        (The doctor examined Bob.)
Doctor: According to your symptoms, it seems that you have a cold.
 医生: 根据你的症状,你看来是感冒了。

  Bob: Is it serious?
 鲍勃: 严重吗?
Doctor: Not really, but you have to rest well and drink a lot of water.
         医生: 并不,但是你必须休息好并且多喝水。
  Bob: Do I need to take any medicine?
 鲍勃: 我需要吃药吗?
Doctor: No, you don‟t. But if you feel worse, please come to see me again.
         医生: 不, 你不需要。但是如果你感到更糟了,你要再来找我。
  Bob: Thank you, Doctor.
 鲍勃: 谢谢你,医生。
Doctor: You are welcome, Bob. Hope you get better soon.
         医生: 不用谢, 鲍勃。祝你早日康复。

feel 感到               yesterday 昨天
         runny 流粘液的,流鼻涕的 soar throat 疼痛的嗓子
temperature 体温,温度     thermometer 温度计
         fever 发烧                 examine 检查
         chest 胸                  according to 根据
         symptom 症状          seem 好像
serious 严重            medicine 药
worse 更坏的             better 更好的

feel well 表示感觉很好。表示自己身体感觉好时不用 feel good, 而用 feel well
take the temperature 测体温
as well 表示“也”, “再”
It seems that + 完整句子 表示: 看起来好像…
have a cold 表示:感冒
Not really. 表示:不是那样。
need to do something. 表示:需要做某事
take medicine: 吃药
get better 表示: 康复

Past Tense Verbs

Grammar rules for past tense verbs:

For regular verbs, the past tense is VERB + ED, or if the verb already ends in an “E,”
then it’s simply VERB+D. For example:

      规则动词的过去式是[动词+ED] , 如果一个动词已经是 E 自尾, 那么就仅是
      [动词+D]. 例如:
Verb (动词) Past Tense (过去式) Cook Cooked   Live Lived

 For regular verbs, there this only one form no matter what the subject is; there is no verb
conjugation. For example, the verb “to work”:

   Subject (主语) Present Tense (现在式)                Past Tense (过去式)            I
         Work Worked                You Work Worked                     He/She/It
        Works Worked               We     Work Worked                 You Work
        Worked              They Work Worked                     Example: 10 years
                ago, (I/you/he/she/we/they) worked in a restaurant.

List of regular verbs and their past tense:
Ask 问            Asked         Call 打电话 Called                Clean 清理 Cleaned
        Cook 煮饭 Cooked                         Help 帮助        Helped      Like 喜欢
        Liked          Live 住           Lived         Travel 旅游 Traveled
        Use 使用         Used             Visit 探访      Visited        Wash 洗
        Washed                 Watch 看         Watched
There are some verbs that are irregular in the past tense, these verbs do not follow the
above simple formula of VERB+ED. However, almost all irregular verbs in the past
tense behave like regular verbs in that they remain the same no matter what the subject is.
Here is a list of common irregular verbs.
        有些动词的过去式是非规则 的,这些动词不按照以上的简单公式(动词+ED)

   VerbPast Tense                        Come 来          Came            Do 做 Did
         Drink 饮      Drank           Eat 吃 Ate               Go 去 Went              Have
拥有 Had               Take 拿          Took            See 看           Saw             Sit 坐
       Sat           Sleep 睡         Slept           Teach 教        Taught          Feel 感
                                 到       Felt
There is only ONE special case of an irregular verb that has different forms for different
subjects: to be.
       只有一个特殊的不规则过去式动词在不同的主语有不同的形式 : 是。

       Subject       Past Tense           I      Was         You Were
        He/She/It     Was           We   Were            You Were              They
Yesterday                  昨天
The day before yesterday   前天
Last Week                  上个星期
Last Month                 上个月
Last Year                  去年
X (number) hours/days/weeks/months/years ago     X(数) 小时/天/星期/月/年 之前

1. To: “To” is used to describe a destination or a goal. To 是用來描述一個目的地或目
              I went to the supermarket the day before yesterday.
              I came to America to make money.
              I go to Harvard to learn English.
2. For: “for” is used to describe a period of time when an event occurs continuously.
For can also be used to express the reason for an action. “For” 是用來描述一個過程一
直發生的一段時間. For 還可以用來表示一個動作的原因.
              I have lived in America for fourteen years.
              Yesterday, I slept for eight hours.
              I came to America for my children’s future.
              I come to Harvard for English class.

