Chinese Birth and Growth of High Speed Rail Chinese Birth and Growth of High Speed Rail ?Xinhua (2010-03-04 14:52:48) Source: &quot;World&quot; magazine ? &quot;World&quot; magazine reporter / Chen Xin, Ye Ning &quot;Came back from Japan, I proposed to build high-speed rail in China.&quot; Integrated transport researcher at the Institute National Development and Reform Commission, Dong Yan, the former Director of &quot;Global&quot; magazine about his first taste of the high-speed rail in the early 80s of last century, He was training in Japan is high-speed rail. Dong Yan, was deeply touched by the new route, that China should start building high-speed railway, and his time as a group of people. Since then, Dong Yan, who started the Chinese iron and prepared to wait. April 2008, the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway to start full length of 1318 kilometers, 220 billion yuan investment. The Beijing-Shanghai High Speed Rail&#39;s argument from the 80s of last century began. Long argument According to Dong Yan introduction, first proposed the building of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail is the Ministry of Railways, received at the time of the State Science Commission, Planning Commission, Economic and Trade Commission, Economic Restructuring Committee and other ministries to support, until 1998 by the Ministry of Railways and other five ministries and commissions jointly organized the demonstration group. At that time, Guan Yu the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail debate very large, the first is that China does not have sufficient economic power can not build high-speed railway; the second argument is a very intense, maglev (no rail) or high-speed rail (rail)? Advocated using magnetic levitation technology, experts say, compared to wheel-rail technology, Maglev technology has low energy consumption, environmental protection, start fast and comfortable and safe parking and so on. Since then, for the &quot;Beijing-Shanghai railway&quot; mode in which the technology to build, become the focus of debate for many years, this debate has continued. In 2003, the central government determined to be launched Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail, but was still not sure on some issues, so the State Department requested the State Development and Reform Commission experts to conduct relevant feasibility studies, Dong Yan, took part in that demonstration. He said: &quot;The major concern was the State Council mainly has the following: construction of high-speed rail is pulling our economy or foreign? How the introduction and use of foreign advanced technology of wheel-rail? What we have chips that can not be introduced when constraints? conditions at the time, 1 km from the 100 million yuan can be seized? &quot; In a report entitled &quot;From a strategic point of view of the Beijing-Shanghai high speed railway construction a few questions&quot; the materials submitted to the State Council, &quot;Global&quot; magazine reporter also found the reason for China&#39;s independently developed high-speed rail technology from the turn of the introduction of domestic absorption and thus reasons. At that time, China has built Shenyang Dedicated Passenger Line, on a 66.8 km section of the integrated test, in accordance with the design speed of 250 km, and the trial operation of the domestic high-speed EMU, which uses technology Pioneer power distributed to 200 kilometers per hour , with power concentrated in the China Star number to reach 270 kilometers per hour. Although China Star&#39;s maximum speed of 321.5 km, but the Development and Reform Commission&#39;s argument that &quot;the design of high speed rail below the criteria, overall technology immature, there is great distance from the commercial operation. Meanwhile, a number of core key technology and equipment reliability, stability shortage, China Star train relatively poor technological level, to be imported. &quot;argues the proposal is given a&quot; high-speed railway system, and some key technology and equipment is difficult to solve the short term requires sophisticated equipment imported from abroad. &quot; A report on the proposed imports mainly include: high-speed train; communication signals professional special railway mobile communication system, the European train control system, integrated Diaodu information system, high-speed railway computer core technology and key equipment chain; electrification technology expertise and equipment, and a few large number of turnouts, etc.. The argument then measured the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway construction investment of 138 billion yuan, the unit cost of about 1 km from 100 million yuan, of which the introduction of core technology and equipment amounted to between 15 billion to 20 billion: EMU: 6.5 billion -80 billion Electrical equipment: 19 million -25 million Communication system: 4.6 billion -60 billion Other ancillary equipment: 2000000000 -35 100 000 000 At the same time, argues the report emphasized the localization of imported equipment, principles and strategies, the proposed import and transfer of technology and equipment using international open tender, to several major high-speed railway equipment manufacturers also tender, shop around; while China&#39;s chip is what? First, China&#39;s huge market; 2 yes have local characteristics of the railway system, Japan, France and Germany, the technology can not be directly copied to China and China must make improvements. Dong Yan, the &quot;World&quot; magazine reporter stressed: &quot;The need to transfer technology to China, this is the most fundamental principles.&quot; Technology import From 2004 onwards, the railway tender of EMU, the high domestic production of iron path more fully embodied. June 17, 2004, &quot;people Railway&quot; and the Chinese procurement and tendering network also issued tenders: The People&#39;s Republic of China Ministry of Railways to be procured speed of 200 km of railway electric vehicle group, a total of 10 bags of 200. Notice clear Tendering Company and the qualifications of bidders, tender subject of domestic enterprises, it must obtain the support of foreign advanced technology. The world&#39;s high-speed EMU master mature design and manufacturing companies are Siemens, Alstom, France, Japan, Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Bombardier of Canada and so few, they have a joint venture in China, so they want to joint venture companies the main tender. Ministry of Railways explicitly rejected the request, insists that the orientation of Chinese enterprises to transfer technology to allow domestic enterprises to master the core technology, and ultimately domestic. Chinese Ministry of Railways and the first 700 lines and 800 lines with Japanese vehicle manufacturers (Japanese vehicles), and Hitachi to negotiate, but the Japanese cars and Hitachi show that refused to sell the vehicles and technology transfer. Kawasaki Heavy Industries was the Chinese offered to negotiate, Kawasaki Heavy Industries sales were not as expected, there would have to sell 3 groups E2 system and vehicle technology to China. Kawasaki Heavy Industries to sell China the first Shinkansen technology is still being JR East Japan, Japanese cars and Hitachi opposed by the round of negotiations after, Kawasaki Heavy Industries in Japan, where companies do not oppose, to sell lines of vehicles and transfer of technology E2. At that time, appeared to resist the Japanese domestic websites EMU calls. If the exclusion of Japanese suppliers, competitive bidding will be significantly weakened, is not conducive to safeguarding national interests. Ministry of Railways and the state departments have done a lot of guidance to ensure that the tendering exercise as planned. Siemens of Germany, &quot;Villarroyo E&quot; EMU 350 km per hour, was the commercial operation of the railway in the world&#39;s fastest, the biggest power of a mature high-speed trains, but Simons seems to value non-economic factors too, share the Changchun Railway Vehicles company to open a &quot;high price&quot;: the price of each column prototype 350 million yuan, while the transfer fee as high as 390 million euros, equivalent to 3.9 billion yuan. In addition, they do not respond to the Office of the tender up to 50 items. Finally Siemens has been excluded. Subsequently, the Siemens stock plunged, President of the resignation, in China&#39;s negotiation team members have all been dismissed. In 2005, Siemens miscues back to China, to participate in the second round of the Ministry of Railways for more than 300 km per hour EMU bid. China gives more stringent conditions, the last Siemens fully accepted China&#39;s technology transfer programs and price options, and Tangshan Railway Vehicle Co., Ltd. for cooperation. The tender, the Chinese high-speed rail trains are introduced four of the advanced technology, which made the road for the future foundation. Domestic path October 2004, Kawasaki Heavy Industries on behalf of &quot;the Commonwealth of Japanese companies&quot; and the Chinese Ministry of Railways signed export of railway vehicles, transfer of technology contracts. China to Japan, Kawasaki Heavy Industries Order number 60 200 km per hour level of high-speed EMU, the total value of 9.3 billion yuan. In accordance with the contract required to transfer to a number of key Chinese companies. Among them, three in Japan, complete, and complete delivery; and another six in the form of delivery of spare parts from China for assembly; the remaining 51 will be through the transfer of technology from the construction of Qingdao Quartet Rolling Stock Plant, some still use