Which of the following statements best describes the tidal volume of the lung?
a. the volume of gas inspired or expired in an unforced respiratory cycle
b. the volume of gas remaining in the lungs after a maximum expiration
c. the total amount of gas in the lungs at the end of a maximum inspiration
d. the maximum amount of gas that can be expired after a maximum inspiration
e. the maximum amount of gas that can be inspired at the end of a tidal expiration
The total pressure exerted by the atmosphere around us at sea level, is
a. 760 mmHg.
b. 760 torr.
c. one atmosphere.
d. All of these pressures are correct
Which two gases exert about 99% of the total atmospheric pressure at sea level?
a. CO2 and O2
b. CO2 and N2
c. N2 and O2
d. O2 and H2O
The oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve shifts to the right (resulting in greater unloading of O2) when
hemoglobin molecules experience a
a. fall in the blood pH (becomes more acidic).
b. rise in blood PCO2.
c. rise in body temperature.
d. rise in 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid (2,3-DPG) concentration in the red blood cells.
e. All of these conditions will shift the curve to the right.
In respiratory alkalosis,
a. the blood pH usually falls below 7.35.
b. the rate of respirations are abnormally increased (hyperventilation).
c. both the blood levels of PCO2 and HCO3- levels are unusually high.
d. the cause can be attributed to prolonged breath holding maneuvers.
e. severe vomiting is usually evident.
In respiratory acidosis, the
a. carbon dioxide concentration of the blood would be abnormally high.
b. production of CO2 exceeds CO2 loss through ventilation.
c. cause is usually an abnormally low rate and depth of respiration (hypoventilation).
d. production of carbonic acid is excessively high.
e. All of these statements about respiratory acidosis are true
Which defense mechanism is not in either the external or the internal category of innate,
or nonspecific immunity?
a. epithelial membranes (skin) that cover the body surfaces
b. strong acidity of gastric juice (pH of 1 to 2)
c. phagocytosis of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)
d. recruitment and activation of lymphocyte cell populations
e. All of these defense mechanisms are innate, or nonspecific.
The gland located under the sternum that is seeded by lymphocytes from the fetal liver and spleen, and after
birth from the bone marrow, that gradually regresses after puberty, is the
Which is not a subclass of immunoglobulins?
Which of the following descriptions is a characteristic part of the secondary response?
a. It represents the response to an initial exposure of that pathogen.
b. The latent period between the secondary exposure and the appearance of antibodies is about
c. Antibody concentrations during this response reach a plateau in a few days and decline after
a few weeks.
d. The production of antibody can reach a maximum in less than two hours and is maintained
for a long time.
With a cardiac rate of 70 bpm and a stroke volume of 70 ml, the cardiac output is equal
a. 70 ml per minute.
b. 140 ml per minute.
c. 1400 ml per minute.
d. 4900 ml per minute.
The Frank-Starling law of the heart states that the
a. cardiac rate times stroke volume equals cardiac output.
b. afterload is proportional to the total peripheral resistance.
c. stroke volume is proportional to the end-diastolic volume (EDV).
d. cardiac output varies directly with the blood pressure.
Most of the water in the body (two-thirds) is found in the
a. intracellular compartment.
b. blood plasma.
c. extracellular environment.
d. interstitial fluid.
Which of the following is not a cause of edema?
a. high blood pressure in the arteries
b. blood congestion or obstruction in the veins
c. an increase in capillary permeability causing plasma proteins to leak into tissue fluid
d. liver disease or kidney disease which results in a drop in the levels of plasma proteins
e. All of these are causes of edema.
Which statement about antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is false?
a. ADH is a hormone also known as vasopressin.
b. ADH is synthesized by neurons located in the hypothalamus.
c. Receptors (osmoreceptors) release ADH when the plasma osmolality rises.
d. ADH decreases water reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate and increases water loss in
the form of urine.
e. All of these statements regarding ADH are true.
Which of the following statements about aldosterone is false?
a. It is a steroid hormone.
b. It is secreted by cells in the cortical (outer) region of the adrenal gland.
c. It promotes the excretion of both salt and water in proportionate amounts from the kidneys.
d. Its secretion is stimulated during salt deprivation, when the blood volume and pressure are
e. Unlike ADH, aldosterone does not act to dilute the blood.
Which statement about the sounds of Korotkoff is false?
a. They are heard when vibrations occur in the arterial walls as blood flows noisily through a
b. They are used to detect defects in the cardiac valves that produce the “lub-dub” sounds.
c. They are only present when blood pressures are between the high systolic and the low
diastolic pressure extremes.
d. The quality of these sounds is different in persons with high blood pressure than in those
with low blood pressure.
e. The last sound occurs when the cuff pressure is equal to the diastolic pressure.
Preload refers to the total peripheral resistance that opposes the ejection of blood from
Erythropoietin is a hormone produced mainly by the liver to stimulate the production of red blood cells in
response to higher than normal oxygen levels in the blood.
A shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to the left indicates that more oxygen is unloading from
the hemoglobin molecules.
Unlike T cells, B lymphocytes provide specific immune protection without secreting