                                Lesson 7
Pronunciation 發音
1) 发音练习
   /kw/       question quite square
/kr/          cry crown ice-cream
/eks/      exercise expert excellent
/iks/         excuse express experience
/egz/         exam examine exhaust

/iƏ/ -- ear          ear 耳朵 hear 听见 fear 害怕
     -- eer          beer 啤酒 deer 鹿 cheer 欢呼
     -- ier          tier 行、列、层
     -- ere          here 这里
/eƏ/ -- air          hair 头发 pair 一对,一双 chair 椅子
     -- are          dare 勇敢 care 关心,照顾 rare 稀少的
     -- ear          bear 熊 pear 梨
/oi/ -- oi           oil 油 soil 土壤 noise 噪音
     -- oy           boy 男孩 toy 玩具 enjoy 享受

Sam:                Good morning, could I send a package here?
萨姆:                 早上好,我能在这里寄包裹吗?
Post office staff:  Yes, of course. Where do you want it to go?
邮局工作人员:              是的,当然能。你想把包裹寄到哪里?
Sam:                To China.
萨姆:                 寄到中国。
Post office staff:  What is in this package?
邮局工作人员:             包裹里是什么?
Sam:                There is only a book. It is a Christmas present for my
                    Chinese friend.
                    萨姆:                      里面只有一本书。这是给我中国朋友
Post office staff:  Please fill out this form.
邮局工作人员:             请填一下这张表。
(Sam wrote down the sender’s and the receiver’s information.)
Post office staff:  Would you like to mail it by express mail?
邮局工作人员:             你想寄特快专递吗?
Sam:                How long does it take the package to arrive in China by
                    normal airmail?
萨姆:                 普通航空邮件寄到中国要花多少时间?

Post office staff:  About 3 weeks.
邮局工作人员:             大约三个礼拜。
Sam:                Oh, it‟s too late. Then I will send it by express mail.
萨姆:                  哦,那太晚了。那么我就寄特快专递吧。
Post office staff:  Let me weigh the package.
邮局工作人员:             让我称一下包裹。
(He put the package on the scale)
Post office staff:  16 dollars for this package. Do you need anything else?
邮局工作人员:             寄这个包裹 16 美元。 你还需要什么吗?
Sam:                Yes, could I have two packs of stamps?
萨姆:                  是的,我能买两版邮票吗?
Post office staff:   Here you go. 14 dollars for the stamps.
邮局工作人员:              给你。邮票是 14 美元。
Sam:                Can I pay by credit card?
萨姆:                 我能用信用卡付账吗?
Post office staff:  Sure.
邮局工作人员:             当然可以。

post office      邮局           package        包裹
          present         礼物 fill out        填写
sender           寄件人          receiver       收件人
          express mail    特快传递               normal   平常,普通
          airmail         航空信                weigh    称量
          scale     秤                pack          包(一小包)
stamp            邮票           pay            支付,付款
          credit card         信用卡

send a package: 寄包裹
Of course: 当然 = Sure
There is …in …        在…里有…
 fill out the form 填表
 by express mail 一特快传递的方式。 “by”表示… 的方式
 it takes some time to do something: 作某事花…时间
             sometime: 在实际应用中换成 时间状语,比如:a day, a week…
             do something: 在实际应用中换成具体事件, 比如:go to school, do
a pack of 一包,一板
pay by … 以… 的方式付账:

Past Tense Verbs (continue)
过去式动词 (续)

