BIOFUEL BROUGHT TO YOU BY: BRIAN LIN BIO-TECHNOLOGY WHAT IS BIOFUEL • Environmental friendly energy source derived from biological materials. THE USES • SOLUTION TO UNABATING INCREASE OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND INEFFICIENT HANDLING OF RESOURCES. • TREND IN MINITURIZATION AND PORTABILITY OF COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATION DEVICES. THESE ENERGY DEMANDING APPLICATIONS REQUIRE SMALL, LIGHT POWER SOURCES THAT ARE ABLE TO SUSTAIN OPERATION OVER LONG PERIODS OF TIME, PARTICULARLY IN REMOTE LOCATIONS SUCH AS SPACE AND EXPLORATION. • INCREASING NUMBER OF INPLANTABLE ELECTRICALLYOPERATED DEVICES (e.g. pacemakers). THESE ITEMS NEED POWER SUPPLIES THAT WILL OPERATE FOR AN EXTREMELY LONG TIME. IDEALLY, THESE DEVICES WOULD TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE NATURAL FUEL FOUND IN THE BODY, THUS WOULD CONTINUE TO DRAW POWER AS LONG AS THE PATIENT LIVES.. SOURCES OF FUEL • FAT, GREASE, AND THEIR CO-PRODUCTS CAN BE UTLIZED TO PRODUCE BIODIESAL FUEL FOR AUTOMOBILES. • ETHANOL CAN BE EASILY PRODUCED (from sugar beet, corn, molasses, and seed oils such as rapeseed oil) AND ARE CURRENTLY USED AS ADDITIVES IN GASOLINE TO REDUCE POLLUTION. SOURCES OF BIOFUEL • CORN OIL IS ALSO CONSIDERED A POSSIBLE SOURCE OF BIOFUEL BIOFUEL CELLS • BIOFUEL CELLS HAS BEEN STUDIED BY SCIENTISTS FOR HALF A CENTURY. • CURRENT TECHNOLOGY REMAINS INPRACTICAL. BIOFUEL CELLS CONT. • IN LIEU OF METALS TO CATALYZE THE POWER PRODUCING REACTION, BIOFUEL CELLS EMPLOYS THE USE OF ENZYMES TO FACILIATE SUCH REACTIONS TYPES OF BIOFUEL CELLS MICROBIAL-BASED BIOFUEL CELL: The use of entire microorganisms as microreactors in fuel cells eliminates the need to isolate individual enzymes, and allows the active biomaterials to work under conditions close to their natural environment (higher) efficiency. The biocatalytic microbial reactor is producing the biofuel and the biological part of the device is not directly integrated with the ENZYMATIC BIOFUEL CELL: Rather than utilizing the entire microbial cell-apparatus for the generation of electrical energy, the specific enzyme(s) that oxidizes the intended fuelsubstrate may be electricallycontacted with the electrode of the biofuel cell element. PROBLEMS • Fuel ethanol costs at least twice as much as conventional gasoline or the oxygenate MTBE. • ENZYMES ARE EXTREMELY SENSITIVE TO pH AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES CHANGES IN THE IDEAL CONDITION CANLEAD TO THE DENATURING OF THE ENZYME AND SUBSEQUENTLY THE LOSS OF POWER IN THE CELL. CURRENT EVENTS • Around 7% of UC corn production is used in • • the manufacture of ethanol as transport fuel. There are currently 5 industrial plants in Europe used for converting grain into fuel alcohol. The German government has recently taken a big initiative by exempting biofuels from taxation until 2008 FUTURE • Under EU proposal 0547 from November 7, 2001, a series of goals were set for member states to introduce biofuels for diesel and gasoline. By 2005, 2% of transport fuel should be accounted for by biofuels. By 2020, the goal is 20%. 2 more Spanish fuel ethanol plants are planned to be ready by 200, including a 2 million hl plant in Salamanca. • BIBLIOGRAPHY • http://chem.ch.huji.ac.il/~eugeniik/biofuel /biofuel_cells_contents.html • “More biofuel in the pipeline in Europe.” BioTimes March 2003: 1.