Commercial Artists Commercial Artists Steve Jobs (Steve Jobs) Study: staff reporter Zhang Liang Source: April 2005 No. 109 overall In a Wal-Mart, Dell Computer and Fox TV is king &quot;cheap in the world,&quot; Jobs that creativity is not only a key to product design, but also in all aspects of business operations to create a miracle In early 1997, when Steve Jobs (Steve Jobs) to return in 1976 he co-founded Apple Computer (Apple Computer), the legendary Silicon Valley company is going through hardships. Board of Directors since 1985, Steve Jobs was fired, the United States computer industry entered a rapid development period, Compaq and Dell have come to the fore during this period. As the ancestor of personal computers, Apple has lagged behind the 3 who changed within a decade it any CEO, annual sales of 11 billion U.S. dollars but never shrink to 70 million. The first half of 1996 and 1997, a total loss of 1.6 billion U.S. dollars of Apple, so it was originally interested in acquiring the company chose to give up SUN. Dell Computer&#39;s Michael Dell are teasing, said: &quot;If I were Apple, I will turn off this company and put the money back to shareholders.&quot; In early 2004, when Steve Jobs drove through Madison Avenue, New York, in almost every intersection, he can see who seems in play with a different-Apple digital music player iPod. By 2005, an anonymous Microsoft executive told Wired magazine, 80% of Microsoft&#39;s headquarters staff are using iPod. To this end, the hares and Jobs Bill Gates felt compelled to stand, said he is not the iPod user. But even if Bill Gates had to admit, &quot;iPod is a great success.&quot; Over the past year, Apple sold so shocked colleagues of 826 million iPod, its digital music player in the global market share from 1 / 3 upgrade to 2 / 3, and its iTunes online music sales platform in the area of their 62% market share. These two success for Apple&#39;s PC industry out of the binding, a favorite of digital entertainment. Over the same period, Apple&#39;s stock price doubled three times, in February 2005 before the stock split, soared to 80 dollars above the price. The year is almost ready to buy its shares SUN under 5 yuan has been wandering more than a year. Because of this fantastic performance, has long kept asking &quot;how to get Apple&#39;s next?&quot; The analysts have shown an unprecedented optimism, they expected Apple&#39;s revenues in 2005 will reach 13 billion U.S. dollars - revenue growth over 2004 33%, this does not set up as a company should have 28 years of growth. Only 7 years to win back the respect of Jobs. You may see this as the most effective over the past 10 years, the company recycled, but with very different stories Gerstner or Iacocca, Steve Jobs has never tried to play a master strategist or management. What he did was to restore Apple&#39;s innovation. Note that here, &quot;innovation&quot; has a double meaning: first, as it is generally understood, developed innovative means to create the times of products such as iMac and iPod. More relevant here is that, beyond the limitations of product design, Steve Jobs will be filled with innovation in all aspects of recycling among Apple: turn the company from decline, to open up new business, to product marketing and even the price war ... ... When Hewlett-Packard, Sony have developed dozens every year or even more products and maintain high-speed replacement, because Steve Jobs must be deeply involved in each project&#39;s style, Apple developed a 1,2-year section products only. But almost every paragraph in the market caused a sensation. Over the past 5 years, in the field of industrial design Industrial Design Association, American Academy Award (Industrial Designers Society of America) annual evaluation, Apple won more awards than any other company. Perhaps one should first answer this question: Every company in promoting a culture of innovation of the times, why Apple made the most dazzling success? In Apple&#39;s Cupertino headquarters in Silicon Valley, you may even see any sort of publicity to encourage innovation slogans, Jobs said, this is because Apple&#39;s innovative idea is simple: &quot;to play to the extreme of each technology, both make people surprised, excited, they know how to use it. &quot; &quot;Apple is always asking: &#39;To what extent this will give users the convenience? How important this will be the user? And Pixar (Steve Jobs is owned by another miracle of the creative industries) is also true, though every Hollywood individuals have to say is the core of a good animated movie plot, but what about progress, and suddenly found that the story is not good enough, few people are willing to stop production and devote more money to change a good story. the software industry is often a similar things, everyone said, &#39;customer first, but very few companies can really do. &quot;Jobs said. Revitalization 1970,80 early years of last century, Jobs had already demonstrated that he is the world&#39;s most forward-looking entrepreneurs: co-founder of Apple Computer in 1976, he is sure the computer will become a mass consumer goods. The 1984 launch of its Masterpiece Mac (Macintosh) when he again took the lead in graphical interface and mouse introduced to the world. However, Yinmaijinta mediocre performance to the market early, the summer of 1985, 30-year-old Jobs was ousted from Apple, and soon he began to second