How to Ask Questions about the Past 怎样问关于过去的问题

       When asking a question using the past tense, use this formula: [interrogative +
   “did” + subject + VERB]. Because the question already uses the past tense verb
   “did” to show the tense, the second verb is kept in its original form. For example:

     当你用过去式问问题的时候,用这个公式:[疑问词+ “did ”+ 主语 +动词] 。
   因为问题已经用了“did” 这个过去式动词来显示过去时,第二个动 词要保持原

Why did she visit China last year? 去年她为什么探访中国?                           What did he
cook yesterday?      他昨天煮了什么?                     When did you sleep yesterday?
       你昨天什么时候睡的?                         How many siu-mai did I eat? 我吃了几个烧
       When answering, you don’t need “did,” instead you use the past tense of the main
   verb. 回答时你就不需要 “did” 了, 而你要用主要动词的过去式。

She visited China to see her children.     她为了看她的孩子探访中国。
        He cooked rice and vegetables.     他煮了米饭和蔬菜。                  I slept
at 10 o’clock. 我十点睡的。                      You ate twenty-five. 你吃了二十五个!

Where were you born? 你是哪里出生的?
      I was born in _______, China. 我是出生在中国____。
When were you born? 你是什么时候出生的?
      I was born on [month, day, year]. 我是出生在 [月,日,年] 。
When was your husband/wife born? 你的先生/太太是什么时候出生的?
What year were you born in? 你是哪一年出生的?
Which month were you born in? 你是哪一个月出生的?
Which day of the week were you born on? 你是星期几出生的?
When did you come to the United States? 你什么时候来的美国?
Why did you come to the United States? 你为什么来到了美国?
What did you do in China? 你在中国(时)是做什么工作的?
      I was a [occupation]. 我(曾)是一个[职业] 。
What did your husband/wife do in China? 你先生/太太在中国(时)是做什么工作的?
Where did you work in China? 你在中国(时)是在哪里工作?
      I worked in a [place]. 我(曾)在一个[地方] 工作。
Where did your husband/wife work in China?

From… until… : 從...直至.... [時間]
           Yesterday I cooked dinner from 6 until 8PM.
           I lived in China from 1983 until 1990.

From… to… : 從...到.... [地點]
           Two days ago I walked from my home to the supermarket.
           To come to English class, I take the T from Park Street to Harvard.

Since: “Since” indicates the time which an ongoing event began. “Since” 表示著一件還
              I have lived in the United States since 1990.
              I have been doing homework since 7 o’clock.

Before…: “Before…” indicates things happening previous to something. “Before…” 表
            I lived in Guangzhou, China before I came to the U.S.
            Before I came to the U.S., I lived in Guangzhou, China.
            Every Saturday, I eat breakfast before I go to Harvard.

After…: “After…” indicates things happening subsequent to something. “After…”表示
            After English class I go home to cook dinner.
            I came to America after you came to America.

                           Lesson 8
Pronunciation 發音
/ ae /   - a    fat 胖 cat 猫 sad 伤心
/Ə/      - er together 一起 flower 花 teacher 老师
         - or doctor 医生 labor 劳动者 scissors 剪刀
         - a    drama 戏剧 woman 妇女 American 美国人 balloon 气球
         - e    student 学生 hundred 百
         - o    police 警察 condition 状况 second 第二,秒
         - u    autumn 秋季
 /i/     - i    pig 猪 sit 坐 office 办公室 morning 早上
‫/ /כ‬     - o    clock 钟 not 不 dog 狗
         - ou cough 咳嗽
 /u/     - u    sugar 糖    put 放
         - oo book 书 foot 脚 look 看
/λ/      - u    but 但是 cut 切 us 我们
         - o    come 来 brother 弟弟 month 月
         - oo flood 洪水

1. 一般现在时 :
   构成:主语 + 相应的“be”动词(am, is, are )或      实意动词现在式( cook,
study, take 等等) +其他成分

注意: 第三人称单数(he, she, it)+ s (例:feel+s = feels, speak + s = speaks)
                   或 + es (例: do + es = does)
                   或 y 变成 ie 后再 + s (例:fly -> flies)