high-tech components imported products. August 2005, the Ministry of Railways south car Quartet, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Electric, Zhuzhou is, Zhuzhou CSR Shijiazhuang Guoxiang transport equipment, electrical and sign 51 CRH2A six EMU mechanical and electrical products based technology transfer contracts. The first column EMU March 1, 2006 shipped from Kobe to Hong Kong, March 8 arrived in Qingdao, China. On January 24, 2007 began trial operation in Jiaoji. Exports to China and did not hold the train factory ceremony, also received reports of vehicles is very low key. China&#39;s first EMUs localization is the introduction of the train 200 kilometers per hour, based on the platform to further build their own from Qingdao Quartet - Bombardier - Power Railway Equipment Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to BSP Company) produced CRH1, in Beijing to Shenyang, Beijing and Jinan, the use of the old railway. According to public information, the current high-speed rail locomotives in China mainly four kinds of models: CRH1, CRH2, CRH3 and CRH5. CRH2 is CSR Kawasaki Heavy Industries and four co-manufacture the Japanese consortium, with Japan&#39;s Shinkansen technology. CRH3 jointly by the Tangshan Locomotive Plant Siemens production, using German technology. CRH5 jointly by the French Alstom Changchun Bus Factory production. One CRH1, CRH2, CRH5 design speed of 200 km, while the CRH3 design speed of 300 km. China&#39;s high-speed trains now have three platforms. The first one is 200 km per hour level platform, which includes the speed of 200-250 km in a series of high-speed train model; second-class platform for the 300 km per hour, covering 300-350 km per hour in a series of models of high-speed train, the Beijing-Tianjin intercity railway was part of the platform section; third to more than 350 km per hour level platform, which required the train to reach the maximum operating speed of 380 km, continuing operations reached 350 km per hour. First, the two platforms in the introduction, digestion, absorption and re-formed on the basis of innovation. The third platform is being built. These three platforms are currently in various types of trains can be used for exports, which exports a specific platform in which the train, depending on customer needs. Participate in international competition China High Speed Rail&#39;s main advantages lie in the integration advantages and price advantage. &quot;Prevailing in the world, there are two high-speed rail mode: Japan This new route is completely dedicated line, re-new line; France, Germany, part of the new High Speed Rail High Speed Rail, is also part of the use of existing lines, a aspects of high-speed trains can run on high-iron, but also can run on existing railway. &quot;Rui-Hua Xu Tongji University&#39;s department of Transport Management, said,&quot; At present, China&#39;s high-speed passenger side, one hand on the existing line large-scale speed, open-line 200 ~ 250km of EMU, which is the world&#39;s leading technology; the other hand, has now been completed such as Wuhan-Guangzhou high-speed rail high-speed rail, not only in the one-time construction of the mileage on the top, while It is also a top speed of. &quot; China High Speed Rail for 6 years and left with a 40-year journey in Japan saying, Rui-Hua Xu said that China build high-speed rail from the 80s of last century began to demonstrate, also experienced a short period. Through the front of these arguments, the Chinese finally started building high-speed rail. China has actually taken a comprehensive, long take various models, is precisely because of this, China has integrated high-speed rail advantage. In public works projects, communication signals, traction power supply to passenger vehicle manufacturing, and other aspects, the package Chu Kou Ke Yi, Er that in other countries is difficult to achieve because of their technology is Fenbiezhangwo Jia Butonggongsi in many hands of. Wuhan-Guangzhou high-speed rail operations confirmed the superiority of China&#39;s technology, its operation speed is by far the world&#39;s highest commercial value of high-speed rail, run, reached a peak speed of 394.2 km. Which is soon to be completed next year, the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail link is a one-time world&#39;s longest high-speed railway, will establish a Chinese model. China&#39;s long-scale high-speed rail network building capacity, is the world&#39;s strongest level of China&#39;s bridge-building is also highest in the world. In addition, China has more complex than the Japanese and European geography, geology, climate and environment, so the demand for the ability to customize different environments is also a world leader. China High Speed Rail&#39;s price also has a certain advantage, according to Dong Yan, that the Chinese domestic