degree business, the company is called Next (&quot;next&quot;). If what is to seize power when Steve Jobs of the Board learned that he should not open industry standards, or the price should be reduced to public to an acceptable level the contrary: no matter when, the company must the establishment of product-oriented culture. Looking back later, he commented that the decline of Apple: &quot;Apple has a graphical interface to occupy 10-year monopoly, the monopoly is to lose? Initially, many excellent products talent developed many excellent products, so companies to obtain a monopoly, but when you become a leader in this field, how to do better? Then another group of people - the company&#39;s official - began to dominate the performance. monopoly was slowly collapse thus, the best R &amp; D the views of those who can not be heard because, are leaving, the company also entered a difficult stage. &quot; In 1997, Apple bought Next, and thus achieve the return of Steve Jobs. In the first year back as CEO, he was not eager to prove himself, but large-scale reduction in the product line, a direct result of the company&#39;s revenues shrank 15% to 59 million, just over 1995 sales of slightly more than half the time. His other initiatives also difficult to understand at the time, he found his Sudi Bill Gates, Microsoft&#39;s 150 million U.S. dollars to sell Apple&#39;s stock, from each other to go to the Office and IE, copyright Apple Computer. It seems today that its intent is quite clear: to minimize the capital market expectations for more time and resources to complete the reconstruction of Apple. Jobs initiative is really behind the scenes to prepare the iMac. In September 1997 by Oracle CEO Larry Ellison&#39;s friends inspired Steve Jobs decided to launch a heavy network computer (NC): It is not memory, can be directly connected to the network above, and the price Only half of PC. But when he saw the Oracle, SUN and IBM poor results in the promotion of NC when he changed his determination to require designers to make a streamlined shape, display and the host into one computer. This is the June 1998 listing of the iMac, this has a translucent, jelly-like round the blue body of the computer to re-define the appearance of personal computers, and quickly became a fashion symbol. Before the launch of flat and TV alone, there are 15 million people booked iMac, but after three years in which a total of 500 million units sold. A secret is: This profit margin reached 23% of the product, in its attractive shell of, all configured with the previous generation of Macintosh computers is almost the same! This is a victory of industrial design, but it also reflects the helplessness of Jobs: As the long-term loss of a large number of excellent staff, Apple&#39;s technical capacity has been difficult to quickly roll out has always stressed the &quot;insanely great&quot; (cool) the product even more frightening is that &quot;this company has forgotten its own who.&quot; On the one hand started mass of skilled talent - the standard is &quot;those who would challenge each other every day, and let the product the best of people&quot; - even though Apple&#39;s revenue once from 8 billion U.S. dollars in 2000 fell to 5.7 billion in 2002 U.S. dollar, Apple&#39;s R &amp; D spending still increased from 380 million U.S. dollars to 446 million U.S. dollars. On the other hand, Steve Jobs involved in creativity of the &quot;Think Different&quot; (alternative thinking) of the advertisement, he hoped to spend Shangyimeiyuan advertising, new understanding not only enable consumers to Apple, more importantly, the wake-up company employees passion for work. From 1998 to 2000, three years, Apple only program staff on the recruitment of nearly 1,000. Jobs knows his time coming counterattack: Although the hardware over the past 20 years more to dominate the IT industry, but with the take-off and computer networks and digital home appliances become increasingly clear trend of mutual integration, software capabilities will determine the value of a product . If you try to restore the status of Apple Computer, you must first re-launch of leading operating system and application software. Jobs returned to Apple in the prior, the company has prestigious Mac OS X operating system has been tarnished: poor stability of the system, which also led to the development of this system declining third-party software. Emboldened by the Jobs and lasted 3 years, Apple has finally released the latest version of Mac OS X, it is the standard by the media compared to &quot;Porsche and Abrams tanks fit&quot;: not only powerful, running stable, sophisticated and detailed. The emergence of Mac OS X, not only to restore the operating system Apple provides the basis of lost (though not yet realized), a more direct effect is that it is an excellent development platform, on top of it, Apple&#39;s program Members can develop better software applications, such as future access to online music sales market share of 70% of iTunes. Rely on software consolidate the basis of competition, while Apple, Jobs kept proposing new ideas, trying to rely on Apple to re-start new product consolidation after the accumulated momentum. This is not a Hollywood movie generally enjoyable process. Jobs said people familiar with almost every major Apple product announcement soon completed, Jobs will be returned to the origin of most, and for