常用时间状语:every day(每天)every week(每周) every year (每年) often
(常常)sometimes(有时候 )always(总是)
提问: 一般疑问句: Do/Does +主语+ 实意动词原形 …?
              Am/Is/Are + 主语+形容词/状语…?
    特殊疑问句:    疑问代词(what, when, who, where...) + do/does +主语+
              动词原形 …?
                疑问代词(what, when, who, where...) + am/is/are + 主

     Sandy: What time do you get up(起床) every morning?
  桑迪: 你每天早上什么时候起床?
Tom:      I get up at 7:30 every morning.
汤姆: 我每天早上 7:30 起床。
Sandy:    Does your wife also (也)get up at 7:30?
桑迪: 你太太也 7:30 起床吗?
Tom:      No, she always gets up at 6:30 and cooks breakfast.
汤姆: 不,她总是 6:30 起床做早饭。
Sandy:    She is really nice!
桑迪:      她真是太好了!

2. 现在进行时:
   构成:主语 + 相应的“be”动词(am, is, are )+ 实意动词的动名词形式(ing 形式)
   注意: 动名词形式构成
       1) 大多数动词直接加 ing:  do+ ing = doing
                         speak + ing = speaking
                         feel + ing = feeling
    2) 去末尾“e“后加 ing :    write + ing = writing
                         give + ing = giving
                         ride + ing = riding
      3) 双写结尾辅音后加 ing : sit + ing = sitting
                         cut + ing = cutting
  常用时间状语: now(现在), right now (正好现在), currently (当前),presently
  (目前),at this time (在这时)

 提问: 一般疑问句: 相应的“be”动词(am, is, are )+ 主语 + 实意动词的动名词
      形式(ing      形式)+其他成分
      特殊疑问句: 疑问代词(what, when, who, where...) + am/is/are + 主语 +
      实意动词的动名词形式(ing 形式) + …?
对话: (at the parking lot: 在停车场)
  Sandy: Hello, Tom! What are you doing here?
    桑迪: 你好,汤姆。你在这里干什么?
    Tom: Oh, hi! I am waiting for my wife.
    汤姆: 哦,你好!我在等我的太太。
    Sandy: Where is she now?
    桑迪: 她现在在哪里?
    Tom: She is shopping in the supermarket.
    汤姆: 她正在超级市场里购物。
  Sandy: What is she getting?
桑迪: 她在买什么?

  Tom: She is getting some food for dinner.
    汤姆: 她在买晚饭需要的食品。

3. 一般过去时 :
  构成:主语 + 相应的“be”动词(was, were )或 实意动词过去式( cooked,
studied, took 等等) +其他成分

 注意: 过去式构成
大多数动词直接加 ed :                 help + ed = helped
                              wash + ed = washed
                              clean + ed = cleaned
     2) 末尾有“e“只用加 d:          live + d = lived
                              like + d = liked
     3) 双写”t” 后加 d:           shop + p + ed = shopped
     4) y 变成 “ie” + d:        cry + d = cried
                              try + d = tried

     5) 不规则变化:参见第六课表格

 常用时间状语:yesterday(昨天)last week(上周) last year (去年) XX ago
 (XX以 前)

 提问: 一般疑问句:         Did +主语+ 实意动词原形 …?
                    Was/Were + 主语+形容词/状语…?
    特殊疑问句:         疑问代词(what, when, who, where...) + did+主语+ 实意
                   动词原形 …?
                    疑问代词(what, when, who, where...) + was/were + 主
    对话 :
  Sandy: Where did you have dinner last night?
    桑迪: 你昨天晚上在哪里吃晚饭的?
    Tom: I had dinner in Chinatown.
    汤姆: 我在中国城吃的晚饭。
    Sandy: What did you eat?
    桑迪: 你吃的什么?
    Tom: I ate sweet and sour pork (甜酸肉), cabbage(包菜) , and rice.
    汤姆: 我吃了甜酸肉,包菜和米饭。
    Sandy: Did it taste good (好吃)?
    汤姆: 好吃吗?
    Tom: Yes, it tasted very good and it were really cheap(便宜).
    汤姆: 是的,它们很好吃而且真的很便宜。