prices of EMU similar products equivalent to 1 / 2 to 3 / 4 between, while China&#39;s labor and raw materials also have a price advantage. These advantages have made China iron out some ability to participate in international competition, this Tongji Institute of Urban Mass Transit Railway and Professor Sun Zhang said, &quot;I think the steady progress of the strategy should take and take &#39;three first&#39; strategy is the first civil, then the vehicle; first 250 km per hour, after 350 km per hour; first joint venture, after the domestic-owned enterprises. more prudent to do so, at the beginning it seems slower, but in the long run, will be increasingly accumulated experience faster. &quot; According to Sun Chapter, Ministry of Railways has now set up a Sino-US, Russia, China and Brazil (Brazil), China and Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia), Venezuela (Venezuela), Burma, China-Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan (Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan), in Bo, China and India and other foreign cooperation project coordination group to organize domestic enterprises to explore overseas railway engineering contracting and equipment export market. And the United States, Russia, Saudi Arabia, and Brazil&#39;s high-speed rail cooperation projects have also made positive progress. Information: High Speed Rail: a national card in China &quot;World&quot; magazine reporter / Qi Zhongxi Many would like to cooperate with China in building high-speed railway, to learn experience in the development of high-speed rail countries, three countries most representative. Secretary for International Cooperation with the Ministry of Railways as saying Chen Jue people, these three countries, one is the railway&#39;s &quot;originator&quot; United Kingdom (in 1825 the world&#39;s first railway construction), one is the railway&#39;s &quot;boss&quot; of the United States (more than 270,000 km mileage first in the world), one of China&#39;s railway development, &quot;the teacher&quot; Russia. For China&#39;s high-speed railway, the U.S. House of Representatives Speaker Nancy Pelosi said: &quot;No sitting on the Beijing-Tianjin inter-city of the EMU on, find it in high-speed railway in China, they do not feel the speed of China&#39;s economy.&quot; British Transport Minister Lord Adonis said: &quot;In the field of high-speed railway construction, China advanced than Britain. of the United Kingdom, China could learn from the experience of meaning.&quot; In 2009, Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin&#39;s visit to China a number of agreements reached, impressively and the Russian Ministry of Transport Ministry of Railways in Russia on the organization and development of rapid and high-speed rail memorandum, the core content is that China will help Russia build high-speed rail. With the rapid progress of high-speed railway construction, China&#39;s high-speed rail has become a brand, or even a national card, had a significant international impact. Chen Jue introduces the people, the Ministry of Railways has organized domestic enterprises to explore overseas railway engineering contracting and equipment export market, has set up a Sino-US, Russia, Pakistan, China and Saudi Arabia, China and Venezuela, Burma, China-Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan, Poland, China and India, etc. Foreign cooperation project coordination group to organize domestic enterprises to explore overseas railway engineering contracting and equipment export market. In 2009, China South Locomotive and overseas, signing a record high, the total annual exports of more than 1.2 billion U.S. dollars contract, a substantial increase over the previous year more than 60%, became the largest export orders received in China, the fastest growing overseas rail transportation equipment business. Particularly worth mentioning that in 2009, China South Locomotive and overseas market territory there are a number of countries to join: nearly 100 million U.S. dollars awarded Tunisia EMU project, opening up yet another mature African market; winning more than ten kinds of the Saudi Railway goods items, so that the new office in Southern goods vehicles first entered the Middle East; successful light rail vehicles in Turkey Project, marking the first time, China South Locomotive and opened the door demanding the European railway market; bid 1.66 billion Singapore aluminum subway cars and 14 from Taiwan metro engineering maintenance projects, so that China South Locomotive and technology into the world&#39;s subway access to one of the highest standard. Source: March 1st, 2010 publication of &quot;Global&quot; magazine No. 5, &quot;World&quot; magazine license to use, other media For a reprint, please contact with the Articles.
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