products to reinvent the wheel. So some people think that this is a morbid quality, a sign of a perfectionist control freak. When the second generation of iMac models were sent to the hands of Steve Jobs, it looks like the first generation after shrinking, &quot;nothing bad, in fact very good,&quot; but Steve Jobs hate that feeling. Saying &quot;OK&quot; before returning home early the day of Steve Jobs, and hired the head of Apple&#39;s ID lab 乔纳森艾韦 (Jonathan Ive) - even if you are not familiar with the name, they will certainly know that he design of products: the first generation iMac, iPod, PowerBook Titanium shell And ice-like Cube - two people in the wife&#39;s Botanical Garden Jobs to go around, Jobs gradually clear of their ideals: &quot;Everything must have its reason to exist. If you may need to from its rear, why must a flat screen monitor? Why must put a host in the display? &quot;exposure to the garden, Jobs suggested,&quot; it should be like Sunflowers. &quot; One day he sketched out a new product concept, but engineers are kind of a flower in the &quot;Sunflower&quot; took 2 years. User Experience In 2001, the entire PC industry, Dell had to learn the network to direct sales in order to achieve cost reduction, Jobs chose retrograde. He began to open dazzling retail stores across the United States, and will promote it all the way to Japan and China. A large extent, they should not be referred to as shops, although there are also sales of products, but more often it is to provide consumers with the most direct product experience - playing with the computer can be customers, while the sales staff had been &quot;blocked &quot;at the counter, the only responsible answer questions - to maximize this function, specially commissioned Jobs Gap fashion brand manager for site selection. So far Apple has opened 101 retail stores, only the year 2003, Apple invested in their stores have 77 million U.S. dollars. Be until the third quarter of 2003, stores were able to achieve overall profitability. Jobs this means? This is not because he was anxious to change Apple&#39;s sales, but his strong sense, Wei Lai&#39;s IT industry will not Yi technology advanced the most direct of the judge or Wei, Xin&#39;s Biaozhun is it Nengpigaijin Yonghu experience. But the more practical question is: As the product is expensive, Dell fierce price war in the offensive, the way Apple&#39;s market share dropped from 9.4% to 2%, while Apple had an advantage of the campus market share, from 21.5% in 1998 to shrink to about 10%. In 2000, the Internet bubble in the IT Industry Division lead to depression, followed Apple&#39;s sales plummeted in early 2001, Steve Jobs of Apple in 1998, again achieving a net loss after losses. Jobs needs a new breakthrough, grab incremental market rather than fight in the stock market, and Dell. At one time, forced by the pressure of capital markets, he has to consider whether to enter PDA market, but the idea was quickly dispelled: &quot;90% of people use handheld devices to access information from outside, rather than use it to store their information - cell phone can do this. &quot; In other words, manufacturing PDA must enter the mobile phone market in the future, but Steve Jobs that Apple is not good at. Look at Palm (Palm) decline and the rise of smart phones, I know this is a wise move. Lend a helping hand once again the fate of Steve Jobs: The rise of online music fans to Bob Dylan and the Beatles into the digital entertainment industry Jobs logical. The late 1990s, before the tech bubble burst, Apple also tentatively into the digital entertainment industry, and to set the direction of its Macintosh computer into the &quot;information life&quot;, in hopes that an application under this set up departments to launch iMovie video products and other information. But when Jobs that many people will be willing to use computer editing home video, the free music-sharing software Napster is the focus of Internet users around the world. &quot;I feel like a fool,&quot; Jobs recalled. Fortunately, he quickly determined, should do something in music. In 2001, Apple launched the music software, iTunes, Apple&#39;s slogan was: &quot;Grilled songs, mixing, burning disc&quot; (Rip. Mix. Burn.). Because Apple does not own the music department, so all are built on the premise of piracy, and even offended a lot of this industry giant. In the iTunes launch, Jobs asked myself: Although a computer store and play music well, but if can use a similar memory Walkman portable music player would be better eventually? But at the time, this is a very small market: in 2001, sold only 724,000 units nationwide digital music player, does not seem worthwhile to enter. But intuition told Steve Jobs, the demand is there, but in the past generally bad product, not only kept a few toys inefficient song is difficult to operate like a big monster bricks. In early 2001, Jobs for engineers begin to capture this trend, not only need to change iTunes, also requires a small operating system for hardware design, and develop suitable Yi Yang Xiang iTunes consumers to store, retrieve music user interface. Not only that, this whole-hearted player must also be able to interact with the computer speed, with easy to use interface and beautiful appearance. Engineers 托尼法戴尔 (Tony Fadell) was appointed head of the hardware group, which he was before Christmas, produce a sensation of products, and is authorized to call, including any Apple employees, including Jobs. Vice president of global marketing Feierxile (Phil Schiller) first proposed should dial operation, thus speeding up the menu operation. The design talent Ive is responsible for the design: &quot;From the beginning we wanted a look extremely natural, extremely reasonable and extremely simple product, so you do not think it was designed for.