                                Homework 1
Part I: Fill in the Blanks 填充

        Who    When     Where    Which    What    Why     How

1. A: Hi! My name is Tom. ___________ is your name?
   B: Hello! My name is Sally. ____________ is that boy?

2. A: He is my son. We are lost (我們迷路了). ____________ is the T-stop?
   B: There are many (很多) T-stops. ____________ one do you want to go to?

3. A: I want to go to the nearest (最近的) T-stop. ______________ do I get there?
   B: Just walk down the street, and you‟ll see the T-stop (你走下這條街就會看見

4. A: Thank you. ___________ does the next train (火車) leave (離開)?
   B: It leaves at 12:15. ____________ do you need (需要) to go to the T-stop?

5. A: I need to go to the T-stop, because I have to (必須) go to Chinatown.
   B: Well, it was nice meeting you. Bye!

Part II: Please write 8 sentences in the present tense using the eight pronouns [I,
you (singular), he, she, it, we, you (plural), they]. Use eight different verbs.
請利用現在式造八個句子。 每個句子要用一個不同的代名詞 (我﹐你﹐他﹐她﹐
它﹐我們﹐你們﹐他們) 和一個不同的動詞。










                              Homework 2
I. Please read the following paragraph and fill in the blanks with the correct
verbs in the past tense.
請用正確的動詞填空。 我們給你的動詞都是在現代式的, 你必須把它們變成過去
  be       work           have          wash         talk        cook           walk

       Mei is a cashier ( 收 銀 員 ) at the supermarket.         Yesterday, Mei

_______________ very hard (用功的). She woke up (起床) at seven o‟clock in

the morning, and she ___________________ breakfast for her family. Then, she

_________________ the dishes (碗和盤子) and __________________ to work

at 8:30.

       At noon, Mei ___________ an apple (蘋果) and a sandwich (三明治) for

lunch (中飯). While eating (吃飯的時候), she ______________ with her friends.

At 1:00, Mei started working again. At the end of the day, Mei _____________

very tired (疲倦).


II. Please write a paragraph describing what you did yesterday. You must
write at least five sentences.
請描寫你昨天做的事情. 你必須寫至少五句句子. 記得用過去式的動詞.

Name: ___________________

                               Homework 3
I. Please write 8 sentences using the past tense. Use 8 different pronouns and
   8 different verbs.
   請利用過去式造八個句子。每個句子要用一個不同的代名詞 (我﹐你﹐他﹐
   她﹐它﹐我們﹐你們﹐他們) 和一個不同的動詞。








II. Please read the following paragraph and fill in the blanks with the correct
    verbs in the past tense.
    請用正確的動詞填充。 我們給你的動詞都是現代式的。 你必須把它們變成過

   Yesterday I __________ (wake) up at 9 and ___________ (cook) breakfast. I

__________ (eat) some eggs and ___________ (drink) some milk. Then, I

__________ (take) my children to school. After I ___________ (say) goodbye to

them, I __________ (drive) to the supermarket. I ___________ (buy) food and I

____________ (bring) it home. After my children __________ (come) home from

school, I ___________ (make) dinner. We ___________ (watch) some TV and

then we _____________ (go) to bed. I ____________ (sleep) very well.