&quot; Then there was the style of minimalism, pure white iPod, filled with a variety of colors in the digital home appliance market is completely different: &quot;It is colorless, but a bold colorless to shocking.&quot; In just 9 months time, iPod is completed. This is a purgatory where all participants an unforgettable trip. iTunes and the iPod&#39;s chief software architect Jiefuluobin (Jeff Robbin) recalled: &quot;I remember a day with Steve Jobs there are other work from 21:00 to 13:00, only the first iPod discuss the user interface. every day some of the interface to more easily test and error. when one day we looked at each other and said: &#39;Oh, why do we still want to make another like it, we know that we have reached the end. &quot; IPod released in October 2001 when the price of 399 yuan to critics hardly optimistic about its prospects, and even critics joke that the four letters on behalf of iPod &quot;idiots price our devices&quot; (idiot to set the price of our products). In 2002, digital music player market, began to come to one year related products sold 1.6 million units, more than 100% over the previous year&#39;s high growth. However, iPod sales are still modest, launched in the first year, it only sold 10 million units. Once again, Jobs demonstrated his talents as a magician, he changed the iPod with two surgical fate. Minor surgery is a change in the past Apple products are not compatible with the windows features, so that PC users can use the iPod. Major surgery is that the iTunes music from a stand-alone software into a platform for online music sales. In iTunes before, already had two legitimate music sales website: Universal joint venture established with SONY Pressplay, and AOL Time Warner, Bertelsmann, EMI and RealNetworks join forces by realplay fortune built MusicNet. But two online music store offering more than a year after only 220,000 subscribers. The failure reason is not that consumers do not want to buy genuine music in the network, but because of fear of damage to the profits of CD sales, their network does not sell songs for permanent use rights, but &quot;rent&quot;: you to the site pay monthly fee, and then only in the fixed computer to download music, when you stop paying, music is automatically &quot;evaporation.&quot; This may indeed protect CD sales, but how many people will not move for those who can not copy the music and could disappear at any time to pay the 10 dollars a month then? &quot;No one had to ask his users: You are willing to buy the songs you have to pay you every month?&quot; Jobs said: People want to own music, rather than rent. &quot;Looked at several major record labels and technology companies, mutual threats to each other to court can be a pain to do, so we want to sit here and look at both sides with dry stone-throwing each other, or do the actual point of it.&quot; April 28, 2003, a new generation of iTunes release. Launched at the beginning, iTunes has been from the world&#39;s five major record companies to get 100 million songs in the contract. Although it sold for 99 cents a song, it paid 65 cents to record companies, but it is, after all, is the first and only one joint of the world&#39;s top five record companies online music store. According to Apple, a vice president of memory, the company initially aims to sell 1 million within the first six months of the song, but this is expected to reach only 6 days. In January 2005 Apple released the earnings report, said so far it has sold 250 million licensed songs. Compatible with PC and iTunes to pull, so iPod Xianyihouyang: it is within the next two years, sales of more than 10 million units, &quot;the 21st-century Walkman,&quot; the name finally set up. Although the distance of 200 million players worldwide sales are still far, but it never did do the players: Beyond the scope of electronic products, iPod is a symbol, a pet as well as characterization. 4 star Will Smith how he preached to the outside world obsessed with the &quot;Century-class toys&quot;, but to fashion a known actress Gwen 尼 斯帕特洛 not only to talk to your iPod fashion magazine Complex, even his own son the name &quot;Apple.&quot; Some even lack the iPod to own a name to express intimacy. &quot;Software is a user experience. As proof of iPod and iTunes, it is not only computers, consumer electronics is also the driving force.&quot; Jobs that, after all, iPod is still the success of the company over the past few years, innovation capability breakthrough due, which pointed out a direction for Apple: consumer electronics, more and more like a &quot;box with some kind of software&quot;, and traditional consumer electronics manufacturers are no advantages in the software field. Of course, the only direction is not enough, as I never rush into the PDA in the field, as is widely believed in Apple&#39;s next step will be to enter the portable video player, Jobs very calm. &quot;People will listen to their favorite song on the 1000 times, but no one will fancy their favorite movie 1000 times.