                               Homework 4
I. Please write 8 sentences using the future tense. Use 8 different pronouns and
   8 different verbs.
   請利用將來式造八個句子。每個句子要用一個不同的代名詞 (我﹐你﹐他﹐
   她﹐它﹐我們﹐你們﹐他們) 和一個不同的動詞。








II. Please read the following paragraph and fill in the blanks with the correct
    verbs in the future tense.
    請用正確的動詞填充。 我們給你的動詞都是現代式的。 你必須把它們變成將

 read (讀/看)       sleep (睡覺)        take        go        be        wake up (起床)
 buy (買)          walk              cook        do        clean (洗)
Tomorrow ______________ a very busy day. In the morning, I ______________
at 6:30 AM. I _________________ breakfast for my family. Next, I
____________ the dishes. I __________________ the newspaper for half an
hour. At 8:00, I _____________ my homework for English class. When it is 9:00,
I ____________ the subway station, and I ____________________ the subway
to Harvard for my ESL class. After ESL class, I ___________ groceries (雜貨) at
the supermarket. Finally, I _________________ home, and I
__________________at night.

                                 Homework 5
1. Please read the sentences. Fill in the blanks with either “a,” “an,” or
  請用 “a,” “an,” 或 “the” 來填空。

A: Hi! Are ___________ oranges on sale today?
B: Yes, they are on sale. Do you want to buy one?
A: Yes, I want to buy ___________ orange. I also want to buy ________ loaf of
B: ____________ loaf of bread costs $5.49.
A: Why is it so expensive?
B: Bread is expensive this week, because it is not on sale.
A: I want to buy _____________ grapes, ___________ bananas, __________
   orange, and ___________ quart of milk (夸脫牛奶). How much is
   ____________ total?
B: ___________ total is $5.76.
A: Thank you. Have ____________ nice day!

2. Please write 7 sentences. Please use: “this, that, these, those, a, an,
   請利用 “this, that, these, those, a , an, the” 造七個句子。








Name: __________________

                              Homework 6
I.   Fill in the blanks with the appropriate negative statements. Use
complete sentences. 請用否定句填空, 請用完整句子。

      Doctor: Good afternoon. Do you feel good?
      Patient: ____________________________.
      Doctor: What are your symptoms?
      Patient: I have a sore throat (我喉嚨疼), and my nose is running. (我在流
      Doctor: Does your head hurt?
      Patient: ________________________________________. However, my
              body (身體) is very warm (熱). Do I have a fever (發燒)?
      Doctor: ___________________________________________________,
              because your temperature (溫度) is 98.3. Do you have a cough
      Patient: ________________________________________________.
      Doctor: Do you cough up phlegm (咳出痰來)?
      Patient: ____________________________________________________.
      Doctor: You said you have a sore throat. Do you smoke (抽煙)?
      Patient: ____________________________________________________.
      Doctor: Does your husband smoke?
      Patient: ____________________________________________________.
      Doctor: I think you have a cold (感冒). Do you have any allergies?
      Patient: ____________________________________________________.
      Doctor: I will prescribe medicine for you. You can pick up your
              prescription at CVS.
      Patient: Do I need (需要) to pay (付錢) for the medication?
      Doctor: _______________________________________________. Your
              insurance company (保險公司) will pay.

                                  Name: __________________
                                        Homework 7
       I.       Giving Directions. Please give directions from A to B.
                請寫從 A 到 B 的方向.

Third Street

                          Park Avenue

            A                                                                                 B
                          Beacon Way

                                                                         Tyler Parkway
                                                Bow Circle

                                                      California Court

       Please give directions from North Quincy to Lechmere.
       請寫從 North Quincy 到 Lechmere 的方向.




III.     Fill in the blanks. Each word can only be used once.

  but            or    if       because          so       and       however

A: I am lost __________ I am in a hurry. Can you give me directions to Harvard


B: Sure! Why do you need to go there (那裡)?

A: I need to go to Harvard Square, ______________ I take ESL classes there.

B: Okay. You can go to Harvard Square _____________ you take the Red Line.

A: I want to take the subway. ____________ I forgot (忘記了) my money,

       ____________ I cannot (不能) buy a token (代筆).

B: Can you walk to Harvard Square?

A: I want to walk, ________________ it is too far away (太遠).

B: If you want to take the subway, you can borrow (借) two dollars

       ____________ you can borrow two tokens.

IV. Composition.      寫作. 請用三個不同的連接詞寫三個句子.




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