&quot; As the owner of Pixar, Steve Jobs that the rules of the game film and music is completely different: &quot; do not ask consumers to the quality, but quality demanding, and from the network to download DVD-quality movies far more than the time spent to download music of the time. &quot; Price war iPod gross margin for the staggering 22%, but this is also considered a number of difficult long-term maintenance. Apple to maintain its dominance? The past six months, lower prices on the iPod will sound has grown. In fact, Apple is not never been lower prices initiatives: the end of 2003 launched a successful iPod mini is the price reduction of action - but to Apple&#39;s unique is that it always makes the consumers are not aware that this is a price reduction. Has 5 color, storage capacity of the iPod mini 4G price of 249 U.S. dollars, higher than the previous iPod 10G of the lower prices of 150 dollars, which can be called a mind lore - to buy original iPod will not feel the interests of those who suffer, more Apple fans are more constraints have been the opportunity to buy iPod. However, what the next price cut? Jobs can be sure to iPod and iPod mini series a grade lower prices - about 50 U.S. dollars per file. But this adjustment is too stiff, let the noble image of the damaged iPod. So he re-creative, with a new product to open the door to lower prices: the past, both are based on iPod or iPod mini hard drive as memory, which leads to higher costs, the introduction of a smaller capacity, but the cost is still maintain the level of flash memory in the Apple player, the problem is solved. Launched a year ago when the iPod mini, Jobs also ironic flash player category is a &quot;lame little tricks,&quot; is rarely used, and usually &quot;dead in the drawer.&quot; In the early 2005&#39;s Mac World, he introduced the Apple version of the flash player: iPod shuffle. This is only the size of a pack of gum, iPod like never before, like a sexy, sophisticated products of two 512 MB and 1G specifications, price is only 99 U.S. dollars and 149 U.S. dollars. Apple joined the price war is of course a consideration, but you can also see this as Apple fans for a number of tailor-made iPod. True fans will want to put their entire music collection in MP3 player anytime, anywhere to find the most want to hear play. But more people would rather play computer randomly. For the 1000 survey of iPod users, random playback (shuffle) popular iPod user like: &quot;free to play so you do not know what will appear, but you know that you like, so people often say: &#39; It&#39;s like my iPod to understand me. &quot; Thus, the display is not the song came to be, even the function keys can also be reduced to only six - play, pause, next song, previous song, the sound increase, decrease sound. When the iPod shuffle a month after launch, Apple&#39;s surprising announcement of the iPod series of further price cuts Jucuo: 4G The iPod mini down to 199 yuan, while its popular criticism of the battery life doubled, to 18 hours. The company also in the original price of 249 yuan introduced a 6G on the iPod, while the most expensive 60G of the iPod photo down to 449 yuan from 599 yuan. The purpose of this action on price cuts, the report card released before the iPod shuffle is difficult to fully appreciate - and perhaps this means that iPod shuffle series did not achieve immediate success. However, the 199 U.S. dollars this Jobs in the eyes of &quot;magic price&quot; is likely to produce good results. In any case, iPod&#39;s hot capital markets gave a hope: With the iPod halo effect produced by Apple to launch counter-offensive in the PC market. By the end of March 2004, the first time in the history of Apple Computer fell out of IDC&#39;s top ten PC vendors list, its global market share from 1.8% in early 2003 and further dropped to 1.7%. While maintaining the high quality of their products, but also its high price it is always difficult to break the deadlock. For example in July 2000 launched the ice crystal&#39;s Cube as a disaster for Apple, although it fine as a work of art, but few are willing to use 1799 U.S. dollars to buy a host. But the computer genius Steve Jobs clearly not the time to give up - when he realized that the quality is probably not easier than the price of leveraging consumers should follow a policy issued. Posted iPod shuffle, Apple also introduced a Mac mini. Jobs prefer call BYODKM - &quot;bring your own display, keyboard and mouse&quot; (bring your own display, keyboard and mouse). Price 800 U.S. dollars in the Mac mini is only a host, but it is compatible with a variety of monitors, keyboards and other peripherals, traditional PC users can use a relatively low cost to switch to Apple Ha. Apple&#39;s history as the first truly &quot;cheap computer&quot;, Mac mini actually not cheap, according to projections, if the purchase of Apple&#39;s standard monitor, keyboard, mouse, sound, the price comparable with ordinary iMac . But this price war tactics and creative input on at least two levels of the classic calculation: First, although the assumed price reduction of the gesture, but Apple&#39;s profit margins did not suffer. Second, the Alliance for the windows-intel traditional users of the low switching costs. The added value of this behavior are: used Apple&#39;s Mac OS X, more people will discover how Microsoft windows is bad.